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"  When  'all  the  lesser  tumults,  and  lesser  men  of  our  age, 
shall  have  passed  away  into  the  darkness  oj  oblivion, 
history  will  still  inscribe  one  mighty  era  with  the  majestic 
name  of  Napoleon." — LOCKHART  (in  Lang's  "  Life  and 
Letters  of  J.  G.  Lockhart,"  1897,  vol.  i.  170). 










LONDON:    J.    M.    DENT    &    CO. 
NEW  YORK  :  E.  P.  BUTTON  fr  CO. 

Printed  by  BALLANTTNE,  HANSON  tS*  Co. 
At  the  Ballantyne  Press 


I  HAVE  no  apology  to  offer  for  the  subject  of  this  book,  in  view 
of  Lord  Rosebery's  testimony  that,  until  recently,  we  knew 
nothing  about  Napoleon,  and  even  now  "  prefer  to  drink  at  any 
other  source  than  the  original." 

"  Study  of  Napoleon's  utterances,  apart  from  any  attempt  to 
discover  the  secret  of  his  prodigious  exploits,  cannot  be  con- 
sidered as  lost  time."  It  is  then  absolutely  necessary  that  we 
should,  in  the  words  of  an  eminent  but  unsympathetic  divine, 
know  something  of  the  "domestic  side  of  the  monster,"  first 
hand  from  his  own  correspondence,  confirmed  or  corrected  by 
contemporaries.  There  is  no  master  mind  that  we  can  less  afford 
to  be  ignorant  of.  To  know  more  of  the  doings  of  Pericles  and 
Aspasia,  of  the  two  Caesars  and  the  Serpent  of  old  Nile,  of  Mary 
Stuart  and  Rizzio,  of  the  Green  Faction  and  the  Blue,  of  Orsini 
and  Colonna,  than  of  the  Bonapartes  and  Beauharnais,  is  worthy 
of  a  student  of  folklore  rather  than  of  history. 

Napoleon  was  not  only  a  King  of  Kings,  he  was  a  King  of 
Words  and  of  Facts,  which  "  are  the  sons  of  heaven,  while  words 
are  the  daughters  of  earth,"  and  whose  progeny,  the  Genii  of  the 
Code,  still  dominates  Christendom.1  In  the  hurly-burly  of  the 
French  War,  on  the  chilling  morrow  of  its  balance-sheet,  in  the 
Janus  alliance  of  the  Second  Empire,  we  could  not  get  rid  of  the 
nightmare  of  the  Great  Shadow.  Most  modern  works  on  the 
Napoleonic  period  (Lord  Rosebery's  "  Last  Phase "  being  a 
brilliant  exception)  seem  to  be  (i)  too  long,  (2)  too  little  con- 
fined to  contemporary  sources.  The  first  fault,  especially  if 
merely  discursive  enthusiasm,  is  excusable,  the  latter  pernicious, 

1  See  infra.  Napoleon's  Heritage,  p.  xxiv.,  Introduction. 


for,  as  Dr.  Johnson  says  of  Robertson,  "You  are  sure  he  does 
not  know  the  people  whom  he  paints,  so  you  cannot  suppose 
a  likeness.  Characters  should  never  be  given  by  a  historian 
unless  he  knew  the  people  whom  he  describes,  or  copies  from  those 
who  knew  him" 

Now,  if  ever,  we  must  fix  and  crystallise  the  life-work  of 
Napoleon  for  posterity,  for  "  when  an  opinion  has  once  become 
popular,  very  few  are  willing  to  oppose  it.  Idleness  is  more 
willing  to  credit  than  inquire  .  .  .  and  he  that  writes  merely 
for  sale  is  tempted  to  court  purchasers  by  flattering  the  preju- 
dices of  the  public." x  We  have  accumulated  practically  all  the 
evidence,  and  are  not  yet  so  remote  from  the  aspirations  and 
springs  of  action  of  a  century  ago  as  to  be  out  of  touch  with 
them.  The  Vaccination  and  Education  questions  are  still  before 
us ;  so  is  the  cure  of  croup  and  the  composition  of  electricity. 
We  have  special  reasons  for  sympathy  with  the  first  failures  of 
Fulton,  and  can  appreciate  Napoleon's  primitive  but  effective 
expedients  for  modern  telegraphy  and  transport,  which  were  as 
far  in  advance  of  his  era  as  his  nephew's  ignorance  of  railway 
warfare  in  1870  was  behind  it.  We  must  admire  The  Man2 
who  found  within  the  fields  of  France  the  command  of  the 
Tropics,  and  who  needed  nothing  but  time  to  prosper  Corsican 
cotton  and  Solingen  steel.  The  man's  words  and  deeds  are  still 
vigorous  and  alive  ;  in  another  generation  many  of  them  will  be 
dead  as  Marley — "  dead  as  a  door-nail."  Let  us  then  each  to  his 
task,  and  each  try,  as  best  he  may,  to  weigh  in  honest  scales  the 
modern  Hannibal — "our  last  great  man,"3  "the  mightiest  genius 
of  two  thousand  years."  4 

H.  F.  HALL. 

1  Dr.  Johnson  (Gentleman's  Magazine,  1760),  in  defence  of  Mary  Stuart. 

2  L'Homme,  so  spoken  of  during  the  Empire,  outside  military  circles. 
5  Carlyle.  4  Napier. 


Difficulties  of  translation — Napoleon  as  lexicographer  and  bookworm — Historic 
value  of  his  Bulletins — A  few  aspects  of  Napoleon's  character — "  Approfon- 
dissez  !  " — The  need  of  a  Creator — The  influence  of  sea  power — England's 
future  rival — Napoleon  as  average  adjuster — His  use  of  Freemasonry — Of  the 
Catholics  and  of  the  Jews — His  neglect  of  women  in  politics — Josephine  a 
failure — His  incessant  work,  "which  knew  no  rest  save  change  of  occupa- 
tion " — His  attachment  to  early  friendships — The  Bonaparte  family — His 
influence  on  literary  men — Conversations  with  Wieland  and  Miiller — Verdict 
of  a  British  tar — The  character  of  Josephine — Sources  of  the  Letters — The 
Tennant  Collection — The  Didot  Collection— Archibald  Constable  and  Sir 
Walter  Scott — Correspondence  of  Napoleon  I. — Report  of  the  Commission 
— Contemporary  sources — The  Diary — Napoleon's  heritage. 

NAPOLEON  is  by  no  means  an  easy  writer  to  translate  adequately. 
He  had  always  a  terse,  concise  mode  of  speaking,  and  this,  with 
the  constant  habit  of  dictating,  became  accentuated.  Whenever 
he  could  use  a  short,  compact  word  he  did  so.  The  greatest  temp- 
tation has  been  to  render  his  very  modern  ideas  by  modern  collo- 
quialisms. Occasionally,  where  Murray's  Dictionary  proves  that 
the  word  was  in  vogue  a  century  ago,  we  have  used  a  some- 
what rarer  word  than  Napoleon's  equivalent,  as  e.g.  "coolth," 
in  Letter  No.  6,  Series  B  (pendant  le  frais\  in  order  to  preserve 
as  far  as  possible  the  brevity  and  crispness  of  the  original. 
Napoleon's  vocabulary  was  not  specially  wide,  but  always 
exact.  In  expletive  it  was  extensive  and  peculiar.  Judging 
his  brother  by  himself,  he  did  not  consider  Lucien  sufficient  of 
a  purist  in  French  literature  to  write  epics ;  and  the  same 
remark  would  have  been  partly  true  of  the  Emperor,  who, 


however,  was  always  at  considerable  pains  to  verity  any  word  of 
which  he  did  not  know  the  exact  meaning.1  His  own  appetite 
for  literature  was  enormous,  especially  during  the  year's  garrison 
life  he  spent  at  Valence,  where  he  read  and  re-read  the  contents 
of  a  bouquiniste' s  shop,  and,  what  is  more,  remembered  them,  so 
much  so  that,  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  later,  he  was  able  to 
correct  the  dates  of  ecclesiastical  experts  at  Erfurt.  Whatever 
he  says  or  whatever  he  writes,  one  always  finds  a  specific  gravity 
of  stark,  staring  facts  altogether  abnormal.  For  generations  it 
was  the  fashion  to  consider  "  as  false  as  a  bulletin  "  peculiar  to 
Napoleon's  despatches  ;  but  the  publication  of  Napoleon's  corre- 
spondence, by  order  of  Napoleon  III.,  has  changed  all  that.  In 
the  first  place,  as  to  dates.  Not  only  have  Haydn,  Woodward 
and  Gates,  and  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  made  mistakes  during 
this  period,  but  even  the  Biographie  Universelle  (usually  so  careful) 
is  not  immaculate.  Secondly,  with  regard  to  the  descriptions  of 
the  battles.  We  have  never  found  one  that  in  accuracy  and 
truthfulness  would  not  compare  to  conspicuous  advantage  with 
some  of  those  with  which  we  were  only  too  familiar  in  December 
1899.  Napoleon  was  sometimes  1200  miles  away  from  home; 
he  had  to  gauge  the  effect  of  his  bulletins  from  one  end  to  the 
other  of  the  largest  effective  empire  that  the  world  has  ever  seen, 
and,  like  Dr.  Johnson  in  Fleet  Street  reporting  Parliamentary 
debates  (but  with  a  hundred  times  more  reason),  he  was  deter- 
mined not  to  let  the  other  dogs  have  the  best  of  it.  The  notes 
on  the  battles  of  Eylau  (Series  H)  and  Essling  (Series  L),  the  two 
most  conspicuous  examples  of  where  it  was  necessary  to  colour 

1  Sometimes  he  is  perhaps  more  to  be  trusted  than  the  leading  lexicographer, 
as  for  example  when,  the  day  after  Wagram,  he  writes  his  Minister  of  War  that 
the  coup  dejarnac  will  come  from  the  English  in  Spain.  Now,  when  the  Jarnac 
in  question  was  slain  in  fair  fight  by  La  Chateignerie  by  a  blow  au  jarrel,  it  was 
an  unexpected  blow,  but  not  surely,  as  Littre  tells  us,  manauvre  perfide,  dtlc-yale. 
Nothing  was  too  disloyal  for  perfidious  Albion,  but  for  30,000  English  to  out- 
manoeuvre three  marshals  and  100,000  French  veterans  would  be,  and  was,  the 
unexpected  which  happened  at  Talavera  three  weeks  later. 


the  bulletins,  will  show  what  is  meant.  Carlyle  was  the  first  to 
point  out  that  his  despatches  are  as  instinct  with  genius  as  his 
conquests — his  very  words  have  "Austerlitz  battles"  in  them. 
The  reference  to  "General  Danube,"  in  1809,  as  the  best  general 
the  Austrians  had,  was  one  of  those  flashes  of  inspiration  which 
military  writers,  from  Napoleon  to  Lord  Wolseley,  have  shown 
to  be  a  determining  factor  in  every  doubtful  fray. 

"  Approfondissez — go  to  the  bottom  of  things,"  wrote  Lord 
Chesterfield  ;  and  this  might  have  been  the  life-motto  of  the 
Emperor.  But  to  adopt  this  fundamental  common-sense  with 
regard  to  the  character  of  Napoleon  is  almost  impossible  ;  it  is,  to 
use  the  metaphor  of  Lord  Rosebery,  like  trying  to  span  a  moun- 
tain with  a  tape.  We  can  but  indicate  a  few  leading  features. 
In  the  first  place,  he  had,  like  the  great  Stagirite,  an  eye  at  once 
telescopic  and  microscopic.  Beyond  the  mtcanique  clleste,  be- 
yond the  nebulous  reign  of  chaos  and  old  night,  his  ken  pierced 
the  primal  truth — the  need  of  a  Creator  :  "  not  every  one  can  be 
an  atheist  who  wishes  it."  No  man  saw  deeper  into  the  causes 
of  things.  The  influence  of  sea  power  on  history,  to  take  one 
example,  was  never  absent  from  his  thoughts.  Slowly  and  labori- 
ously he  built  and  rebuilt  his  fleets,  only  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  his 
"  Punic  "  rival.  Beaten  at  sea,  he  has  but  two  weapons  left  against 
England — to  "  conquer  her  by  land,"  or  to  stir  up  a  maritime 
rival  who  will  sooner  or  later  avenge  him.  We  have  the  Emperor 
Alexander's  testimony  from  the  merchants  of  Manchester,  Bir- 
mingham, and  Liverpool  how  nearly  his  Continental  System  had 
ruined  us.  The  rival  raised  up  beyond  the  western  waves  by  the 
astute  sale  of  Louisiana  is  still  growing.  In  less  than  a  decade 
Napoleon  had  afirst  crumb  of  comfort  (when  such  crumbswere  rare) 
in  hearing  of  the  victories  of  the  Constitution  over  British  frigates. 

As  for  his  microscopic  eye,  we  know  of  nothing  like  it  in  all 
history.  In  focussing  the  facets,  we  seem  to  shadow  out  the 
main  secret  of  his  success — his  ceaseless  survey  of  all  sorts  and 


conditions  of  knowledge.  "  Never  despise  local  information,"  he 
wrote  Murat,  who  was  at  Naples,  little  anticipating  the  extremes 
of  good  and  evil  fortune  which  awaited  him  there.  Another 
characteristic — one  in  which  he  surpassed  alike  the  theory  of 
Macchiavelli  and  the  practice  of  the  Medici — was  his  use  of  la 
bascule,  with  himself  as  equilibrist  or  average  adjuster,  as  the  only 
safe  principle  of  government.  Opinions  on  the  whole l  lean  to 
the  idea  that,  up  to  the  First  Consulate,  Napoleon  was  an  active 
Freemason,  at  a  time  when  politics  were  permitted,  and  when  the 
Grand  Orient,  having  initiated  Voltaire  almost  on  his  deathbed, 
and  having  been  submerged  by  the  Terror,  was  beginning  to 
show  new  life.  In  any  case,  we  have  in  O'Meara  the  Emperor's 
statement  (and  this  is  rather  against  the  theory  of  Napoleon 
being  more  than  his  brother  Joseph,  a  mere  patron  of  the  craft) 
that  he  encouraged  the  brotherhood.  Cambaceres  had  more 
Masonic  degrees  than  probably  any  man  before  or  since,  and  no 
man  was  so  long  and  so  consistently  trusted  by  Napoleon,  with 
one  short  and  significant  exception.  Then  there  was  the  gen- 
darmerie (TeUte,  then  the  ordinary  police,  the  myrmidons  of 
Fouche  of  Nantes — in  fact,  if  we  take  Lord  Rosebery  literally, 
Napoleon  had  "  half-a-dozen  police  agencies  of  his  own."  There 
was  also  Talleyrand  and,  during  the  Concordats,  the  whole  priest- 
craft of  Christendom  as  enlisting  sergeants  and  spies  extraordinary 
for  the  Emperor.  Finally,  when  he  wishes  to  attack  Russia,  he 
convokes  a  Sanhedrim  at  Paris,  and  wins  the  active  sympathies  of 
Israel.  "  He  was  his  own  War  Office,  his  own  Foreign  Office,  his 
own  Admiralty." 2  His  weak  spot  was  his  neglect  of  woman  as 
a  political  factor  ;  this  department  he  left  to  Josephine,  who  was  a 
failure.  She  gained  popularity,  but  no  converts.  The  Faubourg 
St.  Germain  mistrusted  a  woman  whose  chief  friend  was  the  wife 
of  Thermidorian  Tallien — Notre  Dame  de  Septembre.  In  vain 

1  Findel's  History  of  Framasonty. 

2  Lord  Rosebery. 


Napoleon  raged  and  stormed  about  the  Tallien  friendship,  till  his 
final  mandate  in  1806  ;  and  then  it  was  too  late. 

Another  characteristic,  very  marked  in  these  Home  Letters, 
is  the  desire  not  to  give  his  wife  anxiety.  His  ailments  and  his 
difficulties  are  always  minimised. 

Perhaps  no  man  ever  worked  so  hard  physically  and  mentally 
as  Napoleon  from  1796  to  1814.  Lord  Rosebery  reminds  us  that 
"  he  would  post  from  Poland  to  Paris,  summon  a  council  at  once, 
and  preside  over  it  with  his  usual  vigour  and  acuteness."  And 
his  councils  were  no  joke  ;  they  would  last  eight  or  ten  hours. 
Once,  at  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  councillors  were  all 
worn-out ;  the  Minister  of  Marine  was  fast  asleep.  Napoleon 
still  urged  them  to  further  deliberation  :  "  Come,  gentlemen,  pull 
yourselves  together ;  it  is  only  two  o'clock,  we  must  earn  the 
money  that  the  nation  gives  us."  The  Commission  who  first 
sifted  the  Correspondence  may  well  speak  of  the  ceaseless  workings 
of  that  mind,  which  knew  no  rest  save  change  of  occupation,  and  of 
"  that  universal  intelligence  from  which  nothing  escaped."  The 
chief  fault  in  Napoleon  as  a  statesman  was  intrinsically  a  virtue, 
viz.,  his  good  nature.  There  was,  as  Sir  Walter  Scott  has  said, 
"  gentleness  and  even  softness  in  his  character.  It  was  his 
common  and  expressive  phrase  that  the  heart  of  a  politician 
should  be  in  his  head  ;  but  his  feelings  sometimes  surprised  him 
in  a  gentler  mood." 

To  be  a  relation  of  his  own  or  his  wife's,  to  have  been  a 
friend  in  his  time  of  stress,  was  to  have  a  claim  on  Napoleon's 
support  which  no  subsequent  treachery  to  himself  could  efface. 
From  the  days  of  his  new  power — political  power,  first  the  Con- 
sulate and  then  the  Empire — he  lavished  gifts  and  favours  even 
on  the  most  undeserving  of  his  early  comrades.  Fouche,  Talleyrand, 
Bernadotte  were  forgiven  once,  twice,  and  again,  to  his  own  final 
ruin.  Like  Medea,  one  of  whose  other  exploits  he  had  evoked  in 
a  bulletin,  he  could  say — but  to  his  honour  and  not  to  his  shame — 


"  Si  possem,  sanior  essem. 

Sed  trahit  invitam  nova  vis  ;  aliudque  Cupido,  , 

Mens  aliud  suadet.     Video  meliora,  proboque 
Deteriora  sequor." 

Treachery  and  peculation  against  the  State  was  different,  as 
Moreau,  Bourrienne,  and  even  Massena  and  Murat  discovered. 

As  for  his  family,  they  were  a  flabby  and  somewhat  sensual 
lot,  with  the  exception  of  Lucien,  who  was  sufficiently  capable 
to  be  hopelessly  impracticable.  He  was,  however,  infinitely  more 
competent  than  the  effeminate  Joseph  and  the  melancholy  Louis, 
and  seems  to  have  had  more  command  of  parliamentary  oratory 
than  Napoleon  himself. 

Napoleon's  influence  on  literary  men  may  be  gauged  by  what 
Wieland l  and  Mtiller 2  reported  of  their  interview  with  him  at 
Erfurt.  That  with  Wieland  took  place  at  the  ball  which  followed 
the  entertainment  on  the  field  of  Jena.  "  I  was  presented,"  he 
says,  "  by  the  Duchess  of  Weimar,  with  the  usual  ceremonies  ; 
he  then  paid  me  some  compliments  in  an  affable  tone,  and  looked 
steadfastly  at  me.  Few  men  have  appeared  to  me  to  possess,  in 
the  same  degree,  the  art  of  reading  at  the  first  glance  the  thoughts 
of  other  men.  He  saw,  in  an  instant,  that  notwithstanding  my 
celebrity  I  was  simple  in  my  manners  and  void  of  pretension  ; 
and,  as  he  seemed  desirous  of  making  a  favourable  impression  on 
me,  he  assumed  the  tone  most  likely  to  attain  his  end.  I  have 
never  beheld  any  one  more  calm,  more  simple,  more  mild,  or  less 
ostentatious  in  appearance  ;  nothing  about  him  indicated  the  feel- 
ing of  power  in  a  great  monarch  ;  he  spoke  to  me  as  an  old 
acquaintance  would  speak  to  an  equal  ;  and  what  was  more 
extraordinary  on  his  part,  he  conversed  with  me  exclusively  for 
an  hour  and  a  half,  to  the  great  surprise  of  the  whole  assembly." 

1  This  versatile  writer,  the  author  of  Oberon,  the  translator  of  Lucian  and 
Shakespeare,  and  the  founder  of  psychological  romance  in  Germany,  was  then  in 
his  seventy-fifth  year. 

2  The  historian  (1755-1809),  "  the  Thucydides  of  Switzerland." 


Wieland  has  related  part  of  their  conversation,  which  is,  as  it 
could  not  fail  to  be,  highly  interesting.  They  touched  on  a 
variety  of  subjects  ;  among  others,  the  ancients.  Napoleon  de- 
clared his  preference  of  the  Romans  to  the  Greeks.  "  The  eternal 
squabbles  of  their  petty  republics,"  he  said,  "  were  not  calculated 
to  give  birth  to  anything  grand ;  whereas  the  Romans  were 
always  occupied  with  great  things,  and  it  was  owing  to  this  they 
raised  up  the  Colossus  which  bestrode  the  world."  This  prefer- 
ence was  characteristic  ;  the  following  is  anomalous  :  "  He  pre- 
ferred Ossian  to  Homer.""  "  He  was  fond  only  of  serious  poetry," 
continues  Wieland  ;  "  the  pathetic  and  vigorous  writers  ;  and, 
above  all,  the  tragic  poets.  He  appeared  to  have  no  relish  for 
anything  gay  ;  and  in  spite  of  the  prepossessing  amenity  of  his 
manners,  an  observation  struck  me  often,  he  seemed  to  be  of 
bronze.  Nevertheless,  he  had  put  me  so  much  at  my  ease  that 
I  ventured  to  ask  how  it  was  that  the  public  worship  he  had 
restored  in  France  was  not  more  philosophical  and  in  harmony 
with  the  spirit  of  the  times  ?  '  My  dear  Wieland,'  he  replied, 
*  religion  is  not  meant  for  philosophers  ;  they  have  no  faith  either 
in  me  or  my  priests.  As  to  those  who  do  believe,  it  would  be 
difficult  to  give  them  or  to  leave  them  too  much  of  the  marvel- 
lous. If  I  had  to  frame  a  religion  for  philosophers,  it  would  be 
just  the  reverse  of  that  of  the  credulous  part  of  mankind.' " l 

Milller,  the  celebrated  Swiss  historian,  who  had  a  private 
interview  with  Napoleon  at  this  period,  has  left  a  still  fuller 
account  of  the  impression  he  received.  "  The  Emperor  2  began 
to  speak,"  says  Miiller,  "  of  the  history  of  Switzerland,  told  me 
that  I  ought  to  complete  it,  that  even  the  more  recent  times  had 
their  interest.  He  proceeded  from  the  Swiss  to  the  old  Greek 
constitutions  and  history  ;  to  the  theory  of  constitutions  ;  to  the 
complete  diversity  of  those  of  Asia,  and  the  causes  of  this  diver- 
sity in  the  climate,  polygamy,  &c.;  the  opposite  characters  of  the 

1  Home's  History  of  Napoleon  ( 1 841).  2  Ibid. 


Arabian  and  the  Tartar  races  ;  the  peculiar  value  of  European 
culture,  and  the  progress  of  freedom  since  the  sixteenth  century ; 
how  everything  was  linked  together,  and  in  the  inscrutable  guid- 
ance of  an  invisible  hand  ;  how  he  himself  had  become  great 
through  his  enemies  ;  the  great  confederation  of  nations,  the  idea 
of  which  Henry  IV.  had  ;  the  foundation  of  all  religion,  and  its 
necessity  ;  that  man  could  not  bear  clear  truth,  and  required  to 
be  kept  in  order  ;  admitting  the  possibility,  however,  of  a  more 
happy  condition  if  the  numerous  feuds  ceased,  which  were  occa- 
sioned by  too  complicated  constitutions  (such  as  the  German), 
and  the  intolerable  burden  suffered  by  states  from  excessive 
armies."  These  opinions  clearly  mark  the  guiding  motives  of 
Napoleon's  attempts  to  enforce  upon  different  nations  uniformity 
of  institutions  and  customs.  "  I  opposed  him  occasionally,"  says 
Mttller,  "  and  he  entered  into  discussion.  Quite  impartially  and 
truly,  as  before  God,  I  must  say  that  the  variety  of  his  knowledge, 
the  acuteness  of  his  observations,  the  solidity  of  his  understanding 
(not  dazzling  wit),  his  grand  and  comprehensive  views,  filled  me 
with  astonishment,  and  his  manner  of  speaking  to  me,  with  love 
for  him.  By  his  genius  and  his  disinterested  goodness,  he  has 
also  conquered  me."  Slowly  but  surely  they  are  conquering  the 
world.  Of  his  goodness  we  have  the  well-weighed  verdict  of 
Lord  Acton,  that  it  was  "  the  most  splendid  that  has  appeared  on 
earth."  Of  his  goodness,  we  may  at  least  concur  in  the  opinion 
of  the  old  British  tar  at  Elba,  quoted  by  Sir  Walter,  and  evidently 
his  own  view,  that  "  Boney  was  a  d — d  good  fellow  after  all." 

With  regard  to  the  character  of  Josephine  opinions  still  differ 
about   every  quality  but   one.     Like   the  friend  of  Goldsmith's 

mad  dog — 

"  A  kind  and  gentle  heart  she  had 
To  comfort  friends  and  foes  :" 

either  her  brother  Mason  Cambace'res,  or  her  brother  Catholic 
and  unbrotherly  brother-in-law  Lucien. 


From  early  days  she  had  learnt  "  how  to  flirt  and  how  to  fib." 
Morality  was  at  a  low  ebb  during  the  French  Revolution,  when 
women  often  saved  their  necks  at  the  expense  of  their  bodies,  and 
there  is  unfortunately  no  doubt  that  Josephine  was  no  exception. 
It  is  certain,  however,  from  his  first  letters  to  Josephine,  that 
Napoleon  knew  nothing  of  this  at  the  time  of  his  honeymoon 
(solus)  in  Italy.  Gradually,  but  very  unwillingly,  his  eyes  were 
opened,  and  by  the  time  he  had  reached  Egypt  he  felt  himself 
absolved  from  the  absolute  faithfulness  he  had  hitherto  preserved 
towards  his  wife.  On  his  return  Josephine  becomes  once  more 
his  consort,  and  even  his  friend — never  again  his  only  love.  Jose- 
phine's main  characteristic  henceforward  is  to  make  everybody 
happy  and  comfortable — in  spite  of  Napoleon's  grumblings  at  her 
reckless  prodigality  ;  never  to  say  No  !  (except  to  her  husband's 
accusations)  suits  her  Creole  disposition  best,  especially  as  it  costs 
her  no  active  exertion,  and  the  Emperor  pays  for  all.  And  so, 
having  been  in  turn  Our  Lady  of  Victories  and  Saint  Mary  the 
Egyptian,  she  becomes  from  her  coronation  to  her  death-day 
"The  Mother  of  the  Poor." 

THE  SOURCES  OF  THE  LETTERS. — These  may  be  divided  into 
three  parts — (ist)  the  Early  Love-Letters  of  1796;  (2nd)  the 
Collection  published  by  Didot  Freres  in  1833  ;  and  (3rd)  the 
few  scattered  Letters  gathered  from  various  outside  sources. 

(ist)  With  regard  to  the  Early  Love-Letters  of  1796,  these 
are  found  most  complete  in  a  work  published  by  Longmans  in 
1824,  in  two  volumes,  with  the  title,  "A  Tour  through  Parts  of 
the  Netherlands,  Holland,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Savoy,  and 
France,  in  the  year  1821-2,  by  Charles  Tennant,  Esq.;  also 
containing  in  an  Appendix  Fac-simile  Copies  of  Eight  Letters  in 
the  handwriting  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte  to  his  wife  Josephine." 

The  author  introduces  them  with  an  interesting  preface, 
which  shows  that  then,  as  now,  the  interest  in  everything  con- 
nected with  Napoleon  was  unabated  : — 


"  Long  after  this  fleeting  book  shall  have  passed  away,  and 
with  its  author  shall  have  been  forgotten,  these  documents  will 
remain  ;  for  here,  perhaps,  is  to  be  found  the  purest  source  of 
information  which  exists,  touching  the  private  character  of 
Napoleon  Bonaparte,  known,  probably,  but  to  the  few  whose 
situations  have  enabled  them  to  observe  that  extraordinary  man 
in  the  undisguised  relations  of  domestic  life.  Although  much 
already  has  been  said  and  written  of  him,  yet  the  eagerness  with 
which  every  little  anecdote  and  incident  of  his  life  is  sought  for 
shows  the  interest  which  still  attaches  to  his  name,  and  these,  no 
doubt,  will  be  bequests  which  posterity  will  duly  estimate.  From 
these  it  will  be  the  province  of  future  historians  to  cull  and  select 
simple  and  authenticated  facts,  and  from  these  only  can  be  drawn 
a  true  picture  of  the  man  whose  fame  has  already  extended  into 
every  distant  region  of  the  habitable  globe. 

"I  will  now  proceed  to  relate  the  means  by  which  I  am 
enabled  to  introduce  into  this  journal  fac-simile  copies  of  eight 
letters  in  the  handwriting  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  the  originals 
of  which  are  in  my  possession.  Had  these  been  of  a  political 
nature,  much  as  I  should  prize  any  relics  of  such  a  man,  yet  they 
would  not  have  appeared  in  a  book  from  which  I  have  studiously 
excluded  all  controversial  topics,  and  more  especially  those  of  a 
political  character.  Neither  should  I  have  ventured  upon  their 
publication  if  there  were  a  possibility  that  by  so  doing  I  might 
wound  the  feelings  of  any  human  being.  Death  has  closed  the 
cares  of  the  individuals  connected  with  these  letters.  Like  the 
memorials  of  Alexander  the  Great  or  of  Charlemagne,  they  are 
the  property  of  the  possessor,  and  through  him  of  the  public  ; 
but  not  like  ancient  documents,  dependent  upon  legendary 
evidence  for  their  identity  and  truth. 

"These  have  passed  to  me  through  two  hands  only,  since 
they  came  into  possession  of  the  Empress  Josephine,  to  whom 


they  are  written  by  their  illustrious  author.  One  of  the  indi- 
viduals here  alluded  to,  and  from  whom  I  received  these  letters, 
is  a  Polish  nobleman,  who  attached  himself  and  his  fortunes  to 
Bonaparte,  whose  confidence  he  enjoyed  in  several  important 
diplomatic  negotiations." 

This  book  and  these  letters  were  known  to  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
who  made  use  of  some  of  them  in  his  History  of  Napoleon.  M. 
Aubenas,  in  his  Histoire  de  rimperatrice  Josephine,  published  in 
1857,  which  has  been  lavishly  made  use  of  in  a  recent  work  on 
the  same  subject,  seems  to  have  known,  at  any  rate,  four  of  these 
letters,  which  were  communicated  to  him  by  M.  le  Baron  Feuillet 
de  Conches.  Monsieur  Aubenas  seems  never  to  have  seen  the 
Tennant  Collection,  of  which  these  undoubtedly  form  part,  but 
as  Baron  Feuillet  de  Conches  was  an  expert  in  deciphering 
Bonaparte's  extraordinary  caligraphy,  these  letters  are  very  useful 
for  reference  in  helping  us  to  translate  some  phrases  which  had 
been  given  up  as  illegible  by  Mr.  Tennant  and  Sir  Walter  Scott. 

(2nd)  The  Collection  Didot.  This  enormously  valuable  col- 
lection forms  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  Letters  that  we 
possess  of  Napoleon  to  his  wife.  They  are  undoubtedly  authentic, 
and  have  been  utilised  largely  by  Aubenas,  St.  Amand,  Masson, 
and  the  Correspondance  de  Napoleon  I.  They  were  edited  by 
Madame  Salvage  de  Faverolles.  As  is  well  known,  Sir  Walter 
Scott  was  very  anxious  to  obtain  possession  of  these  letters  for 
his  Life  of  Napoleon,  and  his  visit  to  Paris  was  partly  on  this 
account.  In  Archibald  Constable  and  his  Literary  Correspondents, 
edited  in  1873  by  his  son,  we  find  the  following  : — 


"August  30,  1825. 

"I  have  had  various  conversations  with  Mr.  Thomson  on 
the  subject  of  Napoleon's  correspondence  with  Josephine.  Mr. 
Thomson  communicated  with  Count  Flahault  for  me  in  the 



view  of  its  being  published,  and  whether  the  letters  could  not,  in 
the  meantime,  be  rendered  accessible.  The  publication,  it  seems, 
under  any  circumstances,  is  by  no  means  determined  on,  but 
should  they  be  given,  the  price  expected  is  five  thousand  guineas, 
which  I  should  imagine  greatly  too  much.  I  have  an  enumera- 
tion of  the  letters,  from  whence  written,  &c.  I  shall  subjoin  a 
copy  of  it." 

When  they  were  finally  published  in  1833,  they  seem  to  have 
been  stimulated  into  existence  by  publication  of  the  Memorial  de 
Saint-Helene,  better  known  in  England  as  Las  Cases.  Doubtless 
Hortense  only  allowed  such  letters  to  be  published  as  would  not 
injure  the  reputation  of  her  mother  or  her  relations.  In  the 
Preface  it  is  stated  :  "  We  think  that  these  letters  will  afford  an 
interest  as  important  as  delightful.  Everything  that  comes  from 
Napoleon,  and  everything  that  appertains  to  him,  will  always 
excite  the  lively  attention  of  contemporaries  and  posterity.  If 
the  lofty  meditation  of  philosophy  concerns  itself  only  with  the 
general  influence  of  great  men  upon  their  own  generation  and 
future  ones,  a  curiosity  of  another  nature,  and  not  less  greedy, 
loves  to  penetrate  into  the  inmost  recesses  of  their  soul,  in  order  to 
elicit  their  most  secret  inclinations.  It  likes  to  learn  what  has 
been  left  of  the  man,  amid  the  preoccupations  of  their  projects 
and  the  elevation  of  their  fortune.  It  requires  to  know  in  what 
manner  their  character  has  modified  their  genius,  or  has  been 
subservient  to  it. 

"  It  is  this  curiosity  that  we  hope  to  satisfy  by  the  publication 
of  these  letters.  They  reveal  the  inmost  thought  of  Napoleon, 
they  will  reflect  his  earliest  impulses,  they  will  show  how  the 
General,  the  Consul,  and  the  Emperor  felt  and  spoke,  not  in  his 
discourses  or  his  proclamations — the  official  garb  of  his  thought — 
but  in  the  free  outpourings  of  the  most  passionate  or  the  most 
tender  affections.  .  .  .  This  correspondence  will  prove,  we 


strongly  believe,  that  the  conqueror  was  human,  the  master  of 
the  world  a  good  husband,  the  great  man  in  fact  an  excellent 
man.  .  .  .  We  shall  see  in  them  how,  up  to  the  last  moment,  he 
lavished  on  his  wife  proofs  of  his  tenderness.  Without  doubt  the 
letters  of  the  Emperor  Napoleon  are  rarer  and  shorter  than  those 
of  the  First  Consul,  and  the  First  Consul  writes  no  longer  like 
General  Bonaparte,  but  everywhere  the  sentiment  is  fundamentally 
the  same. 

u  We  make  no  reflection  on  the  style  of  these  letters,  written  in 
haste  and  in  all  the  abandon  of  intimacy.  We  can  easily  perceive 
they  were  not  destined  to  see  the  light.  Nevertheless  we  publish 
them  without  changing  anything  in  them." 

The  Collection  Didot  contains  228  letters  from  Napoleon  to 
Josephine,  and  70  from  Josephine  to  Hortense,  and  two  from 
Josephine  to  Napoleon,  which  seem  to  be  the  only  two  in 
existence  of  Josephine  to  Napoleon  whose  authenticity  is 

(3rd)  The  fugitive  letters  are  collected  from  various  sources, 
and  their  genuineness  does  not  seem  to  be  quite  as  well  proved  as 
those  of  the  Tennant  or  Didot  Series.  We  have  generally  taken 
the  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  I.  as  the  touchstone  of  their 
merit  to  be  inserted  here,  although  one  of  them — that  republished 
from  Las  Cases  (No.  85,  Series  G.) — is  manifestly  mainly  the 
work  of  that  versatile  author,  who  is  utterly  unreliable  except 
when  confirmed  by  others.  As  Lord  Rosebery  has  well  said, 
the  book  is  "  an  arsenal  of  spurious  documents." 

We  have  relegated  to  an  Appendix  those  published  by  Madame 
Ducrest,  as  transparent  forgeries,  and  have  to  acknowledge  with 
thanks  a  letter  from  M.  Masson  on  this  subject  which  thoroughly 
confirms  these  views.  There  seems  some  reason  to  doubt  No.  I., 
Series  E,  but  being  in  the  Correspondence,  I  have  translated  it. 

The  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  I.  is  a  splendid  monument 
to  the  memory  of  Napoleon.  It  is  alluded  to  throughout  the  Notes 


as  The  Correspondence,  and  it  deserves  special  recognition  here.  Its 
compilation  was  decreed  by  Napoleon  III.  from  Boulogne,  on 
yth  September  1854,  and  the  first  volume  appeared  in  1858,  and 
the  last  in  1870.  With  the  first  volume  is  inserted  the  Report  of 
the  Commission  to  the  Emperor,  part  of  which  we  subjoin  : — 

"  Report  of  the  Commission  to  the  Emperor. 

"  SIRE, — Augustus  numbered  Caesar  among  the  gods,  and  dedi- 
cated to  him  a  temple  ;  the  temple  has  disappeared,  the  Commen- 
taries remain.  Your  Majesty,  wishing  to  raise  to  the  chief  of 
your  dynasty  an  imperishable  monument,  has  ordered  us  to  gather 
together  and  publish  the  political,  military,  and  administrative 
correspondence  of  Napoleon  I.  It  has  realised  that  the  most 
conspicuous  (eclatanf)  homage  to  render  to  this  incomparable 
genius  was  to  make  him  known  in  his  entirety.  No  one  is 
ignorant  of  his  victories,  of  the  laws  with  which  he  has  endowed 
our  country,  the  institutions  that  he  has  founded  and  which  dwell 
immovable  after  so  many  revolutions ;  his  prosperity  and  his 
reverses  are  in  every  mouth  ;  history  has  recounted  what  he  has 
done,  but  it  has  not  always  known  his  designs  :  it  has  not  had 
the  secret  of  so  many  admirable  combinations  that  have  been  the 
spoil  of  fortune  (que  la  fortune  a  dejoueei),  and  so  many  grand  projects 
for  the  execution  of  which  time  alone  was  wanting.  The  traces 
of  Napoleon's  thoughts  were  scattered  ;  it  was  necessary  to  reunite 
them  and  to  give  them  to  the  light. 

"Such  is  the  task  which  your  Majesty  confided  to  us,  and  of 
which  we  were  far  from  suspecting  the  extent.  The  thousands 
of  letters  which  were  received  from  all  parts  have  allowed  us  to 
follow,  in  spite  of  a  few  regrettable  lacuna,  the  thoughts  of 
Napoleon  day  by  day,  and  to  assist,  so  to  say,  at  the  birth  of  his 
projects,  at  the  ceaseless  workings  of  his  mind,  which  knew  no 
other  rest  than  change  of  occupation.  But  what  is  perhaps  most 
surprising  in  the  reading  of  a  correspondence  so  varied,  is  the 


power  of  that  universal  intelligence  from  which  nothing  escaped, 
which  in  turn  raised  itself  without  an  effort  to  the  most  sublime 
conceptions,  and  which  descends  with  the  same  facility  to  the 
smallest  details.  .  .  .  Nothing  seems  to  him  unworthy  of  his 
attention  that  has  to  do  with  the  realisation  of  his  designs ;  and 
it  is  not  sufficient  for  him  to  give  the  most  precise  orders,  but  he 
superintends  himself  the  execution  of  them  with  an  indefatigable 

u  The  letters  of  Napoleon  can  add  nothing  to  his  glory,  but 
they  better  enable  us  to  comprehend  his  prodigious  destiny,  the 
prestige  that  he  exercised  over  his  contemporaries — 'le  culte 
universel  dont  sa  memoire  est  1'objet,  enfin,  I'entrainement  irr£- 
sistible  par  lequel  la  France  a  replace  sa  dynastic  au  sommet  de 
1'edifice  qu'il  avait  construit.' 

"These  letters  also  contain  the  most  fruitful  sources  of  in- 
formation ...  for  peoples  as  for  governments ;  for  soldiers  and 
for  statesmen  no  less  than  for  historians.  Perhaps  some  persons, 
greedy  of  knowing  the  least  details  concerning  the  intimate  life 
of  great  men,  will  regret  that  we  have  not  reproduced  those 
letters  which,  published  elsewhere  for  the  most  part,  have  only 
dealt  with  family  affairs  and  domestic  relations.  Collected 
together  by  us  as  well  as  the  others,  they  have  not  found  a  place 
in  the  plan  of  which  your  Majesty  has  fixed  for  us  the  limits. 

"  Let  us  haste  to  declare  that,  in  conformity  with  the  express 
intentions  of  your  Majesty,  we  have  scrupulously  avoided,  in  the 
reproduction  of  the  letters  of  the  Emperor,  any  alteration,  cur- 
tailment, or  modification  of  the  text.  Sometimes,  thinking  of  the 
legitimate  sorrow  which  blame  from  so  high  a  quarter  may 
cause,  we  have  regretted  not  to  be  able  to  soften  the  vigorous 
judgment  of  Napoleon  on  many  of  his  contemporaries,  but  it  was 
not  our  province  to  discuss  them,  still  less  to  explain  them  ;  but 
if,  better  informed  or  calmer,  the  Emperor  has  rendered  justice  to 
those  of  his  servants  that  he  had  for  a  moment  misunderstood, 


we  have  been  glad  to  indicate  that  these  severe  words  have  been 
followed  by  reparation. 

"  We  have  found  it  necessary  to  have  the  spelling  of  names 
of  places  and  of  persons  frequently  altered,  but  we  have  allowed 
to  remain  slight  incorrectnesses  of  language  which  denote  the 
impetuosity  of  composition,  and  which  often  could  not  be  rectified 
without  weakening  the  originality  of  an  energetic  style  running 
right  to  its  object,  brief  and  precise  as  the  words  of  command. 
Some  concise  notes  necessary  for  clearing  up  obscure  passages  are 
the  sole  conditions  which  we  have  allowed  ourselves.  .  .  . 

"The  Commission  has  decided  in  favour  of  chronological 
order  throughout.  It  is,  moreover,  the  only  one  which  can 
reproduce  faithfully  the  sequence  of  the  Emperor's  thoughts.  It 
is  also  the  best  for  putting  in  relief  his  universal  aptitude  and  his 
marvellous  fecundity. 

"  Napoleon  wrote  little  with  his  own  hand  ;  nearly  all  the 
items  of  his  correspondence  were  dictated  to  his  secretaries,  to  his 
aides-de-camp  and  his  chief  of  staff,  or  to  his  ministers.  Thus 
the  Commission  has  not  hesitated  to  comprise  in  this  collection  a 
great  number  of  items  which,  although  bearing  another  signature, 
evidently  emanate  from  Napoleon.  .  .  . 

"  By  declaring  that  his  public  life  dated  from  the  siege  of 
Toulon,  Napoleon  has  himself  determined  the  point  of  departure 
which  the  Commission  should  choose.     It  is  from  this  immortal 
date  that  commences  the  present  publication. 

"  (Signed)         THE  MEMBERS  OF  THE  COMMISSION. 

"Paris,  January  20,  1858." 

CONTEMPORARY  SOURCES. — It  is  a  commonplace  that  the 
history  of  Napoleon  has  yet  to  be  written.  His  contemporaries 
were  stunned  or  overwhelmed  by  the  whirlwind  of  his  glory  ;  the 
next  generation  was  blinded  by  meteoric  fragments  of  his  "  sys- 
tem," which  glowed  with  impotent  heat  as  they  fell  through  an 


alien  atmosphere  into  oblivion.  Such  were  the  Bourriennes,  the 
Jominis,  the  Talleyrands,  and  other  traitors  of  that  ilk.  But 

"  The  tumult  and  the  shouting  dies  ; 
The  captains  and  the  kings  depart ;  " 

and  now,  when  all  the  lesser  tumults  and  lesser  men  have  passed 
away,  each  new  century  will,  as  Lockhart  foretold,  "  inscribe  one 
mighty  era  with  the  majestic  name  of  Napoleon."  And  yet  the 
writings  of  no  contemporary  can  be  ignored  ;  neither  Alison 
nor  Scott,  certainly  not  Bignon,  Montgaillard,  Pelet,  Mathieu 
Dumas,  and  Pasquier.  Constant,  Bausset,  Meneval,  Rovigo,  and 
D'Abrantes  are  full  of  interest  for  their  personal  details,  and 
D'Avrillon,  Las  Cases,  Marmont,  Marbot,  and  Lejeune  only  a 
degree  less  so.  Jung's  Memoirs  of  Lucien  are  invaluable,  and  those 
of  Joseph  and  Louis  Bonaparte  useful.  But  the  Correspondence  is 
worth  everything  else,  including  Panckouke  (1796-99),  where,  in 
spite  of  shocking  arrangement,  print,  and  paper,  we  get  the  replies 
as  well  as  the  letters.  The  Biographic  Universelle  Michaud  is 
hostile,  except  the  interesting  footnotes  of  Begin.  It  must,  how- 
ever, be  read.  The  article  in  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica  was  the 
work  of  an  avowed  enemy  of  the  Napoleonic  system,  the  editor 
of  the  Life  and  Times  of  Stein. 

For  the  Diary,  the  Revue  Chronologique  de  I'Histoire  de  France  or 
Montgaillard  (1823)  has  been  heavily  drawn  upon,  especially  for 
the  later  years,  but  wherever  practicable  the  dates  have  been 
verified  from  the  Correspondence  and  bulletins  of  the  day.  On  the 
whole,  the  records  of  respective  losses  in  the  battles  are  slightly 
favourable  to  the  French,  as  their  figures  have  been  usually  taken  ; 
always,  however,  the  maximum  French  loss  and  the  minimum  of 
the  allies  is  recorded,  when  unverified  from  other  sources. 

The  late  Professor  Seeley,  in  his  monograph,  asserts  that 
Napoleon,  tried  by  his  plan,  is  a  failure — that  even  before  death 
his  words  and  actions  merited  no  monument,  We  must  seek. 


however,  for  the  mightiest   heritage  of  Napoleon  in  his  brain- 
children of  the  second  generation,  the  Genii  of  the  Code. 

The  Code  Napoleon  claims  to-day  its  two  hundred  million  sub- 
jects. "  The  Law  should  be  clean,  precise,  uniform  ;  to  interpret 
is  to  corrupt  it."  So  ruled  the  Emperor  ;  and  now,  a  century 
later,  Archbishop  Temple  (born  in  one  distant  island  the  year 
Napoleon  died  in  another)  bears  testimony  to  the  beneficent  sway  of 
Napoleon's  Word-Empire.  Criticising  English  legal  phraseology, 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  said,  "  The  French  Code  is  always 
welcome  in  every  country  where  it  has  been  introduced  ;  and 
where  people  have  once  got  hold  of  it,  they  are  unwilling  to  have 
it  changed  for  any  other,  because  it  is  a  marvel  of  clearness" 
Surely  if  ever  Style  is  the  Man,  it  is  Napoleon,  otherwise  the 
inspection  of  over  seven  million  words,  as  marshalled  forth  in  his 
Correspondence,  would  not  only  confuse  but  confound.  As  it  is, 
its  "  hum  of  armies,  gathering  rank  on  rank,"  has  left  behind 
what  Bacon  calls  a  conflation  of  sound,  from  which,  however,  as 
from  Kipling's  steel-sinewed  symphony, 

"  The  clanging  chorus  goes — 
Law,  Order,  Duty  and  Restraint,  Obedience,  Discipline." 





Xo.  of 


Pages  of 
ing Notes. 




(No.  2,  from  St.^ 





(  Nos.    ) 
li,  3-8   f 

Amand,       La  \ 
Citoyenne  Bo-  | 


naparte            } 





(   Nos.  ^ 

1     J"14    f 

I  16-25   J 

fNo.      15,     from^j 
I      Bourrienne's     1 
|      Life  of  Bona-  f 
V.    parte                J 






No.  3 

I,  2,  4 








(No.     i,     Corre-\ 





f    Xos.    1 

spondence          1 
No.  5,  Collection  j 


of  Baron  Heath  J 







(No.     gA,     from,. 

Mile.  D'Avril- 





all  but 

1      Ion                     V 


j  No.  85,  from  Las  I 

*•     Cases               J 
























































316.  APPENDIX  (i). — Reputed  Poem  by  Napoleon. 

317.  APPENDIX  (2). —Genealogy  of  the  Bonaparte  Family. 
317-321.  APPENDIX  (3). — Spurious  Letters  of  Napoleon  to  Josephine. 

1  Exclusive  of  two  from  Josephine  to  Napoleon. 



NAPOLEON Frontispiece 

AN  ORIGINAL  DRAWING  (Photogravure) 

EUGENE  BEAUHARNAIS          .         .         .     Face  page    121 

JOSEPHINE  BEAUHARNAIS    .         .         .     Face  page     198 
Circa  1795  (Photogravure) 


24,  1796          ......         Pages   202-3 





"  Only  those  who  knew  Napoleon  in  the  intercourse  of  private 
life  can  render  justice  to  his  character.  For  my  own  part,  I  know 
him,  as  it  were,  by  heart ;  and  in  proportion  as  time  separates  us,  he 
appears  to  me  like  a  beautiful  dream.  And  would  you  believe  that, 
in  my  recollections  of  Napoleon,  that  which  seems  to  me  to  approach 
most  nearly  to  ideal  excellence  is  not  the  hero,  filling  the  world  with 
his  gigantic  fame,  but  the  man,  viewed  in  the  relations  of  private 
life  ?  " — Recollections  of  Cau/aincourt,  Duke  of  Vicenza^  vol.  i.  197. 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  i98-zn.) 


Bonaparte  made  Commander-in- Chief  .  .  .198 

No.  I.  7  A.M 198 

No.    2.   Our  good  Ossian          .          .          .          .          .          .199 

No.   4.   Chauvet  is  dead         .          .          .          .          .          .      1 99 

No.  5-  Napoleon's  suspicions  .  .  .  .  .199 

The  lovers  of  nineteen  .  .  .  .  ZOO 

My  brother 2OO 

No.  6.  Unalterably  good  .  .  .  .  .  .201 

If  you  tvant  a  place  for  any  one  .  .  .  .201 
No.  7.  A  criticism  by  Aubenas  .  .  .  .  .201 

June  i$th  .          .          .          .          .          .      204 

Presentiment  of  ill      .          .          .          .          .          .210 

No.  8.  The  Treaty  with  Rome 210 

Fortune  .          .          .  .  .  .  .211 


February  2$rJ. — Bonaparte  made  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Army  of 

No.  I. 

Seven  o'clock  in  the  morning. 

My  waking  thoughts  are  all  of  thee.  Your  portrait  and  the 
remembrance  of  last  night's  delirium  have  robbed  my  senses  of 
repose.  Sweet  and  incomparable  Josephine,  what  an  extra- 
ordinary influence  you  have  over  my  heart.  Are  you  vexed  ? 
do  I  see  you  sad  ?  are  you  ill  at  ease  ?  My  soul  is  broken  with 
grief,  and  there  is  no  rest  for  your  lover.  But  is  there  more  for 
me  when,  delivering  ourselves  up  to  the  deep  feelings  which  master 
me,  I  breathe  out  upon  your  lips,  upon  your  heart,  a  flame  which 
burns  me  up — ah,  it  was  this  past  night  I  realised  that  your  por- 
trait was  not  you.  You  start  at  noon  ;  I  shall  see  you  in  three 
hours.  Meanwhile,  mw  dolce  amor,  accept  a  thousand  kisses,1 
but  give  me  none,  for  they  fire  my  blood.  N.  B. 

A  Madame  Beauharnais. 

March  9//>. — Bonaparte  marries  Josephine. 

March  1 1  th. — Bonaparte  leaves  Paris  to  join  his  army. 

No.  2. 

Chanceaux  Post  House, 

March  14,  1796. 

I  wrote  you  at  Chatillon,  and  sent  you  a  power  of  attorney  to 
enable  you  to  receive  various  sums  of  money  in  course  of  remit- 
tance to  me.  Every  moment  separates  me  further  from  you,  my 
beloved,  and  every  moment  I  have  less  energy  to  exist  so 
far  from  you.  You  are  the  constant  object  of  my  thoughts ;  I 

1  Un  millicr  de  laise  (sic). 


exhaust  my  imagination  in  thinking  of  what  you  are  doing.  If  I 
see  you  unhappy,  my  heart  is  torn,  and  my  grief  grows  greater. 
If  you  are  gay  and  lively  among  your  friends  (male  and  female), 
I  reproach  you  with  having  so  soon  forgotten  the  sorrowful  sepa- 
ration three  days  ago  ;  thence  you  must  be  fickle,  and  hence- 
forward stirred  by  no  deep  emotions.  So  you  see  I  am  not  easy 
to  satisfy  ;  but,  my  dear,  I  have  quite  different  sensations  when  I 
fear  that  your  health  may  be  affected,  or  that  you  have  cause  to  be 
annoyed  ;  then  I  regret  the  haste  with  which  I  was  separated  from 
my  darling.  I  feel,  in  fact,  that  your  natural  kindness  of  heart 
exists  no  longer  for  me,  and  it  is  only  when  I  am  quite  sure  you 
are  not  vexed  that  I  am  satisfied.  If  I  were  asked  how  I  slept,  I 
feel  that  before  replying  I  should  have  to  get  a  message  to  tell  me 
that  you  had  had  a  good  night.  The  ailments,  the  passions  of 
men  influence  me  only  when  I  imagine  they  may  reach  you,  my 
dear.  May  my  good  genius,  which  has  always  preserved  me  in 
the  midst  of  great  dangers,  surround  you,  enfold  you,  while  I  will 
face  my  fate  unguarded.  Ah  !  be  not  gay,  but  a  trifle  melan- 
choly ;  and  especially  may  your  soul  be  free  from  worries,  as  your 
body  from  illness  :  you  know  what  our  good  Ossian  says  on  this 
subject.  Write  me,  dear,  and  at  full  length,  and  accept  the  thou- 
sand and  one  kisses  of  your  most  devoted  and  faithful  friend. 

[This   letter    is   translated    from   St.    Amand's   La    Citoyenne 
Bonaparte,  p.  3,  1892.]  

March  27$. — Arrival  at  Nice  and  proclamation  to  the  soldiers. 

No.  3. 

April  yrd. — He  is  at  Mentone. 

Port  Maurice,  April  yd. 

I  have  received  all  your  letters,  but  none  has  affected  me  like 
the  last.     How  can  you  think,  my  charmer,  of  writing  me  in 


such  terms  ?  Do  you  believe  that  my  position  is  not  already 
painful  enough  without  further  increasing  my  regrets  and  sub- 
verting my  reason.  What  eloquence,  what  feelings  you  portray ; 
they  are  of  fire,  they  inflame  my  poor  heart !  My  unique  Jose- 
phine, away  from  you  there  is  no  more  joy — away  from  thee  the 
world  is  a  wilderness,  in  which  I  stand  alone,  and  without  experi- 
encing the  bliss  of  unburdening  my  soul.  You  have  robbed  me 
of  more  than  my  soul  ;  you  are  the  one  only  thought  of  my  life. 
When  I  am  weary  of  the  worries  of  my  profession,  when  I  mis- 
trust the  issue,  when  men  disgust  me,  when  I  am  ready  to  curse 
my  life,  I  put  my  hand  on  my  heart  where  your  portrait  beats  in 
unison.  I  look  at  it,  and  love  is  for  me  complete  happiness  ;  and 
everything  laughs  for  joy,  except  the  time  during  which  I  find 
myself  absent  from  my  beloved. 

By  what  art  have  you  learnt  how  to  captivate  all  my  facul- 
ties, to  concentrate  in  yourself  my  spiritual  existence  —  it  is 
witchery,  dear  love,  which  will  end  only  with  me.  To  live 
for  Josephine,  that  is  the  history  of  my  life.  I  am  struggling 
to  get  near  you,  I  am  dying  to  be  by  your  side  ;  fool  that  I  am, 
I  fail  to  realise  how  far  off  I  am,  that  lands  and  provinces  sepa- 
rate us.  What  an  age  it  will  be  before  you  read  these  lines,  the 
weak  expressions  of  the  fevered  soul  in  which  you  reign.  Ah,  my 
winsome  wife,  I  know  not  what  fate  awaits  me,  but  if  it  keeps 
me  much  longer  from  you  it  will  be  unbearable — my  strength 
will  not  last  out.  There  was  a  time  in  which  I  prided  myself 
on  my  strength,  and,  sometimes,  when  casting  my  eyes  on  the 
ills  which  men  might  do  me,  on  the  fate  that  destiny  might  have  in 
store  for  me,  I  have  gazed  steadfastly  on  the  most  incredible  mis- 
fortunes without  a  wrinkle  on  my  brow  or  a  vestige  of  surprise  : 
but  to-day  the  thought  that  my  Josephine  might  be  ill ;  and, 
above  all,  the  cruel,  the  fatal  thought  that  she  might  love  me  less, 
blights  my  soul,  stops  my  blood,  makes  me  wretched  and  dejected, 
without  even  leaving  me  the  courage  of  fury  and  despair.  I 
often  used  to  say  that  men  have  no  power  over  him  who 


dies  without  regrets  ;  but,  to-day,  to  die  without  your  love,  to 
die  in  uncertainty  of  that,  is  the  torment  of  hell,  it  is  a  lifelike 
and  terrifying  figure  of  absolute  annihilation — I  feel  passion 
strangling  me.  My  unique  companion  !  you  whom  Fate  has 
destined  to  walk  with  me  the  painful  path  of  life  !  the  day  on 
which  I  no  longer  possess  your  heart  will  be  that  on  which 
parched  Nature  will  be  for  me  without  warmth  and  without 
vegetation.  I  stop,  dear  love  !  my  soul  is  sad,  my  body  tired, 
my  spirit  dazed,  men  worry  me — I  ought  indeed  to  detest  them  ; 
they  keep  me  from  my  beloved. 

I  am  at  Port  Maurice,  near  Oneille  ;  to-morrow  I  shall  be 
at  Albenga.  The  two  armies  are  in  motion.  We  are  trying  to 
deceive  each  other — victory  to  the  most  skilful !  I  am  pretty 
well  satisfied  with  Beaulieu  ;  he  need  be  a  much  stronger  man 
than  his  predecessor  to  alarm  me  much.  I  expect  to  give  him 
a  good  drubbing.  Don't  be  anxious  ;  love  me  as  thine  eyes,  but 
that  is  not  enough ;  as  thyself,  more  than  thyself ;  as  thy 
thoughts,  thy  mind,  thy  sight,  thy  all.  Dear  love,  forgive  me, 
I  am  exhausted  ;  nature  is  weak  for  him  who  feels  acutely,  for 
him  whom  you  inspire.  N.  B. 

Kind  regards  to  Barras,  Sussi,  Madame  Tallien  ;  compliments 
to  Madame  Chateau  Renard  ;  to  Eugene  and  Hortense  best  love. 
Adieu,  adieu  !  I  lie  down  without  thee,  I  shall  sleep  without 
thee  ;  I  pray  thee,  let  me  sleep.  Many  times  I  shall  clasp  thee 
in  my  arms,  but,  but — it  is  not  thee. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte  chez  la 
citoyenne  Beauharnais^ 

Rue  Chanterelne  No.  6,  Paris. 


No.  4. 

Albenga,  April  $th. 

It  is  an  hour  after  midnight.  They  have  just  brought  me  a 
letter.  It  is  a  sad  one,  my  mind  is  distressed — it  is  the  death  of 
Chauvet.  He  was  commissionaire  ordinateur  en  chef  of  the  army  ; 
you  have  sometimes  seen  him  at  the  house  of  Barras.  My  love, 
I  feel  the  need  of  consolation.  It  is  by  writing  to  thee,  to  thee 
alone,  the  thought  of  whom  can  so  influence  my  moral  being,  to 
whom  I  must  pour  out  my  troubles.  What  means  the  future  ? 
what  means  the  past  ?  what  are  we  ourselves  ?  what  magic  fluid 
surrounds  and  hides  from  us  the  things  that  it  behoves  us  most 
to  know  ?  We  are  born,  we  live,  we  die  in  the  midst  of  marvels  ; 
is  it  astounding  that  priests,  astrologers,  charlatans  have  profited 
by  this  propensity,  by  this  strange  circumstance,  to  exploit  our 
ideas,  and  direct  them  to  their  own  advantage.  Chauvet  is  dead. 
He  was  attached  to  me.  He  has  rendered  essential  service  to 
the  fatherland.  His  last  words  were  that  he  was  starting  to  join 
me.  Yes,  I  see  his  ghost ;  it  hovers  everywhere,  it  whistles  in 
the  air.  His  soul  is  in  the  clouds,  he  will  be  propitious  to  my 
destiny.  But,  fool  that  I  am,  I  shed  tears  for  our  friendship,  and 
who  shall  tell  me  that  I  have  not  already  to  bewail  the  irrepar- 
able. Soul  of  my  life,  write  me  by  every  courier,  else  I  shall  not 
know  how  to  exist.  I  am  very  busy  here.  Beaulieu  is  moving 
his  army  again.  We  are  face  to  face.  I  am  rather  tired  ;  I  am 
every  day  on  horseback.  Adieu,  adieu,  adieu  ;  I  am  going  to 
dream  of  you.  Sleep  consoles  me  ;  it  places  you  by  my  side,  I 
clasp  you  in  my  arms.  But  on  waking,  alas  !  I  find  myself  three 
hundred  leagues  from  you.  Remembrances  to  Barras,  Tallien,  and 
his  wife.  N.  B. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte  chez  la 
citoyenne  Beauharnais^ 

Rue  Chantereine  No,  6,  Paris. 


No.  5. 

Albenga^  April  jth. 

I  have  received  the  letter  that  you  break  off,  in  order,  you 
say,  to  go  into  the  country  ;  and  in  spite  of  that  you  give  me 
to  understand  that  you  are  jealous  of  me,  who  am  here,  over- 
whelmed with  business  and  fatigue.  Ah,  my  dear,  it  is  true  I 
am  wrong.  In  the  spring  the  country  is  beautiful,  and  then  the 
lover  of  nineteen  will  doubtless  find  means  to  spare  an  extra 
moment  to  write  to  him  who,  distant  three  hundred  leagues 
from  thee,  lives,  enjoys,  exists  only  in  thoughts  of  thee,  who 
reads  thy  letters  as  one  devours,  after  six  hours'  hunting,  the 
meat  he  likes  best.  I  am  not  satisfied  with  your  last  letter  ;  it 
is  cold  as  friendship.  I  have  not  found  that  fire  which  kindles 
your  looks,  and  which  I  have  sometimes  fancied  I  found  there. 
But  how  infatuated  I  am.  I  found  your  previous  letters  weigh 
too  heavily  on  my  mind.  The  revolution  which  they  produced 
there  invaded  my  rest,  and  took  my  faculties  captive.  I  desired 
more  frigid  letters,  but  they  gave  me  the  chill  of  death.  Not  to 
be  loved  by  Josephine,  the  thought  of  finding  her  inconstant  .  .  . 
but  I  am  forging  troubles — there  are  so  many  real  ones,  there 
is  no  need  to  manufacture  more  !  You  cannot  have  inspired  a 
boundless  love  without  sharing  it,  for  a  cultured  mind  and  a  soul 
like  yours  cannot  requite  complete  surrender  and  devotion  with 
the  death-blow. 

I  have  received  the  letter  from  Madame  Chateau  Renard. 
I  have  written  to  the  Minister.  I  will  write  to  the  former  to- 
morrow, to  whom  you  will  make  the  usual  compliments.  Kind 
regards  to  Madame  Tallien  and  Barras. 

You  do  not  speak  of  your  wretched  indigestion — I  hate  it. 
Adieu,  till  to-morrow,  mio  dolce  amor.  A  remembrance  from 
my  unique  wife,  and  a  victory  from  Destiny — these  are  my 
wishes :  a  unique  remembrance  entirely  worthy  of  him  who 
thinks  of  thee  every  moment. 


My  brother  is  here  ;  he  has  learnt  of  my  marriage  with  plea- 
sure. He  longs  to  see  you.  I  am  trying  to  prevail  on  him  to 
go  to  Paris — his  wife  has  just  borne  him  a  girl.  He  sends  you 
a  gift  of  a  box  of  Genoa  bonbons.  You  will  receive  oranges, 
perfumes,  and  orange-flower  water,  which  I  am  sending. 

Junot  and  Murat  present  their  respects  to  you. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte, 

Rue  Chantereine  No.  6,  (Address  not  in  B.'s  writing.) 

Chausste  d'Antin,  Paris. 

April  loth. — Campaign  of  ens  (Napoleon's  available  troops  about 

April  llth. — Colonel  Rampon,  with  I2OO  men,  treats  the  attack  of 
D'  Argenteau,  giving  Napoleon  time  to  come  up. 

April  \2th. — Battle  of  Montenotte,  A 'us tr tans  defeated.  Lose  3500 
men  (2000  prisoners},  5  guns,  and  4  stand  of  colours. 

April  l^th. — Battle  of  Millesimo,  Austrians  and  Sardinians  defeated. 
Lose  over  6000  prisoners,  2  generals,  4500  killed  and  wounded,  32  guns, 
and  I  5  stand  of  colours.  Lannes  made  Colonel  on  the  battlefield. 

April  I  5/^. — Battle  of  D  ego,  the  allies  defeated  and  separated. 

April  22nd. — Battle  of  Mondovi,  Sardinians  defeated.  Lose  3000 
men,  8  guns,  10  stand  of  colours. 

No.  6. 

CarrUj  April  2^th. 

To  My  Sweet  Love. — My  brother  will  remit  you  this  letter. 
I  have  for  him  the  most  lively  affection.  I  trust  he  will  obtain 
yours  ;  he  merits  it.  Nature  has  endowed  him  with  a  gentle, 
even,  and  unalterably  good  disposition  ;  he  is  made  up  of  good 
qualities.  I  am  writing  Barras  to  help  him  to  the  Consulate  of 
some  Italian  port.  He  wishes  to  live  with  his  little  wife  far 
from  the  great  whirlwind,  and  from  great  events.  I  recommend 
him  to  you.  I  have  received  your  letters  of  (April)  the  fifth 
and  tenth.  You  have  been  several  days  without  writing  me. 


What  are  you  doing  then  ?  Yes,  my  kind,  kind  love,  I  am 
not  jealous,  but  sometimes  uneasy.  Come  soon.  I  warn  you,  if 
you  tarry  you  will  find  me  ill ;  fatigue  and  your  absence  are  too 
much  for  me  at  the  same  time. 

Your  letters  make  up  my  daily  pleasure,  and  my  happy  days 
are  not  often.  Junot  bears  to  Paris  twenty-two  flags.  You  ought 
to  return  with  him,  do  you  understand  ?  Be  ready,  if  that  is»not 
disagreeable  to  you.  Should  he  not  come,  woe  without  remedy  ; 
should  he  come  back  to  me  alone,  grief  without  consolation,  con- 
stant anxiety.  My  Beloved,  he  will  see  you,  he  will  breathe  on 
your  temples;  perhaps  you  will  accord  him  the  unique  and  priceless 
favour  of  kissing  your  cheek,  and  I,  I  shall  be  alone  and  very 
far  away  ;  but  you  are  about  to  come,  are  you  not  ?  You  will 
soon  be  beside  me,  on  my  breast,  in  my  arms,  over  your  mouth. 
Take  wings,  come  quickly,  but  travel  gently.  The  route  is 
long,  bad,  fatiguing.  If  you  should  be  overturned  or  be  taken 
ill,  if  fatigue — go  gently,  my  beloved. 

I  have  received  a  letter  from  Hortense.  She  is  entirely  lovable. 
I  am  going  to  write  to  her.  I  love  her  much,  and  I  will  soon 
send  her  the  perfumes  that  she  wants.  N.  B. 

I  know  not  if  you  want  money,  for  you  never  speak  to  me 
of  business.  If  you  do,  will  you  ask  my  brother  for  it — he  has 
2OO  louis  of  mine  !  If  you  want  a  place  for  any  one  you  can 
send  him  ;  I  will  give  him  one.  Chateau  Renard  may  come  too. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte,  &c. 

April  28th. — Armistice  of  Cherasco  (submission  of  Sardinia  to  France)  : 
peace  signed  May  1 5  th. 

May  Jth. — Bonaparte  passed  the  Po  at  Placentia,  and  attacks  Beaulieu, 
•who  has  40,000  Austrian*. 

May  8th. — Austrians  defeated  at  Fombio.  Lose  2500  prisoners,  guns, 
and  3  standards.  Skirmish  of  Codogno — death  of  General  La  Harpe. 


May  gth. — Capitulation  of  Parma  by  the  Grand  Duke,  who  pays 
ransom  of  1.  million  francs,  1600  artillery  horses,  food,  and  2O  paintings. 

May  loth. — Passage  of  Bridge  of  Lodi,  Austrians  lose  2OOO  men 
and  20  cannon. 

May  lOfth. — Bonaparte  was  requested  to  divide  his  command,  and 
thereupon  tendered  his  resignation. 

May  I  5//». — Bonaparte  enters  Milan.  Lombardy  pays  ransom  of  2O 
million  francs  ;  and  the  Duke  of  Modena  IO  millions,  and  2O  pictures. 

May  24/^-25/^1. — Revolt  of  Lombardy,  and  punishment  of  Pavia  by  the 

May  3  0/^-3 1  st. — Bonaparte  defeats  Beaulieu  at  Borghetto,  crosses 
the  Mincio,  and  makes  French  cavalry  Jight  (a  new  feature  for  the  Re- 
publican troops}. 

June  ^rd. — Occupies  Verona,  and  secures  the  line  of  the  Adige. 

June  ^th. — Battle  of  Altenkirchen  (Franconia)  won  by  Jourdan. 

June  $th. — Armistice  with  Naples.  Their  troops  secede  from  the 
Austrian  army. 

No.  7. 

Tortona,  Noon^  June  i$th. 

My  life  is  a  perpetual  nightmare.  A  presentiment  of  ill 
oppresses  me.  I  see  you  no  longer.  I  have  lost  more  than 
life,  more  than  happiness,  more  than  my  rest.  I  am  almost 
without  hope.  I  hasten  to  send  a  courier  to  you.  He  will  stay 
only  four  hours  in  Paris,  and  then  bring  me  your  reply.  Write 
me  ten  pages.  That  alone  can  console  me  a  little.  You  are  ill, 
you  love  me,  I  have  made  you  unhappy,  you  are  in  delicate 
health,  and  I  do  not  see  you  ! — that  thought  overwhelms  me.  I 
have  done  you  so  much  wrong  that  I  know  not  how  to  atone  for 
it ;  I  accuse  you  of  staying  in  Paris,  and  you  were  ill  there.  For- 
give me,  my  dear  ;  the  love  with  which  you  have  inspired  me  has 
bereft  me  of  reason.  I  shall  never  find  it  again.  It  is  an  ill  for 
which  there  is  no  cure.  My  presentiments  are  so  ominous  that  I 
would  confine  myself  to  merely  seeing  you,  to  pressing  you  for 
two  hours  to  my  heart — and  then  dying  with  you.  Who  looks 


after  you  ?  I  expect  you  have  sent  for  Hortense.  I  love  that 
sweet  child  a  thousand  times  more  when  I  think  she  can  console 
you  a  little,  though  for  me  there  is  neither  consolation  nor  repose, 
nor  hope  until  the  courier  that  I  have  sent  comes  back  ;  and 
until,  in  a  long  letter,  you  explain  to  me  what  is  the  nature  of 
your  illness,  and  to  what  extent  it  is  serious  ;  if  it  be  dangerous,  I 
warn  you,  I  start  at  once  for  Paris.  My  coming  shall  coincide 
with  your  illness.  I  have  always  been  fortunate,  never  has  my 
destiny  resisted  my  will,  and  to-day  I  am  hurt  in  what  touches 
me  solely  (uniquement}.  Josephine,  how  can  you  remain  so  long 
without  writing  to  me  ;  your  last  laconic  letter  is  dated  May  22. 
Moreover,  it  is  a  distressing  one  for  me,  but  I  always  keep  it  in  my 
pocket ;  your  portrait  and  letters  are  perpetually  before  my  eyes. 

I  am  nothing  without  you.  I  scarcely  imagine  how  I  existed 
without  knowing  you.  Ah  !  Josephine,  had  you  known  my 
heart  would  you  have  waited  from  May  i8th  to  June  4th  before 
starting  ?  Would  you  have  given  an  ear  to  perfidious  friends 
who  are  perhaps  desirous  of  keeping  you  away  from  me  ?  I 
openly  avow  it  to  every  one,  I  hate  everybody  who  is  near  you. 
I  expected  you  to  set  out  on  May  24th,  and  arrive  on  June  3rd. 

Josephine,  if  you  love  me,  if  you  realise  how  everything 
depends  on  your  health,  take  care  of  yourself.  I  dare  not 
tell  you  not  to  undertake  so  long  a  journey,  and  that,  too,  in  the 
hot  weather.  At  least,  if  you  are  fit  to  make  it,  come  by  short 
stages ;  write  me  at  every  sleeping-place,  and  despatch  your 
letters  in  advance. 

All  my  thoughts  are  concentrated  in  thy  boudoir,  in  thy  bed, 
on  thy  heart.  Thy  illness  ! — that  is  what  occupies  me  night  and 
day.  Without  appetite,  without  sleep,  without  care  for  my 
friends,  for  glory,  for  fatherland,  you,  you  alone — the  rest  of  the 
world  exists  no  more  for  me  than  if  it  were  annihilated.  I  prize 
honour  since  you  prize  it,  I  prize  victory  since  it  pleases  you  ; 
without  that  I  should  leave  everything  in  order  to  fling  myself  at 
your  feet. 


Sometimes  I  tell  myself  that  I  alarm  myself  unnecessarily  ; 
that  even  now  she  is  better,  that  she  is  starting,  has  started,  is 
perhaps  already  at  Lyons.  Vain  fancies  !  you  are  in  bed  suffer- 
ing, more  beautiful,  more  interesting,  more  lovable.  You  are 
pale  and  your  eyes  are  more  languishing,  but  when  will  you  be 
cured  ?  If  one  of  us  ought  to  be  ill  it  is  I — more  robust, 
more  courageous  ;  I  should  support  illness  more  easily.  Destiny 
is  cruel,  it  strikes  at  me  through  you. 

What  consoles  me  sometimes  is  to  think  that  it  is  in  the  power 
of  destiny  to  make  you  ill ;  but  it  is  in  the  power  of  no  one  to 
make  me  survive  you. 

In  your  letter,  dear,  be  sure  to  tell  me  that  you  are  convinced 
that  I  love  you  more  than  it  is  possible  to  imagine  ;  that  you  are 
persuaded  that  all  my  moments  are  consecrated  to  you  ;  that  to 
think  of  any  other  woman  has  never  entered  my  head — they  are 
all  in  my  eyes  without  grace,  wit,  or  beauty  ;  that  you,  you  alone, 
such  as  I  see  you,  such  as  you  are,  can  please  me,  and  absorb  all 
the  faculties  of  my  mind  ;  that  you  have  traversed  its  whole 
extent ;  that  my  heart  has  no  recess  into  which  you  have  not 
seen,  no  thoughts  which  are  not  subordinate  to  yours  ;  that  my 
strength,  my  prowess,  my  spirit  are  all  yours  ;  that  my  soul  is  in 
your  body  ;  and  that  the  day  on  which  you  change  or  cease  to  live 
will  be  my  death-day  ;  that  Nature,  that  Earth,  is  beautiful  only 
because  you  dwell  therein.  If  you  do  not  believe  all  this,  if  your 
soul  is  not  convinced,  penetrated  by  it,  you  grieve  me,  you  do  not 
love  me — there  is  a  magnetic  fluid  between  people  who  love  one 
another — you  know  perfectly  well  that  I  could  not  brook  a  rival, 
much  less  offer  you  one.1  To  tear  out  his  heart  and  to  see  him 
would  be  for  me  one  and  the  same  thing,  and  then  if  I  were  to 
carry  my  hands  against  your  sacred  person — no,  I  should  never 
dare  to  do  it ;  but  I  would  quit  a  life  in  which  the  most  virtuous 
of  women  had  deceived  me. 

1  So  Tennant  (fen  offrir  un) :  but  Baron  Feuillet  de  Conches,  an  expert  in 
Napoleonic  graphology,  renders  the  expression  fen  souffrir  ««, 


But  I  am  sure  and  proud  of  your  love  ;  misfortunes  are  the 
trials  which  reveal  to  each  mutually  the  whole  force  of  our 
passion.  A  child  as  charming  as  its  mamma  will  soon  see  the 
daylight,  and  will  pass  many  years  in  your  arms.  Hapless  me  ! 
I  would  be  happy  with  one  day.  A  thousand  kisses  on  your  eyes, 
your  lips,  your  tongue,  your  heart.  Most  charming  of  thy  sex, 
what  is  thy  power  over  me  ?  I  am  very  sick  of  thy  sickness ;  I 
have  still  a  burning  fever  !  Do  not  keep  the  courier  more  than 
six  hours,  and  let  him  return  at  once  to  bring  me  the  longed-for 
letter  of  my  Beloved. 

Do  you  remember  my  dream,  in  which  I  was  your  boots,  your 
dress,  and  in  which  I  made  you  come  bodily  into  my  heart  ? 
Why  has  not  Nature  arranged  matters  in  this  way  ;  she  has  much 
to  do  yet.  N.  B. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte,  &c. 

June  1 8th. — Bonaparte  enters  Modena,  and  takes  50  cannon  at 

June  Itytb. — Occupies  Bologna,  and  takes  114  cannon. 

June  2^rd. — Armistice  'with  Rome.  The  Pope  to  pay  21  millions) 
IOO  rare  pictures,  200  MSS.t  and  to  close  his  ports  to  the  English. 

June  2jfth. — Desaix,  with  part  of  Moreau's  army,  forces  the  passage 
of  the  Rhine. 

No.  8. 

Pistoia,  Tuscany,  June  26th. 

For  a  month  I  have  only  received  from  my  dear  love  two 
letters  of  three  lines  each.  Is  she  so  busy,  that  writing  to  her 
dear  love  is  not  then  needful  for  her,  nor,  consequently,  thinking 


about  him  ?  To  live  without  thinking  of  Josephine  would  be 
death  and  annihilation  to  your  husband.  Your  image  gilds  my 
fancies,  and  enlivens  the  black  and  sombre  picture  of  melancholy 
and  grief.  A  day  perhaps  may  come  in  which  I  shall  see  you, 
for  I  doubt  not  you  will  be  still  at  Paris,  and  verily  on  that  day  I 
will  show  you  my  pockets  stuffed  with  letters  that  I  have  not 
sent  you  because  they  are  too  foolish  (bete}.  Yes,  that's  the 
word.  Good  heavens  !  tell  me,  you  who  know  so  well  how 
to  make  others  love  you  without  being  in  love  yourself,  do  you 
know  how  to  cure  me  of  love  ?  ?  ?  I  will  give  a  good  price  for 
that  remedy. 

You  ought  to  have  started  on  May  24th.  Being  good-natured, 
I  waited  till  June  ist,  as  if  a  pretty  woman  would  give  up  her 
habits,  her  friends,  both  Madame  Tallien  and  a  dinner  with 
Barras,  and  the  acting  of  a  new  play,  and  Fortune  ;  yes,  Fortune^ 
whom  you  love  much  more  than  your  husband,  for  whom  you 
have  only  a  little  of  the  esteem,  and  a  share  of  that  benevolence 
with  which  your  heart  abounds.  Every  day  I  count  up  your 
misdeeds.  I  lash  myself  to  fury  in  order  to  love  you  no  more. 
Bah,  don^t  I  love  you  the  more  ?  In  fact,  my  peerless  little  mother, 
I  will  tell  you  my  secret.  Set  me  at  defiance,  stay  at  Paris,  have 
lovers — let  everybody  know  it — never  write  me  a  monosyllable  ! 
then  I  shall  love  you  ten  times  more  for  it ;  and  it  is  not  folly, 
a  delirious  fever  !  and  I  shall  not  get  the  better  of  it.  Oh!  would 
to  heaven  I  could  get  better  !  but  don't  tell  me  you  are  ill,  don't 
try  to  justify  yourself.  Good  heavens  !  you  are  pardoned.  I 
love  you  to  distraction,  and  never  will  my  poor  heart  cease  to  give 
all  for  love.  If  you  did  not  love  me,  my  fate  would  be  indeed 
grotesque.  You  have  not  written  me  ;  you  are  ill,  you  do  not 
come.  But  you  have  passed  Lyons  ;  you  will  be  at  Turin  on  the 
28th,  at  Milan  on  the  3Oth,  where  you  will  wait  for  me.  You 
will  be  in  Italy,  and  I  shall  be  still  far  from  you.  Adieu,  my 
well-beloved  ;  a  kiss  on  thy  mouth,  another  on  thy  heart. 

We  have  made  peace  with  Rome — who  gives  us  money. 


To-morrow  we  shall  be  at  Leghorn,  and  as  soon  as  I  can  in  your 
arms,  at  your  feet,  on  your  bosom. 

A  la  citoyenne  Bonaparte,  &c. 

June  2Jtt>. — Leghorn  occupied  by  Murat  and  Vaubois. 
June  2gtf>. — Surrender  of  citadel  of  Milan  ;    1600  prisoners  and  150 
cannon  taken. 



"Des  1796,  lorsque,  avec  30,000  hommes,  il  fait  la  conquete 
de  1'Italie,  il  est  non-seulement  grand  general,  mais  profond 
politique." — Des  Idees  Napoleonniennes. 

"  Your  Government  has  sent  against  me  four  armies  without 
Generals,  and  this  time  a  General  without  an  army." — Napoleon  to 
the  Austrian  Plenipotentiaries,  at  Leoben. 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  zii-zz^.~) 


No.      i.   Sortie  from  Mantua           .          .          .          .          .  21 1 

No.      2.   Marmirolo      .          .          .          .          .          .          .  21 1 

fortune           .          .          .          .          .          .          .  212 

No.      3.    The  village  of  Virgil         .          .          .          .          .  212 

No.      4.   Achille 212 

No.      5.    Will-o -the-Wisp 213 

No.      6.   The  needs  of  the  army        .....  213-5 

No.      7.  Brescia           .          .          .          .          .          .          .  215 

No.      9.   /  hope  <we  shall  get  into  Trent     .          .           .          .  216 

No.    12.   One  of  these  nights  the  doors  will  be  burst  open        .  2 1 6-8 

No.    13.    Corsica  is  ours         .          .          .          .          .          .  218 

No.    14.    Verona           .          .          .          .          .          .          .  219 

No.    15.   Once  more  I  breathe  freely            .          .          .          .  220 

No.    18.   «r/k29/£" 220 

No.   2O.   General  B  rune          .          .          .          .          .           .  221 

No.   21.  February  ^rd           .          .          .          .          .          .  221 

No.   24.   Perhaps  I  shall  make  peace  with  the  Pope     .          .  222 

No.   25.   The  unlimited  power  you  hold  over  me  .          .          .  222 


No.  i. 

July  $th — Archduke  Charles  defeated  by  Moreau  at  Radstadt. 
July  6th. — Sortie  from  Mantua:   Austrian!  fairly  successful. 


Roverbella,  July  6,    1796. 

I  have  beaten  the  enemy.  Kilmaine  will  send  you  the  copy 
of  the  despatch.  I  am  tired  to  death.  Pray  start  at  once  for 
Verona.  I  need  you,  for  I  think  that  I  am  going  to  be  very  ill. 

I  send  you  a  thousand  kisses.     I  am  in  bed. 


July  gth. — Bonaparte  asks  Kelle rmann  for  reinforcements. 
July  i^th. — Frankfort  on  the  Main  captured  by  Kleber. 
July  l6th. — Sortie  from  Mantua:  Austrians  defeated. 

No.   2. 
July  17 th. — Attempted  coup  de  main  at  Mantua:  French  unsuccessful. 


Marmirolo,  July   17,   1796,  9  P.M. 

I  got  your  letter,  my  beloved  ;  it  has  filled  my  heart  with  joy. 
I  am  grateful  to  you  for  the  trouble  you  have  taken  to  send  me 
news  ;  your  health  should  be  better  to-day — I  am  sure  you  are 
cured.  I  urge  you  strongly  to  ride,  which  cannot  fail  to  do  you 

Ever  since  I  left  you,  I  have  been  sad.     I  am  only  happy 

when  by  your  side.     Ceaselessly  I  recall  your  kisses,  your  tears, 



your  enchanting  jealousy  ;  and  the  charms  of  the  incomparable 
Josephine  keep  constantly  alight  a  bright  and  burning  flame  in 
my  heart  and  senses.  When,  free  from  every  worry,  from  all 
business,  shall  I  spend  all  my  moments  by  your  side,  to  have 
nothing  to  do  but  to  love  you,  and  to  prove  it  to  you  ?  I  shall 
send  your  horse,  but  I  am  hoping  that  you  will  soon  be  able  to 
rejoin  me.  I  thought  I  loved  you  some  days  ago  ;  but,  since  I 
saw  you,  I  feel  that  I  love  you  even  a  thousand  times  more. 
Ever  since  I  have  known  you,  I  worship  you  more  every  day ; 
which  proves  how  false  is  the  maxim  of  La  Bruyere  that  "  Love 
comes  all  at  once."  Everything  in  nature  has  a  regular  course, 
and  different  degrees  of  growth.  Ah  !  pray  let  me  see  some  of 
your  faults  ;  be  less  beautiful,  less  gracious,  less  tender,  and, 
especially,  less  kind;  above  all  never  be  jealous,  never  weep; 
your  tears  madden  me,  fire  my  blood.  Be  sure  that  it  is  no 
longer  possible  for  me  to  have  a  thought  except  for  you,  or  an 
idea  of  which  you  shall  not  be  the  judge. 

Have  a  good  rest.  Haste  to  get  well.  Come  and  join  me, 
so  that,  at  least,  before  dying,  we  could  say — "  We  were  happy 
for  so  many  days  !  ! " 

Millions  of  kisses,  and  even  to  Fortune",  in  spite  of  his 
naughtiness.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  3. 

July  iStb. — Trenches  opened  before  Mantua. 

July  iSth — Stuttgard  occupied  by  Saint-Cyr,  who,  like  Kleber,  is 
under  Moreau. 

July  \%th. — Wurtzburg  captured  by  Klein  and  Ney  (acting  under 


Marmirolo,  July  1 8,   1796,  2  P.M. 

I  passed  the  whole  night  under  arms.  I  ought  to  have  had 
Mantua  by  a  plucky  and  fortunate  coup  j  but  the  waters  of  the 


lake  have  suddenly  fallen,  so  that  the  column  I  had  shipped  could 
not  land.  This  evening  I  shall  begin  a  new  attempt,  but  one 
that  will  not  give  such  satisfactory  results. 

I  got  a  letter  from  Eugene,  which  I  send  you.  Please  write 
for  me  to  these  charming  children  of  yours,  and  send  them  some 
trinkets.  Be  sure  to  tell  them  that  I  love  them  as  if  they  were 
my  own.  What  is  yours  or  mine  is  so  mixed  up  in  my  heart, 
that  there  is  no  difference  there. 

I  am  very  anxious  to  know  how  you  are,  what  you  are  doing  ? 
I  have  been  in  the  village  of  Virgil,  on  the  banks  of  the  lake,  by 
the  silvery  light  of  the  moon,  and  not  a  moment  without  dream- 
ing of  Josephine. 

The  enemy  made  a  general  sortie  on  June  i6th;  it  has 
killed  or  wounded  two  hundred  of  our  men,  but  lost  five  hundred 
of  its  own  in  a  precipitous  retreat. 

I  am  well.  I  am  Josephine's  entirely,  and  I  have  no  pleasure 
or  happiness  except  in  her  society. 

Three  Neapolitan  regiments  have  arrived  at  Brescia  ;  they  have 
sundered  themselves  from  the  Austrian  army,  in  consequence  of 
the  convention  I  have  concluded  with  M.  Pignatelli. 

I've  lost  my  snuff-box  ;  please  choose  me  another,  rather  flat- 
shaped,  and  write  something  pretty  inside,  with  your  own  hair. 

A  thousand  kisses  as  burning  as  you  are  cold.  Boundless 
love,  and  fidelity  up  to  every  proof.  Before  Joseph  starts,  I  wish 
to  speak  to  him.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  4. 

Marmirolo,  July  19,  1796. 

I  have  been  without  letters  from  you  for  two  days.  That  is 
at  least  the  thirtieth  time  to-day  that  I  have  made  this  observation 
to  myself ;  you  are  thinking  this  particularly  wearisome  ;  yet  you 


cannot  doubt  the  tender  and  unique  anxiety  with  which  you 
inspire  me. 

We  attacked  Mantua  yesterday.  We  warmed  it  up  from 
two  batteries  with  red-hot  shot  and  from  mortars.  All  night 
long  that  wretched  town  has  been  on  fire.  The  sight  was 
horrible  and  majestic.  We  have  secured  several  of  the  out- 
works ;  we  open  the  first  parallel  to-night.  To-morrow  I  start 
for  Castiglione  with  the  Staff,  and  I  reckon  on  sleeping  there.  I 
have  received  a  courier  from  Paris.  There  were  two  letters  for 
you  ;  I  have  read  them.  But  though  this  action  appears  to  me 
quite  natural,  and  though  you  gave  me  permission  to  do  so  the 
other  day,  I  fear  you  may  be  vexed,  and  that  is  a  great  trouble  to 
me.  I  should  have  liked  to  have  sealed  them  up  again  :  fie  !  that 
would  have  been  atrocious.  If  I  am  to  blame,  I  beg  your  for- 
giveness. I  swear  that  it  is  not  because  I  am  jealous  ;  assuredly 
not.  I  have  too  high  an  opinion  of  my  beloved  for  that.  I 
should  like  you  to  give  me  full  permission  to  read  your  letters, 
then  there  would  be  no  longer  either  remorse  or  apprehension. 

Achille  has  just  ridden  post  from  Milan  ;  no  letters  from  my 
beloved  !  Adieu,  my  unique  joy.  When  will  you  be  able  to 
rejoin  me  ?  I  shall  have  to  fetch  you  myself  from  Milan. 

A  thousand  kisses  as  fiery  as  my  soul,  as  chaste  as  yourself. 

I  have  summoned  the  courier ;  he  tells  me  that  he  crossed 
over  to  your  house,  and  that  you  told  him  you  had  no  commands. 
Fie  !  naughty,  undutiful,  cruel,  tyrannous,  jolly  little  monster. 
You  laugh  at  my  threats,  at  my  infatuation  ;  ah,  you  well  know 
that  if  I  could  shut  you  up  in  my  breast,  I  would  put  you  in 
prison  there  ! 

Tell  me  you  are  cheerful,  in  good  health,  and  very  affec- 
tionate. BONAPARTE. 


No.  5. 

Castig!ioney  July  21,  1796,  8  A.M. 

I  am  hoping  that  when  I  arrive  to-night  I  shall  get  one  of 
your  letters.  You  know,  my  dear  Josephine,  the  pleasure  they 
give  me  ;  and  I  am  sure  you  have  pleasure  in  writing  them.  I 

shall  start  to-night  for  Peschiera,  for  the  mountains  of ,  for 

Verona,  and  thence  I  shall  go  to  Mantua,  and  perhaps  to  Milan, 
to  receive  a  kiss,  since  you  assure  me  they  are  not  made  of  ice. 
I  hope  you  will  be  perfectly  well  by  then,  and  will  be  able  to 
accompany  me  to  headquarters,  so  that  we  may  not  part  again. 
Are  you  not  the  soul  of  my  life,  and  the  quintessence  of  my 
heart's  affections  ? 

Your  proteges  are  a  little  excitable  ;  they  are  like  the  will-o'- 
the-wisp.  How  glad  I  am  to  do  something  for  them  which  will 
please  you.  They  will  go  to  Milan.  A  little  patience  is  requisite 
in  everything. 

Adieu,  belle  et  bonne,  quite  unequalled,  quite  divine.  A  thou- 
sand loving  kisses.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  6. 

Castigtione,  July  22,  1796. 

The  needs  of  the  army  require  my  presence  hereabouts ;  it  is 
impossible  that  I  can  leave  it  to  come  to  Milan.  Five  or  six 
days  would  be  necessary,  and  during  that  time  movements  may 
occur  whereby  my  presence  here  would  be  imperative. 

You  assure  me  your  health  is  good  ;  I  beg  you  therefore  to 
come  to  Brescia.  Even  now  I  am  sending  Murat  to  prepare 
apartments  for  you  there  in  the  town,  as  you  desire. 


I  think  you  will  do  well  to  spend  the  first  night  (July  24th) 
at  Cassano,  setting  out  very  late  from  Milan  ;  and  to  arrive  at 
Brescia  on  July  25th,  where  the  most  affectionate  of  lovers 
awaits  you.  I  am  disconsolate  that  you  can  believe,  dear,  that 
my  heart  can  reveal  itself  to  others  as  to  you  ;  it  belongs  to  you 
by  right  of  conquest,  and  that  conquest  will  be  durable  and  for 
ever.  I  do  not  know  why  you  speak  of  Madame  T.,  with 
whom  I  do  not  concern  myself  in  the  slightest,  nor  with  the 
women  of  Brescia.  As  to  the  letters  which  you  are  vexed  at  my 
opening,  this  shall  be  the  last ;  your  letter  had  not  come. 

Adieu,  ma  tendre  amie,  send  me  news  often,  come  forthwith 
and  join  me,  and  be  happy  and  at  ease ;  all  goes  well,  and  my 
heart  is  yours  for  life. 

Be  sure  to  return  to  the  Adjutant-General  Miollis  the  box  of 
medals  that  he  writes  me  he  has  sent  you.  Men  have  such  false 
tongues,  and  are  so  wicked,  that  it  is  necessary  to  have  everything 
exactly  on  the  square. 

Good  health,  love,  and  a  prompt  arrival  at  Brescia. 

I  have  at  Milan  a  carriage  suitable  alike  for  town  or  country  ; 
you  can  make  use  of  it  for  the  journey.  Bring  your  plate  with 
you,  and  some  of  the  things  you  absolutely  require. 

Travel  by  easy  stages,  and  during  the  coolth,  so  as  not  to 
tire  yourself.  Troops  only  take  three  days  coming  to  Brescia. 
Travelling  post  it  is  only  a  fourteen  hours'  journey.  I  request 
you  to  sleep  on  the  24th  at  Cassano ;  I  shall  come  to  meet  you 
on  the  25th  at  latest. 

Adieu,  my  own  Josephine.     A  thousand  loving  kisses. 


July  -igth. — Advance  of  Wurmser,  by  the  Adige  valley,  on  Mantua,  and 
of  Quesdonoivich  on  Brescia,  who  drives  back  Massena  and  Sauret. 

July  $lst. — Siege  of  Mantua  raised. 

August  $rd. — Bonaparte  victorious  at  Lonato. 

August  $th. — Augereau  victorious  at  Castiglione,  completing  the  Cam- 
paign of  Five  Days,  in  which  io,OOO  prisoners  are  taken. 


August  8/A. — Verona  occupied  by  Serrurter. 

August  i$th. — (Moreau  arrives  on  the  Danube)  Wurmser  retreats 
upon  Trent)  the  capital  of  Italian  Tyrol. 

August  iSth. — Alliance,  offensive  and  defensive,  between  France  and 

September  $rcl. — Jour  dan  routed  by  Archduke  Charles  at  Wurtzburg. 

No.   7. 

Brescia,  August  30,  1796. 

Arriving,  my  beloved,  my  first  thought  is  to  write  to  you. 
Your  health,  your  sweet  face  and  form  have  not  been  absent 
a  moment  from  my  thoughts  the  whole  day.  I  shall  be  com- 
fortable only  when  I  have  got  letters  from  you.  I  await  them 
impatiently.  You  cannot  possibly  imagine  my  uneasiness.  I 
left  you  vexed,  annoyed,  and  not  well.  If  the  deepest  and 
sincerest  affection  can  make  you  happy,  you  ought  to  be.  ... 
I  am  worked  to  death. 

Adieu,  my  kind  Josephine  :  love  me,  keep  well,  and  often, 
often  think  of  me.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  8. 

Brescia,  August  31,  1796. 

I  start  at  once  for  Verona.  I  had  hoped  to  get  a  letter  from 
you  ;  and  I  am  terribly  uneasy  about  you.  You  were  rather 
ill  when  I  left ;  I  beg  you  not  to  leave  me  in  such  uneasiness. 
You  promised  me  to  be  more  regular  ;  and,  at  the  time,  your 
tongue  was  in  harmony  with  your  heart.  You,  to  whom 
nature  has  given  a  kind,  genial,  and  wholly  charming  disposi- 
tion, how  can  you  forget  the  man  who  loves  you  with  so 


much  fervour  ?  No  letters  from  you  for  three  days  ;  and  yet 
I  have  written  to  you  several  times.  To  be  parted  is  dreadful, 
the  nights  are  long,  stupid,  and  wearisome  ;  the  day's  work  is 

This  evening,  alone  with  my  thoughts,  work  and  corre- 
spondence, with  men  and  their  stupid  schemes,  I  have  not  even 
one  letter  from  you  which  I  might  press  to  my  heart. 

The  Staff  has  gone  ;  I  set  off  in  an  hour.  To-night  I  get 
an  express  from  Paris  ;  there  was  for  you  only  the  enclosed  letter, 
which  will  please  you. 

Think  of  me,  live  for  me,  be  often  with  your  well-beloved, 
and  be  sure  that  there  is  only  one  misfortune  that  he  is  afraid 
of — that  of  being  no  longer  loved  by  his  Josephine.  A  thousand 
kisses,  very  sweet,  very  affectionate,  very  exclusive. 

Send  M.  Monclas  at  once  to  Verona  ;  I  will  find  him  a 
place.  He  must  get  there  before  September  4th. 


September  1st. — Bonaparte  leaves  Verona  and  directs  his  troops  on 
Trent.  Wurmser,  reinforced  by  2O,OOO  men,  /eaves  his  right  wing  at 
Rover edo,  and  marches  via  the  Brent  a  Gorge  on  Verona. 

No.    9. 

Ala,  September  3,  1796. 

We  are  in  the  thick  of  the  fight,  my  beloved  ;  we  have 
driven  in  the  enemy's  outposts  ;  we  have  taken  eight  or  ten  of 
their  horses  with  a  like  number  of  riders.  My  troops  are  good- 
humoured  and  in  excellent  spirits.  I  hope  that  we  shall  do  great 
things,  and  get  into  Trent  by  the  fifth. 

No  letters  from  you,  which  really  makes  me  uneasy  ;  yet 
they  tell  me  you  are  well,  and  have  even  had  an  excursion  to 
Lake  Como.  Every  day  I  wait  impatiently  for  the  post  which 


will  bring  me  news  of  you — you  are  well  aware  how  I  prize  it. 
Far  from  you  I  cannot  live,  the  happiness  of  my  life  is  near  my 
gentle  Josephine.  Think  of  me  !  Write  me  often,  very  often  : 
in  absence  it  is  the  only  remedy  :  it  is  cruel,  but,  I  hope,  will  be 
only  temporary.  BONAPARTE. 

September  ^th. — Austrian  right  iving  defeated  at  Roveredo. 

September  $th. — Bonaparte  enters  Trent,  cutting  off  Wurmser  from  his 
base.  Defeats  Davidoivich  on  the  Lavis  and  leaves  Vaubois  to  contain  this 
general  'while  he  follows  Wurmser. 

September  6th. — JVurmser  continues  his  advance,  his  outposts  occupy 
Vicenza  and  Montebello. 

September  Jth. — Combat  of  Primolano  :  Austrlans  defeated.  Austrian 
vanguard  attack  Verona,  but  are  repulsed  by  General  Kilmaine. 

September  8th. — Battle  of  Bassano:  Wurmser  completely  routed,  and 
retires  on  Legnago. 

No.  10. 


Montebello^  Noon,  September  IO,  1796. 

My  Dear, — The  enemy  has  lost  1 8,000  men  prisoners  ;  the 
rest  killed  or  wounded.  Wurmser,  with  a  column  of  1 500  cavalry, 
and  500  infantry,  has  no  resource  but  to  throw  himself  into 

Never  have  we  had  successes  so  unvarying  and  so  great. 
Italy,  Friuli,  the  Tyrol,  are  assured  to  the  Republic.  The 
Emperor  will  have  to  create  a  second  army  :  artillery,  pontoons, 
baggage,  everything  is  taken. 

In  a  few  days  we  shall  meet ;  it  is  the  sweetest  reward  for 
my  labours  and  anxieties. 

A  thousand  fervent  and  very  affectionate  kisses. 


September  llth. — Skirmish  at  Cerea  :  Austrians  successful.      Bonaparte 
arrives  alone,  and  is  nearly  captured. 


No.  ii. 

Ronco,  September  12,  1796,  IO  A.M. 

My  dear  Josephine, — I  have  been  here  two  days,  badly  lodged, 
badly  fed,  and  very  cross  at  being  so  far  from  you. 

Wurmser  is  hemmed  in,  he  has  with  him  3000  cavalry  and 
5000  infantry.  He  is  at  Porto-Legnago  ;  he  is  trying  to  get 
back  into  Mantua,  but  for  him  that  has  now  become  impossible. 
The  moment  this  matter  shall  be  finished  I  will  be  in  your 

I  embrace  you  a  million  times.  BONAPARTE. 

September  l^th. — Wurmser,  brushing  aside  the  few  French  who  oppose 
him,  gains  the  suburbs  of  Mantua. 

September  \^th. — Massena  attempts  a  surprise,  but  is  repulsed. 

September  I  $th. — JVurmser  makes  a  sortie  from  St.  Georges,  but  is  driven 

September  l6th. — And  at  La  Favorite,  with  like  result. 

No.  12. 


Verona,  September  17,  1796. 

My  Dear, — I  write  very  often  and  you  seldom.  You  are 
naughty,  and  undutiful ;  very  undutiful,  as  well  as  thoughtless. 
It  is  disloyal  to  deceive  a  poor  husband,  an  affectionate  lover. 
Ought  he  to  lose  his  rights  because  he  is  far  away,  up  to  the 
neck  in  business,  worries  and  anxiety.  Without  his  Josephine, 
without  the  assurance  of  her  love,  what  in  the  wide  world 
remains  for  him.  What  will  he  do  ? 


Yesterday  we  had  a  very  sanguinary  conflict ;  the  enemy 
has  lost  heavily,  and  been  completely  beaten.  We  have  taken 
from  him  the  suburbs  of  Mantua. 

Adieu,  charming  Josephine  ;  one  of  these  nights  the  door 
will  be  burst  open  with  a  bang,  as  if  by  a  jealous  husband,  and 
in  a  moment  I  shall  be  in  your  arms. 

A  thousand  affectionate  kisses.  BONAPARTE. 

October  2nd. — (Moreau  defeats  Latour  at  Biberach,  but  then  continues 
his  retreat.) 

October  Sth. — Spain  declares  war  against  England. 
October  loth. — Peace  'with  Naples  signed. 

No.  13. 

Modenay  October  17,  1796,  9  P.M. 

The  day  before  yesterday  I  was  out  the  whole  day.  Yester- 
day I  kept  my  bed.  Fever  and  a  racking  headache  both  pre- 
vented me  writing  to  my  beloved  ;  but  I  got  your  letters.  I 
have  pressed  them  to  my  heart  and  lips,  and  the  grief  of  a 
hundred  miles  of  separation  has  disappeared.  At  the  present 
moment  I  can  see  you  by  my  side,  not  capricious  and  out  of 
humour,  but  gentle,  affectionate,  with  that  mellifluent  kindness 
of  which  my  Josephine  is  the  sole  proprietor.  It  was  a  dream, 
judge  if  it  has  cured  my  fever.  Your  letters  are  as  cold  as  if  you 
were  fifty  ;  we  might  have  been  married  fifteen  years.  One 
finds  in  them  the  friendship  and  feelings  of  that  winter  of  life. 
Fie  !  Josephine.  It  is  very  naughty,  very  unkind,  very  undutiful 
of  you.  What  more  can  you  do  to  make  me  indeed  an  object 
for  compassion  ?  Love  me  no  longer  ?  Eh,  that  is  already 
accomplished  !  Hate  me  ?  Well,  I  prefer  that  !  Everything 


grows  stale  except  ill-will ;  but  indifference,  with  its  marble 
pulse,  its  rigid  stare,  its  monotonous  demeanour  !  .  .  . 

A  thousand  thousand  very  heartfelt  kisses. 

I  am  rather  better.  I  start  to-morrow.  The  English 
evacuate  the  Mediterranean.  Corsica  is  ours.  Good  news  for 
France,  and  for  the  army.  BONAPARTE. 

October  2$th. —  (Moreau  recrosses  the  Rhine.) 

November  1st. — Advance  of  Marshal  Alvinzi.  Vaubois  defeated  by 
Davidovich  on  November  $th,  after  tiuo  days'  Jight. 

November  6th. — Napoleon  successful,  but  Vaubois'  defeat  compels  the 
French  army  to  return  to  Verona. 

No.  14. 

Verona,  November  9,  1796. 

My  Dear, — I  have  been  at  Verona  since  the  day  before 
yesterday.  Although  tired,  I  am  very  well,  very  busy  ;  and  I 
love  you  passionately  at  all  times.  I  am  just  off  on  horseback. 

I  embrace  you  a  thousand  times.  BONAPARTE. 

November  \  2th. — Combat  of  Caldiero :  Napoleon  fails  to  turn  the 
Austrian  position,  owing  to  heavy  rains.  His  position  desperate. 

November  I  $th. — First  battle  of  Arcola.      French  gain  partial  victory. 

November  i6th  and  ijth. — Second  battle  of  Arcola.  French  completely 
victorious.  "  Lodi  <was  nothing  to  Arcola"  (Bourrienne). 

November  I'jth. — Death  of  Czarina  Catherine  II.  of  Russia. 

November  iSth. — Napoleon  victoriously  re-enters  Verona  by  the  Venice 
gate,  having  left  it,  apparently  in  full  retreat,  on  the  night  of  the  i  ^th  by  the 
Milan  gate. 


No.  15. 

From  BOURRIENNE'S  "  LIFE  OF  NAPOLEON,"  vol.  i.  chap.  4. 

Verona )  November  ityth,  Noon. 

My  Adored  Josephine, — Once  more  I  breathe  freely.  Death 
is  no  longer  before  me,  and  glory  and  honour  are  once  more 
re-established.  The  enemy  is  beaten  at  Arcola.  To-morrow 
we  will  repair  Vaubois'  blunder  of  abandoning  Rivoli.  In  a 
week  Mantua  will  be  ours,  and  then  your  husband  will  clasp 
you  in  his  arms,  and  give  you  a  thousand  proofs  of  his  ardent 
affection.  I  shall  proceed  to  Milan  as  soon  as  I  can  ;  I  am  rather 
tired.  I  have  received  letters  from  Eugene  and  Hortense — 
charming  young  people.  I  will  send  them  to  you  as  soon  as 
I  find  my  belongings,  which  are  at  present  somewhat  dispersed. 

We  have  made  five  thousand  prisoners,  and  killed  at  least  six 
thousand  of  the  enemy.  Good-bye,  my  adored  Josephine.  Think 
of  me  often.  If  you  cease  to  love  your  Achilles,  if  for  him  your 
heart  grows  cold,  you  will  be  very  cruel,  very  unjust.  But  I 
am  sure  you  will  always  remain  my  faithful  mistress,  as  I  shall 
ever  remain  your  fond  lover.  Death  alone  can  break  the  chain 
which  sympathy,  love,  and  sentiment  have  forged.  Let  me  have 
news  of  your  health.  A  thousand  and  a  thousand  kisses. 

No.  1 6. 

Verona^  November  23,  1796. 

I  don't  love  you  an  atom  ;  on  the  contrary,  I  detest  you. 
You  are  a  good  for  nothing,  very  ungraceful,  very  tactless,  very 
tatterdemalion.  You  never  write  to  me  ;  you  don't  care  for 
your  husband ;  you  know  the  pleasure  your  letters  give  him,  and 
you  write  him  barely  half-a-dozen  lines,  thrown  off  any  how. 

How,  then,  do  you  spend  the  livelong  day,  madam  ?     What 


business  of  such  importance  robs  you  of  the  time  to  write  to  your 
very  kind  lover  ?  What  inclination  stifles  and  alienates  love,  the 
affectionate  and  unvarying  love  which  you  promised  me  ?  Who 
may  this  paragon  be,  this  new  lover  who  engrosses  all  your  time, 
is  master  of  your  days,  and  prevents  you  from  concerning  yourself 
about  your  husband  ?  Josephine,  be  vigilant ;  one  fine  night  the 
doors  will  be  broken  in,  and  I  shall  be  before  you. 

Truly,  my  dear,  I  am  uneasy  at  getting  no  news  from  you. 
Write  me  four  pages  immediately,  and  some  of  those  charming 
remarks  which  fill  my  heart  with  the  pleasures  of  imagination. 

I  hope  that  before  long  I  shall  clasp  you  in  my  arms,  and 
cover  you  with  a  million  kisses  as  burning  as  if  under  the  equator. 


No.  17. 

Verona,  November  24,  1796. 

I  hope  soon,  darling,  to  be  in  your  arms.  I  love  you  to 
distraction.  I  am  writing  to  Paris  by  this  courier.  All  goes 
well.  Wurmser  was  beaten  yesterday  under  Mantua.  Your 
husband  only  needs  Josephine's  love  to  be  happy. 


No.  1 8. 

Milan^  November  27,  1796,  3  P.M. 

I  get  to  Milan  ;  I  fling  myself  into  your  room ;  I  have  left 
all  in  order  to  see  you,  to  clasp  you  in  my  arms.  .  .  .  You  were 
not  there.  You  gad  about  the  towns  amid  junketings  ;  you  run 
farther  from  me  when  I  am  at  hand  ;  you  care  no  longer  for 
your  dear  Napoleon.  A  passing  fancy  made  you  love  him  ; 
fickleness  renders  him  indifferent  to  you. 

Used  to  perils,  I  know  the  remedy  for  weariness  and  the  ills 
of  life.  The  ill-luck  that  I  now  suffer  is  past  all  calculations  ;  I 
did  right  not  to  anticipate  it. 


I  shall  be  here  till  the  evening  of  the  2Qth.  Don't  alter  your 
plans  ;  have  your  fling  of  pleasure  ;  happiness  was  invented  for 
you.  The  whole  world  is  only  too  happy  if  it  can  please  you, 
and  only  your  husband  is  very,  very  unhappy. 

No.  19. 


Mi/an,  November  28,  1796,  8  P.M. 

I  have  received  the  courier  whom  Berthier  had  hurried  on  to 
Genoa.  You  have  not  had  time  to  write  me,  I  feel  it  intuitively. 
Surrounded  with  pleasures  and  pastimes,  you  would  be  wrong 
to  make  the  least  sacrifice  for  me.  Berthier  has  been  good 
enough  to  show  me  the  letter  which  you  wrote  him.  My 
intention  is  that  you  should  not  make  the  least  change  in  your 
plans,  nor  with  respect  to  the  pleasure  parties  in  your  honour ; 
I  am  of  no  consequence,  either  the  happiness  or  the  misery  of  a 
man  whom  you  don't  love  is  a  matter  of  no  moment. 

For  my  part,  to  love  you  only,  to  make  you  happy,  to  do 
nothing  which  may  vex  you,  that  is  the  object  and  goal  of 
my  life. 

Be  happy,  do  not  reproach  me,  do  not  concern  yourself  in  the 
happiness  of  a  man  who  lives  only  in  your  life,  rejoices  only  in 
your  pleasure  and  happiness.  When  I  exacted  from  you  a  love 
like  my  own  I  was  wrong ;  why  expect  lace  to  weigh  as  heavy 
as  gold  ?  When  I  sacrifice  to  you  all  my  desires,  all  my  thoughts, 
every  moment  of  my  life,  I  obey  the  sway  which  your  charms, 
your  disposition,  and  your  whole  personality  have  so  effectively 
exerted  over  my  unfortunate  heart.  I  was  wrong,  since  nature 
has  not  given  me  attractions  with  which  to  captivate  you  ;  but 
what  I  do  deserve  from  Josephine  is  her  regard  and  esteem,  for  I 
love  her  frantically  and  uniquely. 

Farewell,  beloved  wife ;  farewell,  my  Josephine.  May  fate 
concentrate  in  my  breast  all  the  griefs  and  troubles,  but  may  it 



give  Josephine  happy  and  prosperous  days.  Who  deserves  them 
more  ?  When  it  shall  be  quite  settled  that  she  can  love  me  no 
more,  I  will  hide  my  profound  grief,  and  will  content  myself  with 
the  power  of  being  useful  and  serviceable  to  her. 

I  reopen  my  letter  to  give  you  a  kiss  .  .  .  Ah  !  Josephine  ! 
.  .  .  Josephine  !  BONAPARTE. 

December  2^th. — French  under  Hoche  sail  for  Ireland  ;  return  "  foiled 
by  the  elements." 

January  *]th,  1797- — Alvinzi  begins  his  ne<w  attack  on  Rivoli,  'while 
Provera  tries  to  get  to  Mantua  with  I  I,OOO  men  via  Padua  and  Legnago. 
Alvinzi' s  total  forces  48,000,  but  only  28,000  at  Rivoli  against  Bonaparte's 

January  gth. — Kehl  (after  48  days'  siege)  surrenders  to  Archduke 

January  lOth. — Napoleon  at  Bologna  advised  of  the  advance,  and 
hastens  to  make  Verona,  as  before,  the  pivot  of  his  movements. 

No.   2O. 
January  12th. —  Combat  of  St.  Michel:   Massena  defeats  Austrlans. 


Ferona^  January   12,   1797. 

Scarcely  set  out  from  Roverbella,  I  learnt  that  the  enemy  had 
appeared  at  Verona.  Massena  made  some  dispositions,  which 
have  been  very  successful.  We  have  made  six  hundred  prisoners, 
and  have  taken  three  pieces  of  cannon.  General  Brune  got  seven 
bullets  in  his  clothes,  without  being  touched  by  one  of  them — 
this  is  what  it  is  to  be  lucky. 

I  give  you  a  thousand  kisses.  I  am  very  well.  We  have  had 
only  ten  men  killed,  and  a  hundred  wounded. 


January   iyh. — Joubert  attacked  ;  retires  from  Corona  on  Rivoli  in  the 
morning,  joined  by  Bonaparte  at  night. 

January  i^h. — Battle  of  Rivoli:  Austrian  centre  defeated.     Bonaparte 


at  close  of  day  hurries  off  •with  Massena  s  troops  to  overtake  Provera, 
marching  sixteen  leagues  during  the  night.  Massena  named  next  day  enfant 
cheri  de  la  victoire  by  Bonaparte,  and  later  Due  de  Rivoli. 

January  i$th. — Joubert  continues  battle  of  Rivoli :  complete  defeat  of 
Austnans.  Provera,  however,  has  reached  St.  Georges,  outside  Mantua. 

January  i6th. — Sortie  of  Wurmser  at  La  Favorite  repulsed.  Provera, 
hurled  back  by  Victor  (named  the  Terrible  on  this  day},  is  surrounded  by 
skilful  manauvres  of  Bonaparte,  and  surrenders  'with  6000  men.  In  three 
days  Bonaparte  had  taken  1 8,OOO  prisoners  and  all  Alvinzf  s  artillery. 
Colonel  Graham  gives  Austrian  losses  at  14,000  to  15,000,  exclusive  of 
P  rover  a' s  6000. 

January  26th. — Combat  of  Carpenedolo  :   Massena  defeats  the  Austrians. 

February  2nd. — Joubert  occupies  Laivis.  Capitulation  of  Mantua, 
by  Wurmser,  'with  13,000  men  (ana1 6000  in  hospital},  but  he,  his  staff",  and 
200  cavalry  allowed  to  return.  Enormous  capture  of  artillery,  including 
siege-train  abandoned  by  Bonaparte  before  the  battle  of  Castiglione.  Advance 
of  Victor  on  Rome. 

No.   21. 


Fortiy  February  3,  1797. 

I  wrote  you  this  morning.  I  start  to-night.  Our  forces  are 
at  Rimini.  This  country  is  beginning  to  be  tranquillised.  My 
cold  makes  me  always  rather  tired. 

I  idolise  you,  and  send  you  a  thousand  kisses. 

A  thousand  kind  messages  to  my  sister. 


February  gth. — Capture  of  Ancona. 

No.   22. 


Ancona,  February  IO,   1797. 

We  have  been  at  Ancona  these  two  days.  We  took  the 
citadel,  after  a  slight  fusillade,  and  by  a  coup  de  main.  We  made 
1 200  prisoners.  I  sent  back  the  fifty  officers  to  their  homes. 


I  am  still  at  Ancona.  I  do  not  press  you  to  come,  because 
everything  is  not  yet  settled,  but  in  a  few  days  I  am  hoping  that 
it  will  be.  Besides,  this  country  is  still  discontented,  and  every- 
body is  nervous. 

I  start  to-morrow  for  the  mountains.  You  don't  write  to  me 
at  all,  yet  you  ought  to  let  me  have  news  of  you  every  day. 

Please  go  out  every  day  ;  it  will  do  you  good. 

I  send  you  a  million  kisses.  I  never  was  so  sick  of  anything 
as  of  this  vile  war. 

Good-bye,  my  darling.     Think  of  me  !  BONAPARTE. 

No.  23. 

Ancona^  February   13,   1797. 

I  get  no  news  from  you,  and  I  feel  sure  that  you  no  longer 
love  me.  I  have  sent  you  the  papers,  and  various  letters.  I  start 
immediately  to  cross  the  mountains.  The  moment  that  I  know 
something  definite,  I  will  arrange  for  you  to  accompany  me  ;  it 
is  the  dearest  wish  of  my  heart. 

A  thousand  and  a  thousand  kisses.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  24. 

February  16,   1797. 

You  are  melancholy,  you  are  ill ;  you  no  longer  write  to  me, 
you  want  to  go  back  to  Paris.  Is  it  possible  that  you  no  longer 
love  your  comrade  ?  The  very  thought  makes  me  wretched. 
My  darling,  life  is  unbearable  to  me  now  that  I  am  aware  of 
your  melancholy. 

I  make  haste  to  send  you  Moscati,  so  that  he  may  look  after 
you.  My  health  is  rather  bad  ;  my  cold  gets  no  better.  Please 


take  care  of  yourself,  love  me  as  much  as  I  love  you,  and  write 
me  every  day.  I  am  more  uneasy  than  ever. 

I  have  told  Moscati  to  escort  you  to  Ancona,  if  you  care  to 
come  there.  I  will  write  to  you  there,  to  let  you  know  where 
I  am. 

Perhaps  I  shall  make  peace  with  the  Pope,  then  I  shall 
soon  be  by  your  side  ;  it  is  my  soul's  most  ardent  wish. 

I  send  you  a  hundred  kisses.  Be  sure  that  nothing  equals  my 
love,  unless  it  be  my  uneasiness.  Write  to  me  every  day  your- 
self. Good-bye,  dearest.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  25. 

February  ityth. — Peace  of  Tolentino  with  the  Pope,  who  has  to  pay  for 
his  equivocal  attitude  and  broken  treaty. 


TolentinO)  February  19,  1797. 

Peace  with  Rome  has  just  been  signed.  Bologna,  Ferrara, 
Romagna,  are  ceded  to  the  Republic.  The  Pope  is  to  pay  us 
thirty  millions  shortly,  and  various  works  of  art. 

I  start  to-morrow  morning  for  Ancona,  and  thence  for 
Rimini,  Ravenna,  and  Bologna.  If  your  health  permit,  come 
to  Rimini  or  Ravenna,  but,  I  beseech  you,  take  care  of  yourself. 

Not  a  word  from  you — what  on  earth  have  I  done  ?  To 
think  only  of  you,  to  love  only  Josephine,  to  live  only  for  my 
wife,  to  enjoy  happiness  only  with  my  dear  one — does  this 
deserve  such  harsh  treatment  from  her  ?  My  dear,  I  beg  you, 
think  often  of  me,  and  write  me  every  day. 

You  are  ill,  or  else  you  do  not  love  me  !  Do  you  think,  then, 
that  I  have  a  heart  of  stone  ?  and  do  my  sufferings  concern  you 
so  little  ?  You  must  know  me  very  ill  !  I  cannot  believe  it ! 
You  to  whom  nature  has  given  intelligence,  tenderness,  and 


beauty,  you  who  alone  can  rule  my  heart,  you  who  doubtless 
know  only  too  well  the  unlimited  power  you  hold  over  me  ! 

Write  to  me,  think  of  me,  and  love  me. — Yours  ever,  for 
life.  BONAPARTE. 

March  l6th. — Bonaparte  defeats  Archduke  Charles  on  the  Tagliamento. 

March  2$th. — Bonaparte  'writes  the  Directory  from  Gontz  that  "up 
till  now  Prince  Charles  has  manoeuvred  'worse  than  Beaulieu  and  Wurmser" 

March  2gtb. — Klagenfurt  taken  by  Massena. 

April  1st. — Laybach  by  Bernadotte. 

April  1 7/A. — Preliminaries  of  peace  at  Leoben  signed  by  Bonaparte. 

April  i8tf>. — Hoche  crosses  the  Rhine  at  Neuwied. 

April  2ist. — Moreau  at  Kehl. 

April  2$rd. — Armistice  of  two  Rhine  armies  follows  preliminaries  of 

May  i6th. — Augereau  enters  Venice. 

June  28th. — French  capture  Corfu,  and  600  guns. 

July  8tb. — Death  of  Edmund  Burke,  aged  sixty-eight. 

July  iSth. — Talleyrand  becomes  French  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs. 

September  tfh. — Day  of  1 8th  Fructidor  at  Paris.  Coup  d'Etat  of 
Rewbell,  Larevelliere-Lepeaux,  and  B arras,  secretly  aided  by  Bonaparte,  who 
has  sent  them  Augereau  to  command  Paris. 

September  i8/A. — Death  of  Lazare  Hoche,  aged  twenty-nine,  probably 
poisoned  by  the  Directory,  "which  has  recalled  Moreau,  retired  Bernadotte, 
and  'will  soon  launch  Bonaparte  on  the  seas,  so  that  he  may  find  failure  and 
Bantry  Bay  at  Aboukir  (Montgaillard). 

September  ^oth. — National  bankruptcy  admitted  in  France,  the  sixth 
time  in  t<wo  centuries. 

October  17 th. — Treaty  of  Campo-Formio  ;  Bonaparte  called  thereupon  by 
Talleyrand  "  General  Pacificator." 

November  i6th. — Death  of  Frederick  William  II.,  King  of  Prussia, 
aged  fifty -three  ;  succeeded  by  his  son,  Frederick  William  III.,  aged  twenty- 

December  1st. — Bonaparte  Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  Congress  of 
Rastadt,  and 

December  $th. — Arrives  at  Paris. 

December  loth. — Bonaparte  presented  to  the  Directory  by  Talleyrand. 

December  2'jth. — Riots  at  Rome:  Joseph  Bonaparte  (ambassador} 
insulted  ;  General  Duphot  (engaged  to  Joseph's  sister-in-law,  Desire  e} 




^rd  Outlaw.  "  By  the  bare  scalp  of  Robin  Hood's  fat  friar, 
This  fellow  were  a  king  for  our  wild  faction  ! 
ist  Out/aw.    "  We'll  have  him  ;  sirs,  a  word. 
Speed.  "  Master,  be  one  of  them, 

It  is  an  honourable  kind  of  thievery." 

The  Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona, 
Act  iv.,  Scene  i. 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  223-215.) 


Christmas  Day,  1799  •         •         •         •         .223 

No.  3.  Ivrea,  May  29th  ......     224 

M.'s 224 

Cherries      .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .224 

No.  4.   Milan          ,          .          .          .          .          .          .          .224 


EVENTS  OF  1798. 

NAPOLEONIC  HISTORY. — May  2Oth. — Napoleon  sails  from  Toulon  for 

June  llth. — Takes  Malta;  sails  for  Egypt  [June  2Oth). 

July  4/A. — Captures  Alexandria. 

July  21  st. — Defeats  Mamelukes  at  Battle  of  the  Pyramids,  and  enters 
Cairo  the  following  day. 

August  1st. — French  fleet  destroyed  by  Nelson  at  the  Battle  of  the  Nile. 

October  Jth. — Desaix  defeats  M  our  ad  Bey  at  Sedyman  (Upper  Egypt). 

GENERAL  HISTORY.  —  January  ^th.  —  Confiscation  of  all  English 
merchandise  in  France.  Commencement  of  Continental  system. 

January  $th. — Directory  fail  to  float  a  loan  of  80  millions  (francs),  and 

January  2&th. — Forthwith  invade  Switzerland,  ostensibly  to  defend 
the  Vaudois,  under  a  sixteenth- century  treaty,  really  to  revolutionise  the 
country,  and  seize  upon  the  treasure  of  Berne. 

February  i$th. — Republic  proclaimed  at  Rome.  French  occupy 
the  Vatican,  and 

February  2Oth. — Drive  Pope  Pius  VI.  into  exile  to  the  convent  of 

March  $th.—  Capture  of  Berne  by  General  Brune. 

April  i$th. — Bernadotte,  ambassador,  attacked  at  the  French  Em- 
bassy in  Vienna. 

May  igth. — Fitzgerald,  a  leader  in  the  Irish  rebellion,  arrested. 

August  22nd. — General  Humbert  and  1 100  French  troops  land  at 
Killala,  County  Mayo. 

September  8th. — Humbert  and  800  men  taken  by  Lord  Cornwallis  at 

September  1 2th. — Turkey  declares  war  with  France,  and  forms 
alliance  with  England  and  Russia. 

November  igth. — Wolfe-Tone  commits  suicide. 

December  $th. — Macdonald  defeats  Mack  and  40,000  Neapolitans  at 
Civita  Castellana. 



December  qth. — Joubert  occupies  Turin. 
December  l$th. — French  occupy  Rome. 

December  2yth. — Coalition  of  Russia,  Austria,  and  England  against 

EVENTS  OF  1799. 

NAPOLEONIC  HISTORY. — January  2^rd. — Desaix  defeats  Mourad  Bey 
at  Samhoud  (Upper  Egypt}.  February  $rd. — Desaix  defeats  Mourad  Bey 
at  the  Isle  of  Philae  (near  Assouan} — -furthest  limit  of  the  Roman  Empire. 
Napoleon  crosses  Syrian  desert  and  takes  El  Arish  (February  2Oth}  and 
Gaza  (February  2$th),  captures  Jaffa  (March  "]th}  and  Sour ,  formerly 
Tyre  (April  $rd).  Junot  defeats  Turks  and  Arabs  at  Nazareth  {April 
8 /A),  and  Kleber  defeats  them  at  Mount  Tabor  {April  l6th}.  Napoleon 
invests  Acre  but  retires  (May  2 1st),  re-enters  Cairo  (June  l-f/A),  annihilates 
Turkish  army  at  Aboukir  (July  2$th)  ;  secretly  sails  for  France  (August 
2$rd),  lands  at  Frejus  (October  <)th),  arrives  at  Paris  (October  13^); 
dissolves  the  Directory  {November  qth)  and  Council  of  Five  Hundred 
(November  IO//>),  and  is  proclaimed  First  Consul  (December  24^). 

GENERAL  HISTORY. — January  loth. — Championnet  occupies  Capua. 

January  2Oth. — Pacification  of  La  Vendee  by  General  Hedouville. 

January  2$rd. — Championnet  occupies  Naples. 

March  ^rd. — Corfu  taken  from  the  French  by  a  Russo-Turkish 

March  ^th. — Massena  defeats  the  Austrians,  and  conquers  the  country 
of  the  Grisons. 

March  2$th. — Archduke  Charles  defeats  Jourdan  at  Stockach. 

March  $oth. — Kray  defeats  French  (under  Scherer)  near  Verona, 

April  $th. — And  again  at  Magnano. 

April  i^th. — Suwarrow  takes  command  of  Austrian  army  at  Verona; 

April  22nd. — Defeats  French  at  Cassano,  with  heavy  loss. 

April  28th. — French  plenipotentiaries,  returning  from  Radstadt,  mur- 
dered by  men  in  Austrian  uniforms — Montgaillard  thinks  by  creatures  of 
the  Directory. 

May  4/A. — Capture  of  Seringapatam  by  General  Baird. 

May  1 2th. — Austro-Russian  army  checked  at  Bassignana. 

May  \6th. — Si£yes  becomes  one  of  the  Directory. 

May  2Oth. — Suwarrow  takes  Brescia, 

May  2$th. — And  Milan  (citadel). 

June  $th. — Massena  defeated  at  Zurich  by  Archduke  Charles ;  and 
Macdonald  (June  igth}  by  Suwarrow  at  the  Trebbia. 


June  \%th. — Gohier,  Roger-Ducos,  and  Moulin  replace  Treilhard, 
Lareveillere-Lepeaux,  and  Merlin  on  the  Directory. 

June  2dth. — Turin  surrenders  to  Austro- Russians. 

June  22nd. — Turkey,  Portugal,  and  Naples  join  the  coalition  against 

July  i^th. — French  carry  their  prisoner,  Pope  Pius  VI.,  to  Valence, 
where  he  dies  (August  2gth}. 

July  22nd. — Alessandria  surrenders  to  Austro- Russians. 

July  $oth. — Mantua,  after  72  days'  siege,  surrenders  to  Kray. 

August  i  $th. — French  defeated  at  Novi  by  Suwarrow.  French  lose 
Joubert  and  20,000  men. 

August  ijtA. — French,  under  Lecombe,  force  the  St.  Gothard. 

August  27 th. — English  army  disembark  at  the  Helder. 

August  $oth. — Dutch  fleet  surrendered  to  the  British  Admiral. 

September  iqth. — Brune  defeats  Duke  of  York  at  Bergen. 

September  2$th. — Massena  defeats  allies  at  Zurich,  who  lose  16,000 
men  and  100  guns.  "Massena  saves  France  at  Zurich,  as  Villars  saved 
it  at  Denain." — Montgaillard. 

October  6th. — Brune  defeats  Duke  of  York  at  Kastrikum. 

October  1th. — French  take  Constance. 

October  i6th. — Saint-Cyr,  without  cavalry  or  cannon,  defeats  Aus- 
trians  at  Bosco. 

October  iSth. — Capitulation  at  Alkmaar  by  Duke  of  York  to  General 
Brune.  "The  son  of  George  III.  capitulates  at  Alkmaar  as  little 
honourably  as  the  son  of  George  II.  had  capitulated  at  Kloster-Seven  in 
175  7 ." — Montgaillard. 

November  $th. — Melas  defeats  French  at  Fossano. 

November  i^th. — Ancona  surrendered  to  the  Austrians  by  Monnier, 
after  a  six  months'  siege. 

November  2^th. — Moreau  made  commander  of  the  armies  of  the 
Rhine  (being  in  disgrace,  has  served  as  a  volunteer  in  Italy  most  of  this 
year)  ;  Massena  sent  to  the  army  of  Italy. 

December  $th. — Coni,  the  key  of  Piedmont,  surrenders  to  the  Austrians. 

December  i^th. — Death  of  George  Washington. 

December  \$th, — Battle  of  Montefaccio,  near  Genoa.  Saint-Cyr 
defeats  Austrians. 

EVENTS  OF  1800. 

February  nth. — Bank  of  France  constituted. 
February  2Oth. — Kleber  defeats  Turks  at  Heliopolis. 
May   $rd. — Battle   of   Engen.     Moreau   defeats    Kray,  who    loses 
10,000  men,  and — 


May  $th. — Again  defeats  Austrians  at  Moeskirch. 

May  6th. — Napoleon  leaves  Paris. 

May  8th. — Arrives  at  Auxnnne,  and  on  the  gth  at  Geneva,  from  thence 
moves  to  Lausanne  (May  1 2th),  where  he  is  delighted  with  reception  accorded 
to  the  French  t roofs,  and  hears  of  Moreau's  victory  at  Bibernach  (May 
1 1  th).  On  the  1  $th  he  hears  of  Desaix's  safe  arrival  at  Toulon  from 
Egypt,  together  'with  Davoust,  and  orders  the  praises  of  their  past  achieve- 
ments to  be  sung  in  the  Moniteur.  The  same  day  'writes  Massena  that  in 
Genoa  a  man  like  himself  (Massena)  is  worth  20,000.  On  the  l6th  is 
still  at  Lausanne. 

No.  i. 

Lausanne,  May  I5>  i8oo. 

I  have  been  at  Lausanne  since  yesterday.     I  start  to-morrow. 
My   health   is  fairly   good.      The   country  round  here    is  very 
beautiful.     I  see  no  reason   why,  in   ten   or  twelve  days,   you 
should   not  join  me  here  ;  you  must  travel  incognito,  and  not 
say  where  you  are  going,  because  I  want  no  one  to  know  what 
I  am  about  to  do.     You  can  say  you  are  going  to  Plombieres. 
I  will  send  you  Moustache,1  who  has  just  arrived. 
My  very  kindest  regards  to  Hortense.     Eugene  will  not  be 
here  for  eight  days  ;  he  is  en  route.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  2. 

Torre  di  Garofolo,  May  1 6,  1800. 

I  start  immediately  to  spend  the  night  at  Saint-Maurice.  I 
have  not  received  a  single  letter  from  you  ;  that  is  not  well. 
I  have  written  you  by  every  courier. 

Eugene  may  arrive  the  day  after  to-morrow.  I  have  rather  a 
cold,  but  it  will  have  no  ill  effects. 

My  very  kindest  regards  to  you,  my  good  little  Josephine, 
and  to  all  who  belong  to  you.  BONAPARTE. 

1  Bonaparte's  courier. 


May  I'jth—l^th. — At  Martigny,  "struggling  against  icet  snow-storms, 
and  avalanches ,"  and  astonishing  the  great  St.  Bernard  "  with  the  passage 
of  our  'pieces  of  8,'  and  especially  of  our  limbers — a  new  experience  for  it" 
On  May  2Oth  he  climbed  the  St.  Bernard  on  a  mule,  and  descended  it  on  a 
sledge.  On  May  2 1st  he  is  at  Aosta,  hoping  to  be  back  in  Paris  within  a 
fortnight.  His  army  had  passed  the  mountain  in  four  days.  On  May  2^th 
he  is  at  Ivrea,  taken  by  Lannes  on  the  2^th. 

No.  3.1 

[_From  Tennant's  Tour,  &c.,  vol.  ii.] 

II  P.M. 

I  hardly  know  which  way  to  turn.  In  an  hour  I  start  for 
Vercelli.  Murat  ought  to  be  at  Novaro  to-night.  The  enemy 
is  thoroughly  demoralised  ;  he  cannot  even  yet  understand  us. 
I  hope  within  ten  days  to  be  in  the  arms  of  my  Josephine,  who 
is  always  very  good  when  she  is  not  crying  and  not  flirting. 
Your  son  arrived  this  evening.  I  have  had  him  examined  ;  he  is 
in  excellent  health.  Accept  a  thousand  tender  thoughts.  I  have 
received  M.'s  letter.  I  will  send  her  by  the  next  courier  a  box 
of  excellent  cherries. 

We  are  here — within  two  months  for  Paris. — Yours  entirely, 

N.  B. 

To  Madame  Bonaparte.     (Address  not  in  Bonaparte's  writing.) 

June  ist. — First  experiments  with  vaccination  at  Paris,  with  fluid 
sent  from  London. 

On  June  2nd  Napoleon  enters  Milan,  where  he  spends  a  week. 

No.  4. 


I  am  at  Milan,  with  a  very  bad  cold.  I  can't  stand  rain,  and 
I  have  been  wet  to  the  skin  for  several  hours,  but  all  goes  well. 
I  don't  persuade  you  to  come  here.  I  shall  be  home  in  a  month. 

1  The  date  of  this  letter  is  May  29,  1800.    See  Notes. 


I  trust  to  find  you  flourishing.     I  am  just  starting  for  Pavia  and 
Stradella.     We  are  masters  of  Brescia,  Cremona,  and  Placentia. 
Kindest  regards.     Murat  has  borne  himself  splendidly. 

Junc$th. — Massena  gives  up  Genoa,  but  leaves  with  all  the  honours  of  war. 

June  1th. — Lannes  takes  Pavia,  350  cannon,  and  10,000  muskets. 

June  gth. — Battle  of  Montebello.  Bonaparte  defeats  Austrian*)  who 
lose  8000  men. 

June  1 4/A. — Bonaparte  'wins  Marengo,  but  loses  Desaix — "  the  man  I 
loved  and  esteemed  the  most."  In  his  bulletin  he  admits  the  battle  at  one  time 
•was  lost,  until  he  cried  to  his  troops  "  Children,  remember  it  is  my  custom  to 
sleep  upon  the  battlefield."  He  mentions  the  charges  of  Desaix  and  Keller- 
mann,  and  especially  eulogises  the  latter — a  fact  interesting  on  account  of  the 
false  statements  made  of  his  ignoring  it.  In  the  bulletin  of  June  2 1st  he 
blames  the  "  punic  faith  "  of  Lord  Keith  at  Genoa,  a  criticism  the  Admiral 
repaid  with  usury  fifteen  years  later. 

June  i^th. — Assassination  of  Kleber,  in  Egypt. 

June  l6th. — Convention  of  Alessandria  between  Bonaparte  and  Melas  ; 
end  of  the  "  Campaign  of  Thirty  Days." 

June  icjth. — Moreau  defeats  Kray  at  Hochstedt,  and  occupies  Ulm. 

June  2$rd. — Genoa  re-entered  by  the  French. 

June  26th. — Bonaparte  leaves  Massena  in  command  of  the  Army  of 
Reserve,  now  united  with  the  Army  of  Italy. 

July  yd. — The  First  Consul  is  back  in  Paris  unexpectedly — not  wishing 
triumphal  arches  or  such-like  "  colifichets"  In  spite  of  which  the  plaudits 
he  receives  are  very  dear  to  him,  "sweet  as  the  voice  of  Josephine." 

September  $th. — Vaubois  surrenders  Malta  to  the  English,  after  two 
years'  blockade. 

September  i$th. — Armistice  between  France  and  Austria  in  Germany. 

September  $Oth. — Treaty  of  Friendship  and  Commerce  between 
France  and  U.S. — agreed  that  the  flag  covers  the  goods. 

October  ^rd. — To  facilitate  peace  King  George  renounces  his  title  of 
King  of  France. 

November  12th. — Rupture  of  Armistice  between  France  and  Austria. 

December  $rd. — Moreau  wins  the  battle  of  Hohenlinden  (Austrian 
loss,  16,000  men,  80  guns;  French  3000). 

December  2Oth. — Moreau  occupies  Lintz  (lOO  miles  from  Vienna). 

December  2^th. — Royalist  conspirators  fail  to  kill  Bonaparte  with  an 
infernal  machine. 

December  2$th. — Armistice  at  Steyer  between  Moreau  and  Archduke 
Charles  (tent  for  by  the  Austrians  a  fortnight  before  as  their  last  hope). 


"  The  peace  of  Amiens  had  always  been  regarded  from  the  side 
of  England  as  an  armed  truce :  on  the  side  of  Napoleon  it  had  a 
very  different  character.  ...  A  careful  reader  must  admit  that  we 
were  guilty  of  a  breach  of  faith  in  not  surrendering  Malta.  The 
promise  of  its  surrender  was  the  principal  article  of  the  treaty." 

England  and  Napoleon  in  1803. 
(Edited  for  the  R.  Hist.  S.  by  Oscar  Browning,  1887.) 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  225-231.) 

No.  i. 

The  blister  

.     225 

Some  plants           ..... 

.      225 

If  the  weather  is  as  bad          . 

.      226 

Malmaison,  without  you 

.     228 

No.  2. 

The  fat  Eugene                .... 

.      228 

No.  3. 

Tour  letter  has  come       .... 

.      229 

Injured  'whilst  shooting  a  boar            . 

.     229 

"The  Barber  of  Seville" 

.     229 

No.  4. 

The  Sevres  Manufactory 

.      230 

No.  5. 

Tour  lover,  -who  is  tired  of  being  alone 

.     230 

General  Ney          ..... 

.      231 



l8oi   AND   I8O2. 

EVENTS  OF  1801. 

January  1st. — Legislative  Union  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

January  $rd. — French  under  Brune  occupy  Verona,  and 

January  8th. — Vicenza. 

January  nth. — Cross  the  Brenta. 

January  1 6th. — Armistice  at  Treviso  between  Brune  and  the  Austrian 
General  Bellegarde. 

February  gth. — Treaty  of  Luneville,  by  which  the  Thalweg  of  the 
Rhine  became  the  boundary  of  Germany  and  France. 

March  8th. — English  land  at  Aboukir. 

March  2ist. — Battle  of  Alexandria  (Canopus).  Menou  defeated 
by  Abercromby,  with  loss  of  2000. 

March  2^th. — The  Czar  Paul  is  assassinated. 

March  28th. — Treaty  of  Peace  between  France  and  Naples,  who 
cedes  Elba  and  Piombino. 

April  2nd. — Nelson  bombards  Copenhagen. 

May  2$rJ. — General  Baird  lands  at  Kosseir  on  the  Red  Sea  with 
1000  English  and  10,000  Sepoys. 

June  Jth. — French  evacuate  Cairo. 

July  ist. — Toussaint-Louverture  elected  Life-Governor  of  St.  Do- 
mingo. Slavery  abolished  there.  The  new  ruler  declares,  "  I  am  the 
Bonaparte  of  St.  Domingo,  and  the  Colony  cannot  exist  without  me ;  " 
and  heads  his  letters  to  the  First  Consul,  "  From  the  First  of  the  Blacks 
to  the  First  of  the  Whites." 

July  I  j/^. — Concordat  between  Bonaparte  and  the  Pope,  signed  at  Paris 
by  Bonaparte,  ratified  by  the  Pope  (August  l$th). 

August  Ofth. — Nelson  attacks  Boulogne  flotilla  and  is  repulsed. 

August  1 5/A. — Attacks  again,  and  suffers  severely. 

August  3U/. — Menou  capitulates  to  Hutchinson  at  Alexandria. 

September  2()th. — Treaty  of  Peace  between  France  and  Portugal ; 
boundaries  of  French  Guiana  extended  to  the  Amazon. 

49  D 


October  ist. — Treaty  between  France  and  Spain, who  restores  Louisiana. 
Preliminaries  of  Peace  between  France  and  England  signed  in  London. 

October  Stb. — Treaty  of  Peace  between  France  and  Russia. 

October  ()th. — And  between  France  and  Turkey. 

December  i^th. — Expedition  sent  out  to  St.  Domingo  by  the  French 
under  General  Leclerc. 

No.  i. 

Paris  the  "27"  .  .   .,  1801. 

The  weather  is  so  bad  here  that  I  have  remained  in  Paris. 
Malmaison,  without  you,  is  too  dreary.  The  fete  has  been  a 
great  success  ;  it  has  rather  tired  me.  The  blister  they  have  put 
on  my  arm  gives  me  constant  pain. 

Some  plants  have  come  for  you  from  London,  which  I  have 
sent  to  your  gardener.  If  the  weather  is  as  bad  at  Plombieres  as 
it  is  here,  you  will  suffer  severely  from  floods. 

Best  love  to  "  Maman  "  and  Hortense. 


EVENTS  OF  1802. 

January  $th. — Louis  Bonaparte  marries  Hortense  Beauharnais,  both 

January  gth. — The  First  Consul,  with  Josephine,  leaves  for  Lyons, 

January  2$th. — He  remodels  the  Cisalpine  Republic  as  the  Italian  Re- 
public, under  his  Presidency. 

March  ^^th. — Treaty  of  Amiens  signed  in  London.  French  lose 
only  Ceylon  and  Trinidad.  Malta  to  be  restored  to  the  Order  of 
Knights,  reconstituted. 

May  1th. — Toussaint  surrenders  to  Leclerc. 

May  iqth. — Institution  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 


No.  2. 

Malmaison,  June  19,  1802. 

I  have  as  yet  received  no  news  from  you,  but  I  think  you 
must  already  have  begun  to  take  the  waters.  It  is  rather  dull 
for  us  here,  although  your  charming  daughter  does  the  honours 
of  the  house  to  perfection.  For  the  last  two  days  I  have  suffered 
slightly  from  my  complaint.  The  fat  Eugene  arrived  yesterday 
evening  ;  he  is  very  hale  and  hearty. 

I  love  you  as  I  did  the  first  hour,  because  you  are  kind  and 
sweet  beyond  compare. 

Hortense  told  me  that  she  was  often  writing  you. 

Best  wishes,  and  a  love-kiss. — Yours  ever, 


No.  3. 

Malmaison,  June  23,  1802. 

My  Good  Little  Josephine, — Your  letter  has  come.  I  am  sorry 
to  see  you  have  been  poorly  on  the  journey,  but  a  few  days'  rest 
will  put  you  right.  I  am  very  fairly  well.  Yesterday  I  was 
at  the  Marly  hunt,  and  one  of  my  fingers  was  very  slightly 
injured  whilst  shooting  a  boar. 

Hortense  is  usually  in  good  health.  Your  fat  son  has  been 
rather  unwell,  but  is  getting  better.  I  think  the  ladies  are  play- 
ing "  The  Barber  of  Seville  "  to-night.  The  weather  is  perfect. 

Rest  assured  that  my  truest  wishes  are  ever  for  my  little 
Josephine. — Yours  ever,  BONAPARTE. 


No.  4. 

Malmaison,  June  27,  1802. 

Your  letter,  dear  little  wife,  has  apprised  me  that  you  are  out 
of  sorts.  Corvisart  tells  me  that  it  is  a  good  sign  that  the  baths 
are  having  the  desired  effect,  and  that  your  health  will  soon  be 
re-established.  But  I  am  most  truly  grieved  to  know  that  you 
are  in  pain. 

Yesterday  I  went  to  see  the  Sevres  manufactory  at  St.  Cloud. 

Best  wishes  to  all. — Yours  for  life,  BONAPARTE. 

June  2gth. — Pope  withdraws  excommunication  from  Talleyrand. 

No.  5. 

Afalmaison,  July  I,  1802. 

Your  letter  of  June  2Qth  has  arrived.  You  say  nothing  of 
your  health  nor  of  the  effect  of  the  baths.  I  see  that  you  expect 
to  be  home  in  a  week  ;  that  is  good  news  for  your  lover,  who  is 
tired  of  being  alone  ! 

You  ought  to  have  seen  General  Ney,  who  started  for  Plom- 
bieres  ;  he  will  be  married  on  his  return. 

Yesterday  Hortense  played  Rosina  in  "  The  Barber  of  Seville  " 
with  her  usual  skill. 

Rest  assured  of  my  love,  and  that  I  await  your  return  impa- 
tiently. Without  you  everything  here  is  dreary. 


August  2nd. — Napoleon  Bonaparte  made  First  Consul  for  life.  "  The 
conduct  and  the  language  of  Bonaparte  represents  at  once  Augustus,  Mahomet, 
Louis  XI.,  Masaniello"  (Montgaillard,  an  avowed  enemy}. 


September  22nd. — Opening  of  the  Ourcq  Waterworks  for  the  supply 
of  Paris. 

September  2$th. — Mass  celebrated  at  St.  Cloud  for  the  first  time.  In 
this  month  Napoleon  annexes  Piedmont,  and  the  next  sends  Ney  to  occupy 

October  nth. — Birth  of  Napoleon  Charles,  son  of  Louis  Bonaparte  and 

October  2tyh. — Napoleon  and  Josephine  visit  Normandy,  and,  contrary 
to  expectation,  receive  ovations  everywhere.  They  return  to  Paris,  November 

EVENTS  OF  1803. 

February  i<)lh. — New  constitution  imposed  by  France  on  Switzer- 

April  I  ifth. — Bank  of  France  reorganised  by  Bonaparte  ;  /'/  alone  allowed 
to  issue  notes. 

April  2jtb. — Death  of  Toussaint-Louverture  at  Besancon. 

April  ^oth. — France  sells  Louisiana  to  U.S.  for  £4,000,000  (15 
million  dollars). 

May  22nd. — France  declares  war  against  England,  chiefly  respecting 
Malta.  England  having  seized  all  French  ships  in  British  harbours  pre- 
vious to  war  being  declared,  Napoleon  seizes  all  British  tourists  in  France. 

May  $lst. — His  soldiers  occupy  Electorate  of  Hanover. 

June  i^th. — He  visits  North  of  France  and  Belgium,  accompanied  by 
Josephine,  and  returns  to  Paris  August  12th. 

September  2jtb. — Press  censorship  established  in  France. 

November  ^oth. — French  evacuate  St.  Domingo. 



"  Everywhere  the  king  of  the  earth  found  once  more,  to  put 
a  bridle  on  his  pride,  the  inevitable  lords  of  the  sea." — BIGNON, 
v.  130. 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  232-237.) 


No.    I.  Madame      ........      232 

Pont  de  Bricques  ......      232 

The  wind  having  considerably  freshened     .          .          .232 
No.   2.   The  waters  ......  233 

All  the  vexations  .          .          .          .          .  .233 

Eugene  has  started  for  Blots    .          .  .  .          .234 

No.    3.   Aix-la-Chapelle     .  .  .  .  .  .  .234 

No.  4.  During  the  past  week     .          .          .          .          .          .235 

The  day  after  to-morroiv          .          .  .  .  .235 

Hor  tense      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .235 

/  am  very  well  satisfied  .          .          .          .          .235 

No.   5.  Its  authenticity     .          .          .          .          .          .          .236 

Arras  )  August  2<)th       .          .          .          .          .          .236 

I  am  rather  impatient  to  see  you         .          .          .          .236 

No.  6.   T.  .          .          .          .          .          .          .          .      237 

B  ..........     237 


EVENTS  OF  1804. 

February  i$th. — The  conspiracy  of  Pichegru.  Moreau  arrested, 
Pichegru  (February  2%th],  and  Georges  Cadoudal  (March  9//&). 

March  2ist. — Due  D'Enghien  shot  at  Vincennes. 

April  6th. — Suicide  of  Pichegru. 

April  $oth. — Proposal  to  make  Bonaparte  Emperor. 

May  Ofth. — Tribune  adopts  the  proposal. 

May  l%th. — The  First  Consul  becomes  the  Emperor  Napoleon. 

May  I  gth Napoleon  confers  the  dignity  of  Marshal  of  the  Empire  on 

Berthier,  Murat,  Moncey,  Jourdan,  Massena,  Augereau,  Bernadotte,  Soult, 
Brune,  Lannrs,  Mortier,  Ney,  Davoust,  Bessieres,  Kellermann,  Lefebvre, 
Perignon,  Serrurier. 

July  i^th — Inauguration  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 

No.  i. 


Pont-de-Bricques,  July  21,  1804. 

Madame  and  dear  Wife^ — During  the  four  days  that  I  have 
been  away  from  you  I  have  always  been  either  on  horseback  or 
in  a  conveyance,  without  any  ill  effect  on  my  health. 

M.  Maret  tells  me  that  you  intend  starting  on  Monday ; 
travelling  by  easy  stages,  you  can  take  your  time  and  reach  the 
Spa  without  tiring  yourself. 

The  wind  having  considerably  freshened  last  night,  one  of 



our  gunboats,  which  was  in  the  harbour,  broke  loose  and  ran  on 
the  rocks  about  a  league  from  Boulogne.  I  believed  all  lost — 
men  and  merchandise  ;  but  we  managed  to  save  both.  The 
spectacle  was  grand  :  the  shore  sheeted  in  fire  from  the  alarm 
guns,  the  sea  raging  and  bellowing,  the  whole  night  spent  in 
anxiety  to  save  these  unfortunates  or  to  see  them  perish  !  My 
soul  hovered  between  eternity,  the  ocean,  and  the  night.  At 
5  A.M.  all  was  calm,  everything  saved  ;  and  I  went  to  bed  with 
the  feeling  of  having  had  a  romantic  and  epic  dream — a  circum- 
stance which  might  have  reminded  me  that  I  was  all  alone,  had 
weariness  and  soaked  garments  left  me  any  other  need  but  that 
of  sleep.  NAPOLEON. 

[Correspondence  of  Napoleon  /.,  No.  7861, 
communicated  by  M.  ChambryJ\ 

No.  2. 


Boulogne,  August  3,  1804. 

My  Dear, — I  trust  soon  to  learn  that  the  waters  have  done 
you  much  good.  I  am  sorry  to  hear  of  all  the  vexations  you 
have  undergone.  Please  write  me  often.  My  health  is  very 
good,  although  I  am  rather  tired.  I  shall  be  at  Dunkirk  in  a 
very  few  days,  and  shall  write  you  from  there. 

Eugene  has  started  for  Blois. 

Je  te  couvre  de  baisers.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  3. 

Calais,  August  6,  1804. 

My  Dear, — I  arrived  at  Calais  at  midnight ;  I  expect  to  start 
to-night  for  Dunkirk.  I  am  in  v^ry  fair  health,  and  satisfied 


with  what  I  see.  I  trust  that  the  waters  are  doing  you  as  much 
good  as  exercise,  camp,  and  seascape  are  doing  me. 

Eugene  has  set  off  for  Blois.  Hortense  is  well.  Louis  is  at 

I  am  longing  to  see  you.  You  are  always  necessary  to  my 
happiness.  My  very  best  love.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  4. 

Ostend,  August  14,  1804. 

My  Dear, — I  have  had  no  letter  from  you  for  several  days ; 
yet  I  should  be  more  comfortable  if  I  knew  that  the  waters  were 
efficacious,  and  how  you  spend  your  time.  During  the  past 
week  I  have  been  at  Ostend.  The  day  after  to-morrow  I  shall 
be  at  Boulogne  for  a  somewhat  special  fete.  Advise  me  by  the 
courier  what  you  intend  to  do,  and  how  soon  you  expect  to  end 
your  baths. 

I  am  very  well  satisfied  with  the  army  and  the  flotillas. 
Eugene  is  still  at  Blois.  I  hear  no  more  of  Hortense  than  if  she 
were  on  the  Congo.  I  am  writing  to  scold  her. 

My  best  love  to  all.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  5. 

Arras,  Wednesday,  August  29,  1804. 

Madame  and  dear  Wife, — I  have  just  reached  Arras.  I  shall 
stay  there  to-morrow.  I  shall  be  at  Mons  on  Friday,  and  on 
Sunday  at  Aix-la-Chapelle.  I  am  as  well  satisfied  with  my 
journey  as  with  the  army.  I  think  I  shall  pass  through  Brussels 
without  stopping  there  ;  thence  I  shall  go  to  Maestricht.  I  am 


rather  impatient  to  see  you.  I  am  glad  to  hear  you  have  tried 
the  waters ;  they  cannot  fail  to  do  you  good.  My  health  is 
excellent.  Eugene  is  well,  and  is  with  me. 

Very  kindest  regards  to  every  one.  BONAPARTE. 

[Translated  from  a  Letter  in  the  Collection  of  Baron 
Heath t  Philobiblon  Society,  vol.  xiv.~] 

October   2nd. — Sir  Sydney   Smith  attacks  flotilla  at  Boulogne  un- 

No.  6. 

TrhjeS)  October  6,  1804. 

My  Dear, — I  arrive  at  Treves  the  same  moment  that  you 
arrive  at  St.  Cloud.     I  am  in  good  health.     Do  not  grant  an 

audience  to  T ,  and  refuse  to  see  him.     Receive  B only 

in  general  company,  and  do  not  give  him  a  private  interview. 
Make  promises  to  sign  marriage  contracts  only  after  I  have 
signed  them. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

December  1st. — Plebiscite  confirms  election  of  Napoleon  as  Emperor,  by 
3,500,000  votes  to  2000. 

December  2nd. — Napoleon  crowns  himself  Emperor,  and  Josephine  Em- 
press, in  the  presence  and  'with  the  benediction  of  the  Pope. 

GENERAL  EVENTS. — October  Stk. — The  negro  Dessalines  crowned 
Emperor  of  St.  Domingo,  under  title  of  James  I. 

December  12th. — Spain  declares  war  against  England. 


'« To  convey  an  idea  of  the  brilliant  campaign  of  1 805  ...  I 
should,  like  the  almanack-makers,  be  obliged  to  note  down  a  victory 
for  every  day." — BOURRIENNE,  vol.  ii.  323. 

"  Si  jamais  correspondence  de  mari  a  femme  a  etc"  intime  et  fre- 
quente,  si  jamais  continuite  et  permanence  de  tendresse  a  e"te  marquee, 
c'est  bien  dans  ces  lettres  ecrites,  chaque  jour  presque,  par  Napole'on 
a  sa  femme  durant  la  campagne  de  1'an  XIV." — F.  MASSON,  Jose- 
phine,  Imperatrice  et  Reine,  1899,  P'  427' 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  237-243.) 


No.      I.    To  Josephine       .......      237 

Strasburg  .          .          .  .  .  .          .237 

Stuttgard 237 

I  am  well  placed          .          .          .          .          .          .237 

No.      2.   Louisburg  .  .  .  .  .  .  .238 

In  a  few  Jays    .          .          .          .  .          .  .238 

A  new  bride       .          .  .          .          .          .  .238 

Elec  tress  .          .  .          .          .  .  .238 

No.      3.   I  have  assisted  at  a  marriage          .          .          .          .238 

No.      5.  The  abbey  of  Elchingen  .         .          .          -238 

No.      6.   Spent  the  'whole  of  to-day  indoors    .  .  .          .238 

Vicenza    ........      238 

No.      7.   Elchingen  .......      239 

Such  a  catastrophe       .          .          .          .          .          .239 

No.      9.    Munich      ........      239 

Lemarois  ........      239 

/  wa s  grieved    .          .  .  .  .          .          .239 

Amuse  yourself  .......      239 

Talleyrand  has  come     .          .  .          .  .          .240 

No.    10.    We  are  always  in  forests       .          .          .          .          .240 

My  enemies          .          .          .          .  .          .          .      240 

No.    II.   Lintz ,       ........      240 

No.   12.  Schoenbrunn       .          .          .          .         .          .          .241 

No.    13.   They  owe  everything  to  you    .          ,          .          .          .241 
No.    14.  Austerlitz  .          .          .          .  .          .          .241 

December  2nd     .          .  .          .          .          .          .24! 

No.    17.   A  long  time  since  I  had  news  of  you         .          .          .24! 
No.    19.   /  aw  ait  events    .......      242 

I)  for  my  part,  am  sufficiently  busy  .          .          .      242 


EVENTS  OF  1805. 

March  l$th. — Napoleon  proclaimed  King  of  Italy. 

May  26th. — Crowned  at  Milan. 

June  8th. — Prince  Eugene  named  Viceroy  of  Italy. 

June  2yd. — Lucca  made  a  principality,  and  given  to  Elisa  Bonaparte. 

July  22nd. — Naval  battle  between  Villeneuve  and  Sir  Robert  Calder, 
which  saves  England  from  invasion. 

August  l6th. — Napoleon  breaks  up  camp  of  Boulogne. 

September  8th. — Third  Continental  Coalition  (Russia,  Austria,  and 
England  against  France).  Austrians  cross  the  Inn,  and  invade  Bavaria. 

September  2ist. — Treaty  of  Paris  between  France  and  Naples,  which 
engages  to  take  no  part  in  the  war. 

September  2yd. — Moniteur  announces  invasion  of  Bavaria  by  Austria. 

September  2^th. — Napoleon  leaves  Paris. 

September  2Jth. — Joins  at  Strasburg  his  Grand  Army  (160,000  strong}. 

October  1st. — Arrives  at  Ettlingen. 

October  2nd. — Arrives  at  Louisbourg.      Hostilities  commence. 

No.  i. 

Imperial  Headquarters,  Ettlingen, 

October  2,  1805,  IO  A.M. 

I  am  well,  and  still  here.  I  am  starting  for  Stuttgard,  where 
I  shall  be  to-night.  Great  operations  are  now  in  progress.  The 
armies  of  Wurtemberg  and  Baden  have  joined  mine.  I  am  well 

placed  for  the  campaign,  and  I  love  you.  NAPOLEON. 



No.  2. 

Louhbourgy  October  4,  1805,  Noon. 

I  am  at  Louisbourg.  I  start  to-night.  There  is  as  yet 
nothing  new.  My  whole  army  is  on  the  march.  The  weather 
is  splendid.  My  junction  with  the  Bavarians  is  effected.  I  am 
well.  I  trust  in  a  few  days  to  have  something  interesting  to 

Keep  well,  and  believe  in  my  entire  affection.  There  is  a 
brilliant  Court  here,  a  new  bride  who  is  very  beautiful,  and  upon 
the  whole  some  very  pleasant  people,  even  our  Electress,  who 
appears  extremely  kind,  although  the  daughter  of  the  King  of 
England.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  3. 

Louisbourg,  October  5,  1805. 

I  continue  my  march  immediately.  You  will,  my  dear,  be 
five  or  six  days  without  hearing  from  me ;  don't  be  uneasy,  it  is 
connected  with  operations  now  taking  place.  All  goes  well,  and 
just  as  I  could  wish. 

I  have  assisted  at  a  marriage  between  the  son  of  the  Elector 
and  a  niece  of  the  King  of  Prussia.  I  wish  to  give  the  young 
princess  a  wedding  present  to  cost  36,000  to  40,000  francs. 
Please  attend  to  this,  and  send  it  to  the  bride  by  one  of  my 
chamberlains,  when  they  shall  come  to  rejoin  me.  This  matter 
must  be  attended  to  immediately. 

Adieu,  dear,  I  love  you  and  embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

October  bth-yth. — French  cross  the  Danube  and  turn  Mack's  army. 
October  8th. — Battle  of  Wertingen.      (Murat  defeats  the  Austrian!.} 
October  <)th. — Battle  of  Gunzburg.      (Ney  defeats  Mack.] 


No.  4. 
October  loth. — French  enter  Augsbourg. 


Augsbourg  Thursday ',  October  IO,  1805, 

I  I  A.M. 

I  slept  last  night1  with  the  former  Elector  of  Treves,  who 
is  very  well  lodged.  For  the  past  week  I  have  been  hurrying 
forward.  The  campaign  has  been  successful  enough  so  far.  I 
am  very  well,  although  it  rains  almost  every  day.  Events  crowd 
on  us  rapidly.  I  have  sent  to  France  4000  prisoners,  8  flags,  and 
have  14  of  the  enemy's  cannon. 

Adieu,  dear,  I  embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

October  nth. — Battle  of  Hasslach.  Dupont  holds  his  own  against 
much  superior  forces. 

No.  5. 

October  1 2th. — French  enter  Munich. 


October  12,  1805,  II  P.M. 

My  army  has  entered  Munich.  On  one  side  the  enemy  is 
beyond  the  Inn  ;  I  hold  the  other  army,  60,000  strong,  blocked 
on  the  Iller,  between  Ulm  and  Memmingen.  The  enemy  is 
beaten,  has  lost  its  head,  and  everything  points  to  a  most  glorious 
campaign,  the  shortest  and  most  brilliant  which  has  been  made. 
In  an  hour  I  start  for  Burgau-sur-1'Iller. 

I  am  well,  but  the  weather  is  frightful.  It  rains  so  much 
that  I  change  my  clothes  twice  a  day. 

I  love  and  embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

October  l^th. — Capture  of  Memmingen  and  4000  Austrian*  by  Soult. 
October  l$th, — Battle  of  Elchingen.      Ney  defeats  Laudon. 
October  ijth. — Capitulation  of  Ulm. 

1  J'ai  coucht  aujourcThui — i.e.  a  few  hours'  morning  sleep. 



No.  6. 

October  iqth. — IVerneck  and  8OOO  men  surrender  to  Murat. 


Abbaye  d' Elchingen,  October  19,  1805. 

My  dear  Josephine, — I  have  tired  myself  more  than  I  ought. 
Soaked  garments  and  cold  feet  every  day  for  a  week  have  made 
me  rather  ill,  but  I  have  spent  the  whole  of  to-day  indoors,  which 
has  rested  me. 

My  design  has  been  accomplished ;  I  have  destroyed  the 
Austrian  army  by  marches  alone  ;  I  have  made  60,000  prisoners, 
taken  120  pieces  of  cannon,  more  than  90  flags,  and  more  than 
30  generals.  I  am  about  to  fling  myself  on  the  Russians  ;  they 
are  lost  men.  I  am  satisfied  with  my  army.  I  have  only  lost 
1500  men,  of  whom  two-thirds  are  but  slightly  wounded. 

Prince  Charles  is  on  his  way  to  cover  Vienna.  I  think 
Massena  should  be  already  at  Vicenza. 

The  moment  I  can  give  my  thoughts  to  Italy,  I  will  make 
Eugene  win  a  battle. 

Very  best  wishes  to  Hortense. 

Adieu,  my  Josephine  ;  kindest  regards  to  every  one. 


October  2Otb. — Mack  and  his  army  dejile  before  Napoleon. 

No.  7. 

October  2\st. — Battle  of  Trafalgar ;  Franco-Spanish  fleet  destroyed 
after  a  five  hours'  fight.  "  The  result  of  the  battle  of  Trafalgar  compen- 
sates, for  England,  the  results  of  the  operations  of  Ulm.  It  has  been 
justly  observed  that  this  power  alone,  of  all  those  who  fought  France 
from  1793  to  1812,  never  experienced  a  check  in  her  political  or  military 
combinations  without  seeing  herself  compensated  forthwith  by  a  signal 
success  in  some  other  part  of  the  world  "  (Montgaillard}. 



E/chingeriy  October  21,  1805,  Noon. 

I  am  fairly  well,  my  dear.  I  start  at  once  for  Augsbourg.  I 
have  made  33,000  men  lay  down  their  arms,  I  have  from  60,000 
to  70,000  prisoners,  more  than  90  flags,  and  200  pieces  of 
cannon.  Never  has  there  been  such  a  catastrophe  in  military 
annals ! 

Take  care  of  yourself.  I  am  rather  jaded.  The  weather  has 
been  fine  for  the  last  three  days.  The  first  column  of  prisoners 
files  off  for  France  to-day.  Each  column  consists  of  6000  men. 

No.  8. 

October  25th. — The  Emperor  of  Russia  and  King  of  Prussia  swear, 
at  the  tomb  of  the  Great  Frederick,  to  make  implacable  war  on  France 
(Convention  signed  November  3rd). 


Augsburg^  October  25,  1805. 

The  two  past  nights  have  thoroughly  rested  me,  and  I  am  going 
to  start  to-morrow  for  Munich.  I  am  sending  word  to  M.  de 
Talleyrand  and  M.  Maret  to  be  near  at  hand.  I  shall  see  some- 
thing of  them,  and  I  am  going  to  advance  upon  the  Inn  in  order 
to  attack  Austria  in  the  heart  of  her  hereditary  states.  I  should 
much  have  liked  to  see  you  ;  but  do  not  reckon  upon  my  sending 
for  you,  unless  there  should  be  an  armistice  or  winter  quarters. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  a  thousand  kisses.  Give  my  compliments  to 
the  ladies.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  9. 

Munich^  Sunday,  October  27,  1805. 

I  received  your  letter  per  Lemarois.  I  was  grieved  to  see 
how  needlessly  you  have  made  yourself  unhappy.  I  have  heard 


particulars  which  have  proved  how  much  you  love  me,  but 
you  should  have  more  fortitude  and  confidence.  Besides,  I 
had  advised  you  that  I  should  be  six  days  without  writing  you. 

To-morrow  I  expect  the  Elector.  At  noon  I  start  to  sup- 
port my  advance  on  the  Inn.  My  health  is  fair.  You  need  not 
think  of  crossing  the  Rhine  for  two  or  three  weeks.  You  must 
be  cheerful,  amuse  yourself,  and  hope  that  before  the  end  of  the 
month l  we  shall  meet. 

I  am  advancing  against  the  Russian  army.  In  a  few  days  I 
shall  have  crossed  the  Inn. 

Adieu,  my  dear  ;  kindest  regards  to  Hortense,  Eugene,  and 
the  two  Napoleons. 

Keep  back  the  wedding  present  a  little  longer. 

Yesterday  I  gave  a  concert  to  the  ladies  of  this  court.  The 
precentor  is  a  superior  man. 

I  took  part  in  the  Electors  pheasant-shoot ;  you  see  by  that 
that  I  am  not  so  tired.  M.  de  Talleyrand  has  come. 


October  2%th. — Grand  Army  cross  the  Inn.      Lannes  occupies  Braunau. 

October  2%th  to  October  29-30^. — Battle  of  Catcher o. — Massena  with 
55,000  men  attacks  Archduke  Charles  entrenched  with  70,000;  after 
two  days'  fight  French  repulsed  at  this  place,  previously  disastrous  to  their 

No.  IO. 

Haagj  November  3,  1805,  IO  P.M. 

I  am  in  full  march  ;  the  weather  is  very  cold,  the  earth 
covered  with  a  foot  of  snow.  This  is  rather  trying.  Luckily 
there  is  no  want  of  wood  ;  here  we  are  always  in  forests.  I  am 

1  The  month  Brumaire — i.e,  before  November  2ist. 


fairly  well.  My  campaign  proceeds  satisfactorily ;  my  enemies 
must  have  more  anxieties  than  I. 

I  wish  to  hear  from  you  and  to  learn  that  you  are  not  worry- 
ing yourself. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  am  going  to  lie  down.  NAPOLEON. 

November  ^th. — Combat  of  Amstetten.  Lannes  and  Murat  drive 
back  the  Russians.  Davoust  occupies  Steyer.  Army  of  Italy  takes 

No.  ii. 

Tuesday,  November  5,  1805. 

I  am  at  Lintz.  The  weather  is  fine.  We  are  within  seventy 
miles  of  Vienna.  The  Russians  do  not  stand  ;  they  are  in  full 
retreat.  The  house  of  Austria  is  at  its  wit's  end,  and  in  Vienna 
they  are  removing  all  the  court  belongings.  It  is  probable  that 
something  new  will  occur  within  five  or  six  days.  I  much  desire 
to  see  you  again.  My  health  is  good. 

I  embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

November  jtb. — Ney  occupies  Innsbruck. 

November  yih. — Davoust  defeats  Meerfeldt  at  Marienzell. 

November  loth. — Marmont  arrives  at  Leoben. 

November  nth, — Battle  of  Diernstein ;  Mortier  overwhelmed  by 
Russians,  but  saved  by  Dupont. 

November  i$th. — Vienna  entered  and  bridge  over  the  Danube  seized. 
Massena  crosses  the  Tagliamento. 

November  i^th. — Ney  enters  Trent. 

No.  12. 

November  15,  1805,  9  P.M. 

I  have  been  at  Vienna  two  days,  my  dear,  rather  fagged.  I 
have  not  yet  seen  the  city  by  day  ;  I  have  traversed  it  by  night. 


To-morrow  I  receive  the  notables  and  public  bodies.     Nearly  all 
my  troops  are  beyond  the  Danube,  in  pursuit  of  the  Russians. 

Adieu,  Josephine  ;  as  soon  as  it  is  possible  I  will  send  for  you. 
My  very  best  love.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  13. 

November  i6th. — Jellachich  surrenders  to  Augereau  at  Feldkirch 
with  7000  men. 


Vienna,  November  16,  1805. 

I  am  writing  to  M.  d'Harville,  so  that  you  can  set  out  and 
make  your  way  to  Baden,  thence  to  Stuttgard,  and  from  there  to 
Munich.  At  Stuttgard  you  will  give  the  wedding  present  to  the 
Princess  Paul.  If  it  costs  fifteen  to  twenty  thousand  francs,  that 
will  suffice  ;  the  rest  will  do  for  giving  presents  at  Munich  to  the 
daughters  of  the  Electress  of  Bavaria.  All  that  Madame  de 
Serent1  has  advised  you  is  definitely  arranged.  Take  with  you 
the  wherewithal  to  make  presents  to  the  ladies  and  officers  who 
will  wait  upon  you.  Be  civil,  but  receive  full  homage  ;  they 
owe  everything  to  you,  and  you  owe  nothing  save  civility.  The 
Electress  of  Wurtemberg  is  daughter  of  the  King  of  England. 
She  is  an  excellent  woman  ;  you  should  be  very  kind  to  her,  but 
yet  without  affectation. 

I  shall  be  very  glad  to  see  you,  the  moment  circumstances 
permit  me.  I  start  to  join  my  vanguard.  The  weather  is 
frightful ;  it  snows  heavily.  Otherwise  my  affairs  go  excellently. 

Adieu,  my  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

November    iqth. — French  occupy   Brunn,  and  Napoleon  establishes   his 
headquarters  at  Wischau. 

1  Countess  de  Serent.  the  Empress's  lady-in-waiting. 


November  2^th. — Massena  occupies  Trieste. 

November  2$tb. — Army  of  Italy  joins  troops  of  the  Grand  Army  at 

December  2nd.— Battle  of  the  Three  Emperors  (  Austerlitz).  French 
forces  80,000  ;  allies  95,000. 

No.  14. 

Austerlitz,  December  3,  1805. 

I  have  despatched  to  you  Lebrun  from  the  field  of  battle.  I 
have  beaten  the  Russian  and  Austrian  army  commanded  by  the 
two  Emperors.  I  am  rather  fagged.  I  have  bivouacked  eight 
days  in  the  open  air,  through  nights  sufficiently  keen.  To-night 
I  rest  in  the  chateau  of  Prince  Kaunitz,  where  I  shall  sleep  for 
the  next  two  or  three  hours.  The  Russian  army  is  not  only 
beaten,  but  destroyed. 

I  embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

December  ^th. — Haugwitz,  the  Prussian  Minister,  congratulates  Napo- 
leon on  his  victory.  *'  Volla  !  "  replied  the  Emperor  ;  "  un  compliment  dont 
la  fortune  a  change  I'addrcsse." 

No.  15. 

Austerlitz^  December  5,  1805. 

I  have  concluded  a  truce.  The  Russians  have  gone.  The 
battle  of  Austerlitz  is  the  grandest  of  all  I  have  fought.  Forty- 
five  flags,  more  than  150  pieces  of  cannon,  the  standards  of  the 
Russian  Guard,  20  generals,  30,000  prisoners,  more  than  20,000 
slain — a  horrible  sight. 

The  Emperor  Alexander  is  in  despair,  and  on  his  way  to 
Russia.  Yesterday,  at  my  bivouac,  I  saw  the  Emperor  of  Germany. 
We  conversed  for  two  hours  ;  we  have  agreed  to  make  peace 


The  weather  is  not  now  very  bad.  At  last  behold  peace 
restored  to  the  Continent ;  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  it  is  going  to  be 
to  the  world.  The  English  will  not  know  how  to  face  us. 

I  look  forward  with  much  pleasure  to  the  moment  when  I 
can  once  more  be  near  you.  My  eyes  have  been  rather  bad  the 
last  two  days  ;  I  have  never  suffered  from  them  before. 

Adieu,  my  dear.  I  am  fairly  well,  and  very  anxious  to 
embrace  you.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  1 6. 

AusterlitZ)  December  7,  1805. 

I  have  concluded  an  armistice  ;  within  a  week  peace  will  be 
made.  I  am  anxious  to  hear  that  you  reached  Munich  in  good 
health.  The  Russians  are  returning ;  they  have  lost  enor- 
mously— more  than  20,000  dead  and  30,000  taken.  Their 
army  is  reduced  by  three-quarters.  Buxhowden,  their  general- 
in-chief,  was  killed.  I  have  3000  wounded  and  700  to  800 

My  eyes  are  rather  bad  ;  it  is  a  prevailing  complaint,  and 
scarcely  worth  mentioning. 

Adieu,  dear.     I  am  very  anxious  to  see  you  again. 

I  am  going  to  sleep  to-night  at  Vienna.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  17. 

Brunn,  December  10,  1805. 

It  is  a  long  time  since  I  had  news  of  you.  Have  the  grand 
fetes  at  Baden,  Stuttgard,  and  Munich  made  you  forget  the  poor 
soldiers,  who  live  covered  with  mud,  rain,  and  blood  ? 

I  shall  start  in  a  few  days  for  Vienna. 


We  are  endeavouring  to  conclude  peace.  The  Russians  have 
gone,  and  are  in  flight  far  from  here  ;  they  are  on  their  way  back 
to  Russia,  well  drubbed  and  very  much  humiliated. 

I  am  very  anxious  to  be  with  you  again. 

Adieu,  dear. 

My  bad  eyes  are  cured.  NAPOLEON. 

December  \$th. — Treaty  with  Prussia. 

No.  1 8. 


December  19,  1805. 

Great  Empress, — Not  a  single  letter  from  you  since  your 
departure  from  Strasburg.  You  have  gone  to  Baden,  Stuttgard, 
Munich,  without  writing  us  a  word.  This  is  neither  very  kind 
nor  very  affectionate. 

I  am  still  at  Brunn.  The  Russians  are  gone.  I  have  a 
truce.  In  a  few  days  I  shall  see  what  I  may  expect.  Deign 
from  the  height  of  your  grandeur  to  concern  yourself  a  little  with 
your  slaves.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  19. 

Sch'dnbrunri)  December  20,  1805. 

I  got  your  letter  of  the  i6th.  I  am  sorry  to  learn  you  are  in 
pain.  You  are  not  strong  enough  to  travel  two  hundred  and 
fifty  miles  at  this  time  of  the  year.  I  know  not  what  I  shall  do  ; 
I  await  events.  I 'have  no  will  in  the  matter  ;  everything  depends 
on  their  issue.  Stay  at  Munich  ;  amuse  yourself.  That  is  not 
difficult  when  you  have  so  many  kind  friends  and  so  beautiful  a 


country.     I,  for  my  part,  am  sufficiently  busy.     In  a  few  days 
my  decision  will  be  made. 

Adieu,  dear.     Kindest  and  most  affectionate  regards. 


December  2  Jth. l — Peace  of  Presburg. 

December  $lst. — Napoleon  arrives  outside  Munich,  and  joins  Josephine 
the  next  morning. 

1  VI.  Ntvose,  which  for  the  year  1805  was  December  27  (see  Harris  Nicolas' 
"  Chronology  of  History  ").  Haydn,  Woodward,  Bouillet,  all  have  December 
26th ;  Alison  and  Biographic  Universelle  have  December  27th  ;  but,  as  usual,  the 
"  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  I."  is  taken  here  as  the  final  court  of  appeal. 


"  Battles  then  lasted  a  few  hours,  campaigns  a  few  days." 

— BIGNON,  On  Fr'iedland  (vol.  vi.  292). 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  243-164.) 







Princess  of  Baden 




I  hope  that  you  are  at  Paris 




T.      . 


The  Grand  Duke  . 






Florence        .           .          . 




Arensdorf  . 




Bamberg      .           .           . 




The  Battle  of  Preussich- 

Eugene          .           .           . 


Eylau      .           ,           , 


Her  husband 




Corbineau    ... 






Dahlmann   . 


If  she  wants  to  see  a  battle 




TCoung  Tascher      .           . 




I  nearly  captured  him  and 



Napoleon's  Correspon- 

the Queen           .           . 


dence     . 


I  have  bivouacked 




/  am  still  at  Eylau 




Fatigues,  bivouacs    .    .    . 

This    country    is    covered 

have  made  me  fat 


•with  dead  and  ivounded 


The  great  M.  Napoleon 








Potsdam       .          .          . 


It  is  not  as  good  as  the 



You  do  nothing  but  cry     . 


great  city            .           . 




.Madame  Tallien  .           . 


I  have  ordered  -what  you 



The    bad    things    I  say 

•wish  for  Malmaison  . 


about  -women 




Minerva      .           .           . 








The  first  use  of  Vous  . 




Afadame  L.           .          . 




Dupuis          .           . 




December  Ind        .           , 








Jealousy       .           .          . 




Marshal  Bessieres 




Desir  defemme  est  unfeu 





qul  devore          . 




Siveet,  pouting,  and  cap- 



I  am  dependent  on  events 


ricious      .          .           . 




The  fair  ones   of  Great 



Madame  .           . 


Poland   , 




A  -wretched  barn  . 




I  trust  I  may  hear  you 

Such  things   become  com- 

have been  rational       . 


mon  property 




May  ^oth   . 




JVarsa-w.  January  \rd  . 

j  j 




I  am  vexed  tuith  Hortense 




Be  cheerful  —  gal  .            . 




Friedland     •           .           . 




Roads   unsafe  and  detest- 










January  1st. — The  Elector  of  Bavaria  and  the  Duke  of  Wurtemberg 
created  Kings  by  France. 

January  l^rd. — Death  of  William  Pitt,  aged  47. 

February  I  $th. — Joseph  Bonaparte  enters  Naples,  and  on 

March  lOth  is  declared  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies. 

April  1st. — Prussia  seizes  Hanover. 

June  $th. — Louis  Bonaparte  made  King  of  Holland. 

July  6th. — Battle  of  Maida  (Calabria.  English  defeat  General  Reynier. 
French  loss  4000  ;  English  500). 

July  12th. — Napoleon  forms  Confederation  of  the  Rhine,  'with  himself  at 
Chief  and  Protector. 

July  l8th. — Gaeta  surrenders  to  Massena. 

August  6th. — Francis  //.,  Emperor  of  Germany,  becomes  Emperor  of 
Austria  as  Francis  7. 

August  1 $th. — Russia  refuses  to  ratify  peace  preliminaries  signed  by  her 
ambassador  at  Paris  on  July  2$th. 

September  ityh. — Death  of  Charles  James  Fox,  aged  57. 

No.  i. 

October  $th. — Proclamation  by  the  Prince  of  the  Peace  against  France 
(germ  of  Spanish  War). 


October  5,  1806. 

It  will  be  quite  in  order  for  the  Princess  of  Baden  to  come  to 
Mayence.  I  cannot  think  why  you  weep  ;  you  do  wrong  to 



make  yourself  ill.  Hortense  is  inclined  to  pedantry ;  she  loves 
to  air  her  views.  She  has  written  me  ;  I  am  sending  her  a  reply. 
She  ought  to  be  happy  and  cheerful.  Pluck  and  a  merry  heart — 
that's  the  recipe. 

Adieu,  dear.  The  Grand  Duke  has  spoken  to  me  about 
you ;  he  saw  you  at  Florence  at  the  time  of  the  retreat. 


No.  2. 

Bamberg,  October  7,  1806. 

I  start  this  evening,  my  dear,  for  Cronach.  The  whole  of 
my  army  is  advancing.  All  goes  well.  My  health  is  perfect. 
I  have  only  received  as  yet  one  letter  from  you.  I  have  some 
from  Eugene  and  from  Hortense.  Stephanie  should  now  be 
with  you.  Her  husband  wishes  to  make  the  campaign ;  he 
is  with  me. 

Adieu.     A  thousand  kisses  and  the  best  of  health. 


October  Sth. — Prussia,  assisted  by  Saxony,  Russia,  and  England,  de- 
clares war  against  France. 

October  gth. — Campaign  opens.      Prussians  defeated  at  Schleitz. 

October  \Oth. — Lannes  defeats  them  at  Saalfeld.  Prince  Louis  of 
Prussia  killed ;  IOOO  men  and  30  guns  taken. 

October  nth. — French  peace  negotiations  with  England  broken  off". 

No.  3. 

Gera,  October  13,  1806,  2  A.M. 

My  Dear, — I  am  at  Gera  to-day.  My  affairs  go  excellently 
well,  and  everything  as  I  could  wish.  With  the  aid  of  God,  they 
will,  I  believe,  in  a  few  days  have  taken  a  terrible  course  for  the 
poor  King  of  Prussia,  whom  I  am  sorry  for  personally,  because  he 


is  a  good  man.  The  Queen  is  at  Erfurt  with  the  King.  If  she 
wants  to  see  a  battle,  she  shall  have  that  cruel  pleasure.  I  am  in 
splendid  health.  I  have  already  put  on  flesh  since  my  departure  ; 
yet  I  am  doing,  in  person,  twenty  and  twenty-five  leagues  a  day, 
on  horseback,  in  my  carriage,  in  all  sorts  of  ways.  I  lie  down  at 
eight,  and  get  up  at  midnight.  I  fancy  at  times  that  you  have 
not  yet  gone  to  bed. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

October  l  ^th. — Battles  of  Jena  and  Auerstadt. 

No.  4. 

October  i$th. — Napoleon  at  Weimar.  He  releases  6000  Saxon  prisoners , 
•which  soon  causes  peace  tuith  Saxony. 


Jena,  October  15,  1806,  3  A.M. 

My  Dear, — I  have  made  excellent  manoeuvres  against  the 
Prussians.  Yesterday  I  won  a  great  victory.  They  had  150,000 
men.  I  have  made  20,000  prisoners,  taken  100  pieces  of  cannon, 
and  flags.  I  was  in  presence  of  the  King  of  Prussia,  and  near  to 
him  ;  I  nearly  captured  him  and  the  Queen.  For  the  past  two 
days  I  have  bivouacked.  I  am  in  excellent  health. 

Adieu,  dear.     Keep  well,  and  love  me. 

If  Hortense  is  at  Mayence,  give  her  a  kiss  ;  also  to  Napoleon 
and  to  the  little  one.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  5. 

October  i6th. — Soult  routs  Kalkreuth  at  Greussen  ;  Erfurt  and  16,000 
men  capitulate  to  Murat. 


Weimar,  October  1 6,  1806,  5  P.M. 

M.  Talleyrand  will  have  shown  you  the  bulletin,  my  dear  ; 
you  will  see  my  successes  therein.  All  has  happened  as  I  cal- 


culated,  and  never  was  an   army  more   thoroughly  beaten  and 
more  entirely  destroyed.     I  need  only  add  that  I  am  very  well, 
and  that  fatigue,  bivouacs,  and  night-watches  have  made  me  fat. 
Adieu,  dear.     Kindest  regards  to  Hortense  and  to  the  great 
M.  Napoleon. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

October  17  th. — Bernadotte  defeats  Prussian  reserve  at  Halle. 
October  1 8//>. — Davoust  takes  Leipsic,  and  an  enormous  stock  of  English 

October  igth. — Napoleon  at  Halle. 

October  2Oth. — Lannes  takes  Dessau,  and  Davoust  Wittenberg. 

October  2 1st. — Napoleon  at  Dessau. 

No.  6. 

October  l^rd. — Napoleon  males  Wittenberg  central  depot  for  his  army. 


Wittenberg,  October  23,  1 806,  Noon. 

I  have  received  several  of  your  letters.  I  write  you  only  a 
line.  My  affairs  prosper.  To-morrow  I  shall  be  at  Potsdam, 
and  at  Berlin  on  the  25th.  I  am  wonderfully  well,  and  thrive 
on  hard  work.  I  am  very  glad  to  hear  you  are  with  Hortense  and 
Stephanie,  en  grande  compagnie.  So  far,  the  weather  has  been  fine. 

Kind  regards  to  Stephanie,  and  to  everybody,  not  forgetting 
M.  Napoleon. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  7. 

October  2^th. — Lannes  occupies  Potsdam. 


Potsdam,  October  24,  1806. 

My  Dear, — I  have  been  at  Potsdam  since  yesterday,  and  shall 
remain  there  to-day.  I  continue  satisfied  with  my  undertakings. 


My  health  is  good  ;  the  weather  very  fine.     I  find  Sans-Souci 
very  pleasant. 

Adieu,  dear.     Best  wishes  to  Hortense  and  to  M.  Napoleon. 


October  2$th. — Marshal  Davoust  enters  Berlin  ;  Bernadotte  occupies 

October  28th. — Prince  Hohenlohe  surrenders  at  Prenzlau  to  Murat  with 
1 6,OOO  men,  including  the  Prussian  Guard. 

October  $Oth. — Stettin  surrenders  with  5000  men  and  150  cannon. 

No.  8. 

November  1st. — Anklam  surrenders,  with  4000  men,  to  General  Becker. 


November  I,  1806,  2  A.M. 

Talleyrand  has  just  arrived  and  tells  me,  my  dear,  that  you  do 
nothing  but  cry.  What  on  earth  do  you  want  r  You  have  your 
daughter,  your  grandchildren,  and  good  news  ;  surely  these  are 
sufficient  reasons  for  being  happy  and  contented. 

The  weather  here  is  superb  ;  there  has  not  yet  fallen  during 
the  whole  campaign  a  single  drop  of  water.  I  am  very  well,  and 
all  goes  excellently. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  have  received  a  letter  from  M.  Napoleon  ; 
I  do  not  believe  it  is  from  him,  but  from  Hortense.  Kindest 
regards  to  everybody.  NAPOLEON. 

November  2nd. — Kustrin  surrenders,  with  4000  men  and  90  guns,  to 

No.  9. 

Berlin,  November  2,  1806. 

Your  letter  of  October   26th   to  hand.     We  have  splendid 
weather  here.     You  will  see  by  the  bulletin  that  we  have  taken 


Stettin — it  is  a  very  strong  place.  All  my  affairs  go  as  well  as 
possible,  and  I  am  thoroughly  satisfied.  One  pleasure  is  alone 
wanting — that  of  seeing  you,  but  I  hope  that  will  not  long  be 

Kindest  regards  to  Hortense,  Stephanie,  and  to  the  little 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  QA. 

From  the  Memoirs  of  Mademoiselle  d'Avrillon  (vol.  i.  128). 

Berlin,  Monday^  Noon. 

My  Deary — I  have  received  your  letter.     I  am  glad  to  know 
that  you  are  in  a  place  which  pleases  me,  and  especially  to  know 
that  you  are  very  well  there.     Who  should  be  happier  than  you  ?  - 
You  should  live  without  a  worry,  and  pass  your  time  as  pleasantly 
as  possible  ;  that,  indeed,  is  my  intention. 

I  forbid  you  to  see  Madame  Tallien,  under  any  pretext 
whatever.  I  will  admit  of  no  excuse.  If  you  desire  a  con- 
tinuance of  my  esteem,  if  you  wish  to  please  me,  never  transgress 
the  present  order.  She  may  possibly  come  to  your  apartments, 
to  enter  them  by  night ;  forbid  your  porter  to  admit  her. 

I  shall  soon  be  at  Malmaison.  I  warn  you  to  have  no  lovers 
there  that  night ;  I  should  be  sorry  to  disturb  them.  Adieu, 
dear ;  I  long  to  see  you  and  assure  you  of  my  love  and  affection. 

No.  10. 

November  6,  1806,  9  P.M. 

Yours  to  hand,  in  which  you  seem  annoyed  at  the  bad  things 
I  say  about  women  ;  it  is  true  that  I  hate  intriguing  women 


more  than  anything.  I  am  used  to  kind,  gentle,  persuasive 
women  ;  these  are  the  kind  I  like.  If  I  have  been  spoilt,  it  is 
not  my  fault,  but  yours.  Moreover,  you  shall  learn  how  kind  I 
have  been  to  one  who  showed  herself  sensible  and  good,  Madame 
d'Hatzfeld.  When  I  showed  her  husband's  letter  to  her  she 
admitted  to  me,  amid  her  sobs,  with  profound  emotion,  and 
frankly,  "  Ah  !  it  is  indeed  his  writing  !  "  While  she  was 
reading,  her  voice  went  to  my  heart ;  it  pained  me.  I  said, 
"  Well,  madame,  throw  that  letter  on  the  fire,  I  shall  then 
have  no  longer  the  power  to  punish  your  husband."  She  burnt 
the  letter,  and  seemed  very  happy.  Her  husband  now  feels  at 
ease  ;  two  hours  later  he  would  have  been  a  dead  man.  You  see 
then  how  I  like  kind,  frank,  gentle  women  ;  but  it  is  because  such 
alone  resemble  you. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  my  health  is  good.  NAPOLEON. 

November  6th  and  'jth. — Slacker  and  his  army  (  i  7,000  men)  surrender 
at  Lubeck  to  Soult,  Murat,  and  Bernadotte. 

November  8th. — Magdeburg  surrenders  to  Ney,  with  2O,OOO  men, 
immense  stores,  and  nearly  800  cannon. 

_No.  ii. 

November  gth. — Napoleon  levies  a  contribution  of  150  million  francs  on 
Prussia  and  her  allies. 


Berlin,  November  9,  1806. 

My  Dear, — I  am  sending  good  news.  Magdeburg  has  capitu- 
lated, and  on  November  yth  I  took  20,000  men  at  Lubeck  who 
escaped  me  last  week.  The  whole  Prussian  army,  therefore,  is 
captured  ;  even  beyond  the  Vistula  there  does  not  remain  to 


Prussia  20,000  men.     Several  of  my  army  corps  are  in  Poland. 
I  am  still  at  Berlin.     I  am  very  fairly  well. 

Adieu,  dear  ;   heartiest  good  wishes  to  Hortense,  Stephanie, 
and  the  two  little  Napoleons. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

November  !O//>. — Davoust  occupies  Posen.  Hanover  occupied  by  Mar- 
shal Morfier. 

No.  12. 


Berlin^  November  1 6,  1806. 

I  received  your  letter  of  November  nth.  I  note  with  satis- 
faction that  my  convictions  give  you  pleasure.  You  are  wrong 
to  think  flattery  was  intended  ;  I  was  telling  you  of  yourself  as  I 
see  you.  I  am  grieved  to  think  that  you  are  tired  of  Mayence. 
Were  the  journey  less  long,  you  might  come  here,  for  there  is  no 
longer  an  enemy,  or,  if  there  is,  he  is  beyond  the  Vistula ;  that  is 
to  say,  more  than  three  hundred  miles  away.  I  will  wait  to  hear 
what  you  think  about  it.  I  should  also  be  delighted  to  see  M. 

Adieu,  my  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

I  have  still  too  much  business  here  for  me  to  return  to  Paris. 

November  Ijth. — Suspension  of  arms  signed  at  Charlottenburg. 
November  iqth. — French  occupy  Hamburg. 
November  2Oth. — French  occupy  Hameln. 

November   2 1st. — French   occupy   Bremen.      Berlin   decree.      Napoleon 
interdicts  trade  with  England. 

No.  13. 

November  22,  1806,  IO  P.M. 

Your  letter  received.     I  am  sorry  to  find  you  in  the  dumps  ; 
yet  you  have  every  reason  to  be  cheerful.     You  are  wrong  to 


show  so  much  kindness  to  people  who  show  themselves  unworthy 

of  it.  Madame  L is  a  fool ;  such  an  idiot  that  you  ought  to 

know  her  by  this  time,  and  pay  no  heed  to  her.  Be  contented, 
happy  in  my  friendship,  and  in  the  great  influence  you  possess. 
In  a  few  days  I  shall  decide  whether  to  summon  you  hither  or 
send  you  to  Paris. 

Adieu,  dear ;  you  can  go  at  once,  if  you  like,  to  Darmstadt, 
or  to  Frankfort  ;  that  will  make  you  forget  your  troubles. 

Kindest  regards  to  Hortense.  NAPOLEON. 

November  2$tk. — Napoleon  leaves  Berlin. 

No.  14. 


Kustrtri)  November  26,  1806. 

I  am  at  Kustrin,  making  a  tour  and  spying  out  the  land  a 
little ;  I  shall  see  in  a  day  or  two  whether  you  should  come. 
You  can  keep  ready.  I  shall  be  very  pleased  if  the  Queen  of 
Holland  be  of  the  party.  The  Grand  Duchess  of  Baden  must 
write  to  her  husband  about  it. 

It  is  2  A.M.     I  am  just  getting  up  ;  it  is  the  usage  of  war. 
Kindest  regards  to  you  and  to  every  one. 


No.  15. 

November  2Jth. — Napoleon  arrives  at  Posen. 


Meseritz,  November  27,  1806,  2  A.M. 

I  am  about  to  make  a  tour  in  Poland.  This  is  the  first  town 
there.  To-night  I  shall  be  at  Posen,  after  which  I  shall  send  for 
you  to  come  to  Berlin,  so  that  you  can  arrive  there  the  same  day 


as  I.  My  health  is  good,  the  weather  rather  bad  ;  it  has  rained 
for  the  past  three  days.  My  affairs  prosper.  The  Russians  are 
in  flight. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  kindest  regards  to  Hortense,  Stephanie,  and  the 
little  Napoleons.  NAPOLEON. 

November  ^%th. — Murat  enters  Warsaw.  French  occupy  Duchies  of 

No.  1 6. 

Poseny  November  29,  1806,  Noon. 

I  am  at  Posen,  capital  of  Great  Poland.  The  cold  weather 
has  set  in  ;  I  am  in  good  health.  I  am  about  to  take  a  circuit 
round  Poland.  My  troops  are  at  the  gates  of  Warsaw. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  very  kindest  regards,  and  a  hearty  embrace. 

No.  17. 
December  2nd. — Glogau  surrenders  to  Vandamme. 


Poseri,  December  2,  1806. 

To-day  is  the  anniversary  of  Austerlitz.  I  have  been  to  a 
city  ball.  It  is  raining  ;  I  am  in  good  health.  I  love  you  and 
long  for  you.  My  troops  are  at  Warsaw.  So  far  the  cold  has 
not  been  severe.  All  these  fair  Poles  are  Frenchwomen  at 
heart ;  but  there  is  only  one  woman  for  me.  Would  you  know 
her  ?  I  could  draw  her  portrait  very  well ;  but  I  should  have  to 
flatter  it  too  much  for  you  to  recognise  yourself; — yet,  to  tell 
the  truth,  my  heart  would  only  have  nice  things  to  say  to  you. 
These  nights  are  long,  all  alone. — Yours  ever, 



No.  1 8. 

December  3,  1806,  Noon. 

Yours  of  November  26th  received.  I  notice  two  things  in 
it.  You  say  I  do  not  read  your  letters  :  it  is  an  unkind  thought. 
I  take  your  bad  opinion  anything  but  kindly.  You  tell  me  that 
perhaps  it  is  a  mere  phantasy  of  the  night,  and  you  add  that  you 
are  not  jealous.  I  found  out  long  ago  that  angry  persons  always 
assert  that  they  are  not  angry  ;  that  those  who  are  afraid  keep  on 
repeating  that  they  have  no  fear  ;  you  therefore  are  convinced  of 
jealousy.  I  am  delighted  to  hear  it  !  Nevertheless,  you  are 
wrong ;  I  think  of  nothing  less,  and  in  the  desert  plains  of 
Poland  one  thinks  little  about  beauties.  .  .  . 

I  had  yesterday  a  ball  of  the  provincial  nobility — the  women 
good-looking  enough,  rich  enough,  dowdy  enough,  although  in 
Paris  fashions. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  am  in  good  health. — Yours  ever, 


No.  19. 

Posen,  December  3,  1806,  6  P.M. 

Yours  of  November  2yth  received,  from  which  I  see  that 
your  little  head  is  quite  turned.  I  am  reminded  of  the  verse — 

"  Desir  de  femme  est  un  feu  qui  devore." 

Still  you  must  calm  yourself.  I  wrote  you  that  I  was  in 
Poland ;  that,  when  we  were  established  in  winter  quarters,  you 
could  come  ;  you  will  have  to  wait  a  few  days.  The  greater 
one  becomes,  the  less  one  can  consult  one's  wishes — being 
dependent  on  events  and  circumstances.  You  can  come  to 


Frankfort  or  Darmstadt.  I  am  hoping  to  send  for  you  in  a  few 
days  ;  that  is,  if  circumstances  will  permit.  The  warmth  of 
your  letter  makes  me  realise  that  you,  like  other  pretty  women, 
know  no  bounds.  What  you  will,  must  be ;  but,  as  for  me, 
I  declare  that  of  all  men  I  am  the  greatest  slave  ;  my  master  has 
no  pity,  and  this  master  is  the  nature  of  things. 

Adieu,  dear ;  keep  well.     The  person  that  I  wished  to  speak 

to  you  about  is  Madame  L ,  of  whom  every  one  is  speaking 

ill ;  they  assure  me  that  she  is  more  Prussian  than  French 
woman.  I  don't  believe  it,  but  I  think  her  an  idiot  who  talks 
nothing  but  trash.  NAPOLEON. 

December  6th. — Thorn  (on  the  Vistula)  occupied  by  Ney. 

No.  20. 

Posen,  December  9,  1806. 

Yours  of  December  ist  received.  I  see  with  pleasure  that 
you  are  more  cheerful ;  that  the  Queen  of  Holland  wishes  to 
come  with  you.  I  long  to  give  the  order  ;  but  you  must  still 
wait  a  few  days.  My  affairs  prosper. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  love  you  and  wish  to  see  you  happy. 


No.  21. 

Posen,  December  IO,  1806,  5  P.M. 

An  officer  has  just  brought  me  a  rug,  a  gift  from  you  ;  it  is 
somewhat  short  and  narrow,  but  I  thank  you  for  it  none  the  less. 
I  am  in  fair  health.  The  weather  is  very  changeable.  My 
affairs  prosper  pretty  well.  I  love  you  and  long  for  you  much. 


Adieu,  dear  ;  I  shall  write  for  you  to  come  with  at  least  as 
much  pleasure  as  you  will  have  in  coming. — Yours  ever, 

A  kiss  to  Hortense,  Stephanie,  and  Napoleon. 

December  llth. — Davoust  forces  the  passage  of  the  Bug. 

No.  22. 

December  12th.  —  Treaty  of  peace  and  alliance  between  France  and 
Saxony  signed  at  Posen. 


Posen,  December  I2th,  1806,  7  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  have  not  received  any  letters  from  you,  but 
know,  nevertheless,  that  you  are  well.  My  health  is  good,  the 
weather  very  mild ;  the  bad  season  has  not  begun  yet,  but  the 
roads  are  bad  in  a  country  where  there  are  no  highways.  Hor- 
tense will  come  then  with  Napoleon  ;  I  am  delighted  to  hear  it. 
I  long  to  see  things  shape  themselves  into  a  position  to  enable 
you  to  come. 

I  have  made  peace  with  Saxony.  The  Elector  is  King  and 
one  of  the  confederation. 

Adieu,  my  well-beloved  Josephine. — Yours  ever, 


A  kiss  to  Hortense,  Napoleon,  and  Stephanie. 

Paer,  the  famous  musician,  his  wife,  a  virtuoso  whom  you 
saw  at  Milan  twelve  years  ago,  and  Brizzi  are  here ;  they  give 
me  a  little  music  every  evening. 

No.  23. 

December  15,  1806,  3  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  start  for  Warsaw.  In  a  fortnight  I  shall  be 
back  ;  I  hope  then  to  be  able  to  send  for  you.  But  if  that  seems 


a  long  time,  I  should  be  very  glad  if  you  would  return  to  Paris, 
where  you  are  wanted.  You  well  know  that  I  am  dependent  on 
events.  All  my  affairs  go  excellently.  My  health  is  very  good  ; 
I  am  as  well  as  possible. 

Adieu,  dear.     I  have  made  peace  with  Saxony. — Yours  ever, 


December  ijfh. — Turkey  declares  war  on  Russia.  ( So  M  ontgaillard  ; 
but  Napoleon  refers  to  it  in  the  thirty-ninth  bulletin,  dated  December  ^th, 
while  Haydn  dates  it  January  Jtk. ) 

No.  24. 

Warsaw,  December  20,  1806,  3  P.M. 

I  have  no  news  from  you,  dear.  I  am  very  well.  The  last 
two  days  I  have  been  at  Warsaw.  My  affairs  prosper.  The 
weather  is  very  mild,  and  even  somewhat  humid.  It  has  as  yet 
barely  begun  to  freeze  ;  it  is  October  weather. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  should  much  have  liked  to  see  you,  but  trust 
that  in  five  or  six  days  I  shall  be  able  to  send  for  you. 

Kindest  regards  to  the  Queen  of  Holland  and  to  her  little 
Napoleons. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

December  22nd. — Napoleon  crosses  the  Nareiu,  and  the  next  day  defeats 
Russians  at  Czarnoivo  ;  also 

December  2^th. — At  Nasielsk. 

December  26th. — Ney  defeats  Lestocq  at  Soldau  ;  Lannes  defeats  Ben- 
ings  en  at  Pultusk  ; 

December  28th. — And  Augereau  defeats  Buxhoiuden  at  Golymin. 

No.  25. 

Golymin^  December  29,  1806,  5  A.M. 

I  write  you  only  a  line,  my  dear.  I  am  in  a  wretched  barn. 
I  have  beaten  the  Russians,  taken  thirty  pieces  of  cannon,  their 


baggage,  and  6000  prisoners  ;  but  the  weather  is  frightful.  It  is 
raining ;  we  have  mud  up  to  our  knees. 

In  two  days  I  shall  be  at  Warsaw,  whence  I  shall  write  you. 
— Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  26. 

Publish,  December  31,  1806. 

I  have  had  a  good  laugh  over  your  last  letters.  You  idealise 
the  fair  ones  of  Great  Poland  in  a  way  they  do  not  deserve.  I 
have  had  for  two  or  three  days  the  pleasure  of  hearing  Paer  and 
two  lady  singers,  who  have  given  me  some  very  good  music.  I 
received  your  letter  in  a  wretched  barn,  having  mud,  wind,  and 
straw  for  my  only  bed.  To-morrow  I  shall  be  at  Warsaw.  I 
think  all  is  over  for  this  year.  The  army  is  entering  winter 
quarters.  I  shrug  my  shoulders  at  the  stupidity  of  Madame  de 

L ;  still  you  should  show  her  your  displeasure,  and  counsel 

her  not  to  be  so  idiotic.  Such  things  become  common  property, 
and  make  many  people  indignant. 

For  my  part,  I  scorn  ingratitude  as  the  worst  fault  in  a  human 
heart.  I  know  that  instead  of  comforting  you,  these  people  have 
given  you  pain. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  am  in  good  health.  I  do  not  think  you  ought 
to  go  to  Cassel ;  that  place  is  not  suitable.  You  may  go  to 
Darmstadt.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  27. 

ff^anaw,  January  3,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.  Your  grief  pains 
me  ;  but  one  must  bow  to  events.  There  is  too  much  country 
to  travel  between  Mayence  and  Warsaw ;  you  must,  therefore, 


wait  till  circumstances  allow  me  to  come  to  Berlin,  in  order  that 
I  may  write  you  to  come  thither.  It  is  true  that  the  enemy, 
defeated,  is  far  away  ;  but  I  have  many  things  here  to  put  to 
rights.  I  should  be  inclined  to  think  that  you  might  return  to 
Paris,  where  you  are  needed.  Send  away  those  ladies  who  have 
their  affairs  to  look  after ;  you  will  be  better  without  people  who 
have  given  you  so  much  worry. 

My  health  is  good  ;  the  weather  bad.     I  love  you  from  my 
heart.  NAPOLEON. 

January  $th. — Capture  of  Breslau,  with  7000  men,  by  Vandamme  and 

No.  28. 
January  ^th. — English  Orders  in  Council  against  Berlin  Decree. 


Warsaw,  January  7,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  am  pained  by  all  that  you  tell  me  ;  but  the 
season  being  cold,  the  roads  very  bad  and  not  at  all  safe,  I  cannot 
consent  to  expose  you  to  so  many  fatigues  and  dangers.  Return 
to  Paris  in  order  to  spend  the  winter  there.  Go  to  the  Tuileries ; 
receive,  and  lead  the  same  life  as  you  are  accustomed  to  do  when 
I  am  there  ;  that  is  my  wish.  Perhaps  I  shall  not  be  long  in 
rejoining  you  there  ;  but  it  is  absolutely  necessary  for  you  to  give 
up  the  idea  of  making  a  journey  of  750  miles  at  this  time  of  the 
year,  through  the  enemy's  country,  and  in  the  rear  of  the  army. 
Believe  that  it  costs  me  more  than  you  to  put  off  for  some  weeks 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  you,  but  so  events  and  the  success  of  my 
enterprise  order  it. 

Adieu,  my  dear  ;  be  cheerful,  and  show  character. 



No.  29. 

Warsaw,  January  8,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  received  your  letter  of  the  27th  with  those  of 
M.  Napoleon  and  Hortense,  which  were  enclosed  with  it.  I  had 
begged  you  to  return  to  Paris.  The  season  is  too  inclement,  the 
roads  unsafe  and  detestable  ;  the  distances  too  great  for  me  to 
permit  you  to  come  hither,  where  my  affairs  detain  me.  It 
would  take  you  at  least  a  month  to  come.  You  would  arrive 
ill ;  by  that  time  it  might  perhaps  be  necessary  to  start  back 
again  ;  it  would  therefore  be  folly.  Your  residence  at  Mayence 
is  too  dull ;  Paris  reclaims  you  ;  go  there,  it  is  my  wish.  I  am 
more  vexed  about  it  than  you.  I  should  have  liked  to  spend  the 
long  nights  of  this  season  with  you,  but  we  must  obey  circum- 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  30. 

Warsaw,  January  1 1,  1807. 

Your  letter  of  the  27th  received,  from  which  I  note  that 
you  are  somewhat  uneasy  about  military  events.  Everything  is 
settled,  as  I  have  told  you,  to  my  satisfaction  ;  my  affairs  prosper. 
The  distance  is  too  great  for  me  to  allow  you  to  come  so  far  at 
this  time  of  year.  I  am  in  splendid  health,  sometimes  rather 
wearied  by  the  length  of  the  nights. 

Up  to  the  present  I  have  seen  few  people  here. 
Adieu,  dear.     I  wish  you  to  be  cheerful,  and  to  give  a  little 
life  to  the  capital.     I  would  much  like  to  be  there. — Yours  ever, 


I  hope  that  the  Queen  has  gone  to  the  Hague  with  M. 


No.  31. 

January  i6tb. — Capture  of  Brleg  by  the  French. 


January  16,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  5th  of  January; 
all  that  you  tell  me  of  your  unhappiness  pains  me.  Why  these 
tears,  these  repinings  ?  Have  you  then  no  longer  any  fortitude  ? 
I  shall  see  you  soon.  Never  doubt  my  feelings  ;  and  if  you  wish 
to  be  still  dearer  to  me,  show  character  and  strength  of  mind.  I 
am  humiliated  to  think  that  my  wife  can  distrust  my  destinies. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  love  you,  I  long  to  see  you,  and  wish  to 
learn  that  you  are  content  and  happy.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  32. 

Warsaw,  January  18,  1807. 

I  fear  that  you  are  greatly  grieved  at  our  separation  and  at 
your  return  to  Paris,  which  must  last  for  some  weeks  longer.  I 
insist  on  your  having  more  fortitude.  I  hear  you  are  always 
weeping.  Fie  !  how  unbecoming  it  is  !  Your  letter  of  January 
7th  makes  me  unhappy.  Be  worthy  of  me ;  assume  more 
character.  Cut  a  suitable  figure  at  Paris ;  and,  above  all,  be 

I  am  very  well,  and  I  love  you  much  ;  but,  if  you  are  always 
crying,  I  shall  think  you  without  courage  and  without  character. 
I  do  not  love  cowards.  An  empress  ought  to  have  fortitude. 



No.  33. 

Warsaw,  January  i^,  1807. 

My  Dear, — Your  letter  to  hand.  I  have  laughed  at  your  fear 
of  fire.  I  am  in  despair  at  the  tone  of  your  letters  and  at  what  I 
hear.  I  forbid  you  to  weep,  to  be  petulant  and  uneasy  ;  I  want 
you  to  be  cheerful,  lovable,  and  happy.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  34. 

Warsaw,  January  23,  1807. 

Your  letter  of  January  I5th  to  hand.  It  is  impossible  to 
allow  women  to  make  such  a  journey  as  this — bad  roads,  miry 
and  unsafe.  Return  to  Paris ;  be  cheerful  and  content  there. 
Perhaps  even  I  shall  soon  be  there.  I  have  laughed  at  what 
you  say  about  your  having  taken  a  husband  to  be  with  him.  I 
thought,  in  my  ignorance,  that  the  wife  was  made  for  the  hus- 
band, the  husband  for  his  country,  his  family,  and  glory.  Pardon 
my  ignorance  ;  one  is  always  learning  from  our  fair  ladies. 

Adieu,  my  dear.  Think  how  much  it  costs  me  not  to  send 
for  you.  Say  to  yourself,  "  It  is  a  proof  how  precious  I  am  to 
him."  NAPOLEON. 

No.  35. 

January  2$th. — Russians  defeated  at  Mobrungen  by  Bernadotte. 


January  25,  1807. 

I  am  very  unhappy  to  see  you  are  in  pain.  I  hope  that  you 
are  at  Paris ;  you  will  get  better  there.  I  share  your  griefs,  and 
do  not  groan.  For  I  could  not  risk  losing  you  by  exposing  you 
to  fatigues  and  dangers  which  befit  neither  your  rank  nor 
your  sex. 


I  wish  you  never  to  receive  T at  Paris ;  he  is  a  black 

sheep.     You  would  grieve  me  by  doing  otherwise. 
Adieu,  my  dear.     Love  me,  and  be  courageous. 


No.  36. 

Warsaw,  January  26,  1807,  Noon. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.  It  pains  me  to  see 
how  you  are  fretting  yourself.  The  bridge  of  Mayence  neither 
increases  nor  decreases  the  distance  which  separates  us.  Remain, 
therefore,  at  Paris.  I  should  be  vexed  and  uneasy  to  know  that 
you  were  so  miserable  and  so  isolated  at  Mayence.  You  must 
know  that  I  ought,  that  I  can,  consider  only  the  success  of  my 
enterprise.  If  I  could  consult  my  heart  I  should  be  with  you,  or 
you  with  me ;  for  you  would  be  most  unjust  if  you  doubted  my 
love  and  entire  affection.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  37. 

Willemberg)  February  I,  1807,  Noon. 

Your  letter  of  the  nth,  from  Mayence,  has  made  me  laugh. 
To-day,  I  am  a  hundred  miles  from  Warsaw  j  the  weather  is 
cold,  but  fine. 

Adieu,  dear ;  be  happy,  show  character. 


No.  38. 

My  Deary — Your  letter  of  January  2Oth  has  given  me  pain  ; 
it  is  too  sad.  That's  the  fault  of  not  being  a  little  more  devout  ! 


You  tell  me  that  your  glory  consists  in  your  happiness.  That  is 
narrow-minded  ;  one  should  say,  my  glory  consists  in  the  happi- 
ness of  others.  It  is  not  conjugal ;  one  should  say,  my  glory 
consists  in  the  happiness  of  my  husband.  It  is  not  maternal ; 
one  should  say,  my  glory  consists  in  the  happiness  of  my  children. 
Now,  since  nations — your  husband,  your  children — can  only  be 
happy  with  a  certain  amount  of  glory,  you  must  not  make  little 
of  it.  Fie,  Josephine  !  your  heart  is  excellent  and  your  argu- 
ments weak.  You  feel  acutely,  but  you  don't  argue  as  well. 

That's  sufficient  quarrelling.  I  want  you  to  be  cheerful, 
happy  in  your  lot,  and  that  you  should  obey,  not  with  grumbling 
and  tears,  but  with  gaiety  of  heart  and  a  little  more  good  temper. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  start  to-night  to  examine  my  outposts. 


February  $th. — Combats  of  Bergfriede,  Wallers dorf,  and  Deppen ; 
Russians  forced  back. 

February  6th. — Combat  of  H of.      Murat  victorious. 
February  8 th. —  Battle  of  Eylau  ;  retreat  of  Russians. 

No.  39. 

Ey/au,  February  9,  1807,  3  A.M. 

My  Dear, — Yesterday  there  was  a  great  battle  ;  the  victory 
has  remained  with  me,  but  I  have  lost  many  men.  The  loss  of 
the  enemy,  which  is  still  more  considerable,  does  not  console  me. 
To  conclude,  I  write  you  these  two  lines  myself,  although  I  am 
very  tired,  to  tell  you  that  I  am  well  and  that  I  love  you. — 
Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  40. 

Eylau,  February  9,  1807,  6  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  write  you  a  line  in  order  that  you  may  not  be 
uneasy.  The  enemy  has  lost  the  battle,  40  pieces  of  cannon, 



10  flags,  12,000  prisoners  ;  he  has  suffered  frightfully.  I  have  lost 
many  :  1600  killed,  3000  or  4000  wounded. 

Your  cousin  Tascher  conducts  himself  well ;  I  have  sum- 
moned him  near  me  with  the  title  of  orderly  officer. 

Corbineau  has  been  killed  by  a  shell ;  I  was  singularly  attached 
to  that  officer,  who  had  much  merit ;  I  am  very  unhappy 
about  him.  My  mounted  guard  has  covered  itself  with  glory. 
Dahlman  is  dangerously  wounded. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  41. 

Eylau,  February  II,  1807,  3  A.M. 

My  Dear, — I  write  you  a  line  ;  you  must  have  been  very 
anxious.  I  have  beaten  the  enemy  in  a  fight  to  be  remembered, 
but  it  has  cost  many  brave  lives.  The  bad  weather  that  has  set 
in  forces  me  to  take  cantonments. 

Do  not  afflict  yourself,  please  ;  all  this  will  soon  be  over,  and 
the  happiness  of  seeing  you  will  make  me  promptly  forget  my 
fatigues.  Besides,  I  have  never  been  in  better  health. 

Young  Tascher,  of  the  4th  Regiment,  has  behaved  well ;  he 
has  had  a  rough  time  of  it.  I  have  summoned  him  near  me  ;  I 
have  made  him  an  orderly  officer — there's  an  end  to  his  troubles. 
This  young  man  interests  me. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  a  thousand  kisses.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  42. 

Preussich-Ey/aUy  February  12,  1807. 

I  send  you  a  letter  from  General  Darmagnac.  He  is  a  very 
good  soldier,  who  commanded  the  32nd.  He  is  much  attached 


to  me.  If  this  Madame  de  Richmond  be  well  off,  and  it  is  a 
good  match,  I  shall  see  this  marriage  with  pleasure.  Make  this 
known  to  both  of  them.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  43. 

Ey/auy  February  14,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  am  still  at  Eylau.  This  country  is  covered 
with  dead  and  wounded.  It  is  not  the  bright  side  of  warfare  ; 
one  suffers,  and  the  mind  is  oppressed  at  the  sight  of  so  many 
victims.  My  health  is  good.  I  have  done  as  I  wished,  and 
driven  back  the  enemy,  while  making  his  projects  fail. 

You  are  sure  to  be  uneasy,  and  that  thought  troubles  me. 
Nevertheless,  calm  yourself,  my  dear,  and  be  cheerful. — Yours 
ever,  NAPOLEON. 

Tell  Caroline  and  Pauline  that  the  Grand  Duke  and  the 
Prince l  are  in  excellent  health. 

February  \6th. — Savory  defeats  Russians  at  Ostrolenka. 

No.  44. 

Eylau,  February  17,  1807,  3  A.M. 

Your  letter  to  hand,  informing  me  of  your  arrival  at  Paris. 
I  am  very  glad  to  know  you  are  there.  My  health  is  good. 

The  battle  of  Eylau  was  very  sanguinary,  and  very  hardly 
contested.  Corbineau  was  slain.  He  was  a  very  brave  man.  I 
had  grown  very  fond  of  him. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  it  is  as  warm  here  as  in  the  month  of  April ; 
everything  is  thawing.  My  health  is  good.  NAPOLEON. 

1  Murat  and  Borghese. 


No.  45. 

Landsbergy  February  18,  1807,  3  A.M. 

I  write  you  two  lines.  My  health  is  good.  I  am  moving  to 
set  my  army  in  winter  quarters. 

It  rains  and  thaws  as  in  the  month  of  April.  We  have  not 
yet  had  one  cold  day. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  46. 

Liebstadt,  February  2O,  1807,  2  A.M. 

I  write  you  two  lines,  dear,  in  order  that  you  may  not  be 
uneasy.  My  health  is  very  good,  and  my  affairs  prosper. 

I  have  again  put  my  army  into  cantonments. 

The  weather  is  extraordinary  ;  it  freezes  and  thaws  ;  it  is 
wet  and  unsettled. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  47. 

Liebstadt,  February  21,  1807,  2  A.M. 

Your  letter  of  the  4th  February  to  hand  ;  I  see  with  pleasure 
that  your  health  is  good.  Paris  will  thoroughly  re-establish  it  by 
giving  you  cheerfulness  and  rest,  and  a  return  to  your  accus- 
tomed habits. 

I  am  wonderfully  well.  The  weather  and  the  country  are 
vile.  My  affairs  are  fairly  satisfactory.  It  thaws  and  freezes 
within  twenty-four  hours ;  there  can  never  have  been  known 
such  an  extraordinary  winter. 


Adieu,  dear  ;  I  love  you,  I  think  of  you,  and  wish  to  know 
that  you  are  contented,  cheerful,  and  happy. — Yours  ever, 


No.  48. 


Liebstadt,  February  21,  1807,  Noon. 

My  Dear, — Your  letter  of  the  8th  received  ;  I  see  with 
pleasure  that  you  have  been  to  the  opera,  and  that  you  propose 
holding  receptions  weekly.  Go  occasionally  to  the  theatre,  and 
always  into  the  Royal  box.  I  notice  also  with  pleasure  the 
banquets  you  are  giving. 

I  am  very  well.  The  weather  is  still  unsettled  ;  it  freezes 
and  thaws. 

I  have  once  more  put  my  army  into  cantonments  in  order  to 
rest  them. 

Never  be  doleful,  love  me,  and  believe  in  my  entire  affection. 


No.  49. 


Osterode,  February  23,  1807,  2  P.M. 

My  Dear, — Your  letter  of  the  loth  received.  I  am  sorry  to 
see  you  are  a  little  out  of  sorts. 

I  have  been  in  the  country  for  the  past  month,  experiencing 
frightful  weather,  because  it  has  been  unsettled,  and  varying  from 
cold  to  warm  within  a  week.  Still,  I  am  very  well. 

Try  and  pass  your  time  pleasantly  ;  have  no  anxieties,  and 
never  doubt  the  love  I  bear  you.  NAPOLEON. 

February  26th. — Dupont  defeats  Russians  at  Braunsberg. 


No.  50. 

Osterode,  March  2,  1807. 

My  Dear^ — It  is  two  or  three  days  since  I  wrote  to  you  ;  I 
reproach  myself  for  it ;  I  know  your  uneasiness.  I  am  very  well ; 
my  affairs  prosper.  I  am  in  a  wretched  village,  where  I  shall 
pass  a  considerable  time  ;  it  is  not  as  good  as  the  great  city !  I 
again  assure  you,  I  was  never  in  such  good  health  ;  you  will  find 
me  very  much  stouter. 

It  is  spring  weather  here  ;  the  snow  has  gone,  the  streams 
are  thawing — which  is  what  I  want. 

I  have  ordered  what  you  wish  for  Malmaison  ;  be  cheerful 
and  happy  ;  it  is  my  will. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  embrace  you  heartily. — Yours  ever, 


March  gtb. — The  Grand  Sanhedrim,  which  assembled  at  Paris  on 
February  9,  terminates  its  sittings. 

No.  51. 

Osttrode,  March  IO,  1807,  4  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  25th.  I  see 
with  pleasure  that  you  are  well,  and  that  you  sometimes  make  a 
pilgrimage  to  Malmaison. 

My  health  is  good,  and  my  affairs  prosper. 

The  weather  has  become  rather  cold  again.  I  see  that  the 
winter  has  been  very  variable  everywhere. 

Adieu,  dear;  keep  well,  be  cheerful,  and  never  doubt  my 
affection, — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 


No.  52. 

Osterode,  March  u,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  received  your  letter  of  the  27th.  I  am  sorry  to 
see  from  it  that  you  are  ill ;  take  courage.  My  health  is  good  ; 
my  affairs  prosper.  I  am  waiting  for  fine  weather,  which  should 
soon  be  here.  I  love  you  and  want  to  know  that  you  are  con- 
tent and  cheerful. 

A  great  deal  of  nonsense  will  be  talked  of  the  battle  of  Eylau  ; 
the  bulletin  tells  everything ;  our  losses  are  rather  exaggerated  in 
it  than  minimised. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  53. 

Osterode,  March  13,  1807,  2  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  learn  that  the  vexatious  tittle-tattle  that  occurred 
in  your  salon  at  Mayence  has  begun  again  ;  make  people  hold 
their  tongues.  I  shall  be  seriously  annoyed  with  you  if  you  do 
not  find  a  remedy.  You  allow  yourself  to  be  worried  by  the 
chatter  of  people  who  ought  to  console  you.  I  desire  you  to 
have  a  little  character,  and  to  know  how  to  put  everybody  into 
his  (or  her)  proper  place. 

I  am  in  excellent  health.  My  affairs  here  are  good.  We 
are  resting  a  little,  and  organising  our  food  supply. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  keep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  54. 

Osterode,  March  15,  1807. 

I  received  your  letter  of  the  ist  of  March,  from  which  I  see 
that  you  were  much  upset  by  the  catastrophe  of  Minerva  at  the 


opera.     I  am  very  glad  to  see  that  you  go  out  and  seek  distrac- 

My  health  is  very  good.  My  affairs  go  excellently.  Take 
no  heed  of  all  the  unfavourable  rumours  that  may  be  circulated. 
Never  doubt  my  affection,  and  be  without  the  least  uneasiness. — 
Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  55. 

Osterode,  March  17,  1807. 

My  Dear, — It  is  not  necessary  for  you  to  go  to  the  small 
plays  and  into  a  private  box  ;  it  ill  befits  your  rank  ;  you  should 
only  go  to  the  four  great  theatres,  and  always  into  the  Royal  box. 
Live  as  you  would  do  if  I  were  at  Paris. 

My  health  is  very  good.  The  cold  weather  has  recommenced. 
The  thermometer  has  been  down  to  8°. — Yours  ever, 


No.  56. 

Osterode,  March  17,  1807,  10  P.M. 

I  have  received  yours  of  March  5th,  from  which  I  see  with 
pleasure  that  you  are  well.  My  health  is  perfect.  Yet  the 
weather  of  the  past  two  days  has  been  cold  again  ;  the  ther- 
mometer to-night  has  been  at  10°,  but  the  sun  has  given  us  a 
very  fine  day. 

Adieu,  dear.     Very  kindest  regards  to  everybody. 

Tell  me  something  about  the  death  of  that  poor  Dupuis ; 
have  his  brother  told  that  I  wish  to  help  him. 

My  affairs  here  go  excellently. — Yours  ever,       NAPOLEON. 


No.  57. 

March  2$th. — Abolition  of  slave  trade  in  Great  Britain  by  Parliament. 


March  25,  1807. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  March  I3th.  If  you  really 
wish  to  please  me,  you  must  live  exactly  as  you  live  when  I  am 
at  Paris.  Then  you  were  not  in  the  habit  of  visiting  the  second- 
rate  theatres  or  other  places.  You  ought  always  to  go  into  the 
Royal  box.  As  for  your  home  life  :  hold  receptions  there,  and 
have  your  fixed  circles  of  friends  ;  that,  my  dear,  is  the  only  way 
to  deserve  my  approbation.  Greatness  has  its  inconveniences ; 
an  Empress  cannot  go  where  a  private  individual  may. 

Very  best  love.     My  health  is  good.     My  affairs  prosper. 


No.  58. 

Osterode,  March  27,  1807,  7  P.M. 

My  Dear, — Your  letter  pains  me.  There  is  no  question  of 
your  dying.  You  are  in  good  health,  and  you  can  have  no  just 
ground  for  grief. 

I  think  you  should  go  during  May  to  St.  Cloud  ;  but  you 
must  spend  the  whole  month  of  April  at  Paris. 

My  health  is  good.     My  affairs  prosper. 

You  must  not  think  of  travelling  this  summer  ;  nothing  of 
that  sort  is  feasible.  You  ought  not  to  frequent  inns  and  camps. 
I  long  as  much  as  you  for  our  meeting  and  for  a  quiet  life. 

I  can  do  other  things  besides  fight ;  but  duty  stands  first  and 
foremost.  All  my  life  long  I  have  sacrificed  everything  to  my 
destiny — peace  of  mind,  personal  advantage,  happiness. 

Adieu,  dear.      See  as  little  as  possible  of  that  Madame  de 


P .      She  is  a  woman  who  belongs  to  the  lowest  grade  of 

society  ;  she  is  thoroughly  common  and  vulgar. 


I  have  had  occasion  to  find  fault  with  M.  de  T .     I  have 

sent  him  to  his  country  house  in  Burgundy.     I  wish  no  longer 
to  hear  his  name  mentioned. 

No.  59. 

Osterode,  April  I,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  just  got  your  letter  of  the  2Oth.  I  am 
sorry  to  see  you  are  ill.  I  wrote  you  to  stay  at  Paris  the  whole 
month  of  April,  and  to  go  to  St.  Cloud  on  May  ist.  You 
may  go  and  spend  the  Sundays,  and  a  day  or  two,  at  Malmaison. 
At  St.  Cloud  you  may  have  your  usual  visitors. 

My  health  is  good.  It  is  still  quite  cold  enough  here.  All 
is  quiet. 

I  have  named  the  little  princess  Josephine.1  Eugene  should 
be  well  pleased. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  60. 

Finckenstein,  April  2,  1807. 

My  Deary — I  write  you  a  line.  I  have  just  moved  my  head- 
quarters into  a  very  fine  chateau,  after  the  style  of  Bessieres', 
where  I  have  several  fireplaces,  which  is  a  great  comfort  to  me  ; 
getting  up  often  in  the  night,  I  like  to  see  the  fire. 

My  health  is  perfect.  The  weather  is  fine,  but  still  cold. 
The  thermometer  is  at  four  to  five  degrees. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

1  Eugene's  eldest  daughter,  the  Princess  Josephine  Maximilienne  Auguste, 
born  March  14,  1807  ;  married  Bernadotte's  son,  Prince  Oscar,  June  18,  1827. 


No.  61. 

Finckenstein,  April  6,  1807,  3  P.M. 

My  Dear^ — I  have  received  your  letter,  from  which  I  see  you 
have  spent  Holy  Week  at  Malmaison,  and  that  your  health  is 
better.  I  long  to  hear  that  you  are  thoroughly  well. 

I  am  in  a  fine  chateau,  where  there  are  fireplaces,  which  I 
find  a  great  comfort.  It  is  still  very  cold  here  ;  everything  is 

You  will  have  seen  that  I  have  good  news  from  Constantinople. 

My  health  is  good.  There  is  nothing  fresh  here. — Yours 
ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  62. 

Finckemteiny  April  IO,  1807,  6  P.M. 

My  Dear, — My  health  is  excellent.  Here  spring  is  begin- 
ning ;  but  as  yet  there  is  no  vegetation.  I  wish  you  to  be 
cheerful  and  contented,  and  never  to  doubt  my  attachment. 
Here  all  goes  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  63. 

Finckenstein,  April  14,  1807,  7  P.M. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  April  3rd.  I  see  from  it  that 
you  are  well,  and  that  it  has  been  very  cold  in  Paris.  The 
weather  here  is  very  unsettled  ;  still  I  think  the  spring  has  come 
at  length  ;  already  the  ice  has  almost  gone.  I  am  in  splendid 

Adieu,  dear.  I  ordered  some  time  ago  for  Malmaison  all  that 
you  ask  for, — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON, 


No.  64. 

Finckenstein,  April  1 8,  1807. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  April  5th.  I  am  sorry  to  see 
from  it  that  you  are  grieved  at  what  I  have  told  you.  As  usual, 
your  little  Creole  head  becomes  flurried  and  excited  in  a  moment. 
Let  us  not,  therefore,  speak  of  it  again.  I  am  very  well,  but  yet 
the  weather  is  rainy.  Savary  is  very  ill  of  a  bilious  fever,  before 
Dantzic  ;  I  hope  it  will  be  nothing  serious. 
Adieu,  dear  ;  my  very  best  wishes  to  you. 


No.  65. 

Finckenstein,  April  24,  1807,  7  P.M. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  I2th.  I  see  from  it  that 
your  health  is  good,  and  that  you  are  very  happy  at  the  thought 
of  going  to  Malmaison. 

The  weather  has  changed  to  fine  ;  I  hope  it  may  continue  so. 

There  is  nothing  fresh  here.     I  am  very  well. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  66. 

Finckenstein,  May  2,  1807,  4  P.M. 

My  Deary — I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  the  23rd  ;  I 
see  with  pleasure  that  you  are  well,  and  that  you  are  as  fond  as 
ever  of  Malmaison.  I  hear  the  Arch-Chancellor  is  in  love.  Is 
this  a  joke,  or  a  fact  ?  It  has  amused  me  ;  you  might  have 
given  me  a  hint  about  it ! 


I  am  very  well,  and   the  fine  season   commences.      Spring 
shows  itself  at  length,  and  the  leaves  begin  to  shoot. 
Adieu,  dear  ;  very  best  wishes. — Yours  ever, 


No.  67. 

Finckenstein,  May  10,  1807. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter.  I  know  not  what  you  tell 
me  about  ladies  in  correspondence  with  me.  I  love  only  my 
little  Josephine,  sweet,  pouting,  and  capricious,  who  can  quarrel 
with  grace,  as  she  does  everything  else,  for  she  is  always 
lovable,  except  when  she  is  jealous  ;  then  she  becomes  a  regular 
shrew.1  But  let  us  come  back  to  these  ladies.  If  I  had  leisure 
for  any  among  them,  I  assure  you  that  I  should  like  them  to  be 
pretty  rosebuds. 

Are  those  of  whom  you  speak  of  this  kind  ? 

I  wish  you  to  have  only  those  persons  to  dinner  who  have 
dined  with  me  ;  that  your  list  be  the  same  for  your  assemblies  ; 
that  you  never  make  intimates  at  Malmaison  of  ambassadors  and 
foreigners.  If  you  should  do  the  contrary,  you  would  displease 
me.  Finally,  do  not  allow  yourself  to  be  duped  too  much  by 
persons  whom  I  do  not  know,  and  who  would  not  come  to  the 
house,  if  I  were  there. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  68. 

Finckenstein,  May  12,  1807. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  May  2nd,  in  which  I  see 
that  you  are  getting  ready  to  go  to  St.  Cloud.  I  was  sorry  to 

see  the  bad  conduct  of  Madame .     Might  you  not  speak  to 

1  Toute  diablesse. 


her  about  mending    her  ways,   which   at    present  might  easily 
cause  unpleasantness  on  the  part  of  her  husband  ? 

From  what  I  hear,  Napoleon  is  cured  ;  I  can  well  imagine 
how  unhappy  his  mother  has  been  ;  but  measles  is  an  ailment  to 
which  every  one  is  liable.  I  hope  that  he  has  been  vaccinated, 
and  that  he  will  at  least  be  safe  from  the  smallpox. 

Adieu,  dear.  The  weather  is  very  warm,  and  vegetation  has 
begun  ;  but  it  will  be  some  days  before  there  is  any  grass. 


No.  69. 

Finckenstein,  May  14,  1807. 

I  realise  the  grief  which  the  death  of  this  poor  Napoleon  l 
must  cause  you ;  you  can  imagine  what  I  am  enduring. 
I  should  like  to  be  by  your  side,  in  order  that  your  sorrow 
might  be  kept  within  reasonable  bounds.  You  have  had 
the  good  fortune  never  to  lose  children  ;  but  it  is  one  of  the 
pains  and  conditions  attached  to  our  miseries  here  below.  I 
trust  I  may  hear  you  have  been  rational  in  your  sorrow,  and 
that  your  health  remains  good  !  Would  you  willingly  augment 
my  grief? 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  70. 


Finckenstein,  May  1 6,  1807. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  May  6th.  I  see  from  it 
how  ill  you  are  already ;  and  I  fear  that  you  are  not  rational, 
and  that  you  are  making  yourself  too  wretched  about  the  mis- 
fortune which  has  come  upon  us. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

1  Charles  Napoleon,  Prince  Royal  of  Holland,  died  at  the  Hague,  May  5,  1807. 


No.  71. 

Finckenstein,  May  2O,  1807. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  May  loth.  I  see  that  you 
have  gone  to  Lacken.  I  think  you  might  stay  there  a  fortnight ; 
it  would  please  the  Belgians  and  serve  to  distract  you. 

I  am  sorry  to  see  that  you  have  not  been  rational.  Grief  has 
bounds  which  should  not  be  passed.  Take  care  of  yourself  for 
the  sake  of  your  friend,  and  believe  in  my  entire  affection. 


No.  72. 

May  2^.tk. — Dantzic  surrenders  to  Lefebvre  after  two  months'  siege, 
with  800  guns  and  immense  stores. 


Finckemtein,  May  24,  1807. 

Your  letter  from  Lacken  just  received.  I  am  sorry  to  see 
your  grief  undiminished,  and  that  Hortense  has  not  yet  come  ; 
she  is  unreasonable,  and  does  not  deserve  our  love,  since  she  only 
loves  her  children. 

Try  to  calm  her,  and  do  not  make  me  wretched.  For  every 
ill  without  a  remedy  consolations  must  be  found. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  73. 

Finckenstein,  May  26,  1807. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  the  i6th.  I  have  seen 
with  pleasure  that  Hortense  has  arrived  at  Lacken.  I  am  an- 
noyed at  what  you  tell  me  of  the  state  of  stupor  in  which  she 
still  is.  She  must  have  more  courage,  and  force  herself  to  have  it. 


I  cannot  imagine  why  they  want  her  to  go  to  take  the  waters  ; 
she  will  forget  her  trouble  much  better  at  Paris,  and  find  more 
sources  of  consolation. 

Show  force  of  character,  be  cheerful,  and  keep  well.  My 
health  is  excellent. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  suffer  much  from  all  your  griefs  ;  it  is  a  great 
trouble  to  me  not  to  be  by  your  side.  NAPOLEON. 

May  2%tb. — Lefebvre  made  Duke  of  Dantzic  by  Napoleon. 

May  2()th. — Selim  III.  deposed  in  Turkey  by  Mustapha  IV.,  his 

June  1st. — 22,OOO  Spanish  troops,  sent  by  Charles  IV. ,  join  the  French 
army  in  Germany. 

No.  74. 

Dantzig,  June  2,  1807. 

My  Deary — I  note  your  arrival  at  Malmaison.  I  have  no 
letters  from  you  ;  I  am  vexed  with  Hortense,  she  has  never 
written  me  a  line.  All  that  you  tell  me  about  her  grieves  me. 
Why  have  you  not  found  her  some  distractions  ?  Weeping 
won't  do  it  !  I  trust  you  will  take  care  of  yourself  in  order  that 
I  may  not  find  you  utterly  woebegone. 

I  have  been  the  two  past  days  at  Dantzic  ;  the  weather  is 
very  fine,  my  health  excellent.  I  think  more  of  you  than  you 
are  thinking  of  a  husband  far  away. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  very  kindest  regards.  Pass  on  this  letter  to 
Hortense.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  75. 

Marienburg)  June  3,  1807. 

This  morning  I  slept  at  Marienburg.  Yesterday  I  left 
Dantzic  ;  my  health  is  very  good.  Every  letter  that  comes  from 


St.  Cloud  tells  me  you  are  always  weeping.     That  is  not  well ; 
it  is  necessary  for  you  to  keep  well  and  be  cheerful. 

Hortense  is  still  unwell ;  what  you  tell  me  of  her  makes  me 
very  sorry  for  her. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  think  of  all  the  affection  I  bear  for  you. 


June  $th. — Russians  defeated  at  Spanden  ;  Bernadottc  •wounded. 

No.  76. 

June  6th. — Russians  defeated  at  Deppen  by  Soult. 


Finckenstein,  June  6,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  am  in  flourishing  health.  Your  yesterday's 
letter  pained  me  ;  it  seems  to  me  that  you  are  always  grieving, 
and  that  you  are  not  reasonable.  The  weather  is  very  fine. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  love  you  and  wish  to  see  you  cheerful  and 
contented.  NAPOLEON. 

June  Qth. — Russians  defeated  at  Guttstadt  by  Napoleon,  and 

June  \oth. — At  Heilsberg. 

June  i^th. — Battle  of  Fried/and,  completing  the  "  Campaign  of  Ten  Days.'* 

No.  77. 

Fried/and,  June  15,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  write  you  only  a  line,  for  I  am  very  tired,  by 
reason  of  several  days'  bivouacking.  My  children  have  worthily 
celebrated  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Marengo. 

The  battle  of  Friedland  will  be  as  celebrated  for  my  people, 
and  equally  glorious.  The  entire  Russian  army  routed,  80  pieces 
of  cannon  captured,  30,000  men  taken  or  slain,  25  Russian 
generals  killed,  wounded,  or  taken,  the  Russian  Guard  wiped  out. 



The  battle  is  worthy  of  her  sisters — Marengo,  Austerlitz,  Jena. 
The  bulletin  will  tell  you  the  rest.  My  loss  is  not  consider- 
able. I  out-manoeuvred  the  enemy  successfully. 

Be  content  and  without  uneasiness. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  my  horse  is  waiting.  NAPOLEON. 

You  may  give  this  news  as  official,  if  it  arrives  before  the 
bulletin.  They  may  also  fire  salvoes.  Cambaceres  will  make 
the  proclamation. 

No.  78. 

June  i6tt>. — Konigsberg  captured  by  Soult — "  what  tuas  left  to  the 
King  of  Prussia  is  conquered." 


Friedland)  June  1 6,  1807,  4  P*M- 

My  Dear, — Yesterday  I  despatched  Moustache  with  the  news 
of  the  battle  of  Friedland.  Since  then  I  have  continued  to 
pursue  the  enemy.  Konigsberg,  which  is  a  town  of  80,000 
souls,  is  in  my  power.  I  have  found  there  many  cannon,  large 
stores,  and,  lastly,  more  than  160,000  muskets,  which  have  come 
from  England. 

Adieu,  dear.  My  health  is  perfect,  although  I  have  a  slight 
catarrh  caused  by  bivouacking  in  the  rain  and  cold.  Be  happy 
and  cheerful. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

June    17 th. — Neisse,    in    Silesia,   with    6000    men,   surrenders    to    the 
French  ;    also 

June  iSth. — Glatz. 

No.  79. 

Tilsit,  June  19,  1807. 

This  morning  I  despatched  Tascher  to  you,  to  calm  all  your 
fears.     Here  all  goes  splendidly.     The  battle  of  Friedland  has 


decided  everything.      The  enemy  is  confounded,  overwhelmed, 
and  greatly  weakened. 

My  health  is  good,  and  my  army  is  superb. 

Adieu,  dear.     Be  cheerful  and  contented.  NAPOLEON. 

June  2 1  st. — Armistice  concluded  at  Tilsit. 

No.  80. 

Tilsit,  June  22,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter  of  June  loth.  I  am  sorry  to 
see  you  are  so  depressed.  You  will  see  by  the  bulletin  that  I 
have  concluded  a  suspension  of  arms,  and  that  we  are  negotiating 
peace.  Be  contented  and  cheerful. 

I  despatched  Borghese  to  you,  and,  twelve  hours  later,  Mous- 
tache ;  therefore  you  should  have  received  in  good  time  my 
letters  and  the  news  of  the  grand  battle  of  Friedland. 

I  am  wonderfully  well,  and  wish  to  hear  that  you  are 
happy. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  81. 

Tilsit,  June  25,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  just  seen  the  Emperor  Alexander.  I  was 
much  pleased  with  him.  He  is  a  very  handsome,  young,  and 
kind-hearted  Emperor ;  he  has  more  intelligence  than  people 
usually  give  him  credit  for.  To-morrow  he  will  lodge  in  the 
town  of  Tilsit. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  am  very  anxious  to  hear  that  you  are  well 
and  happy.  My  health  is  very  good.  NAPOLEON. 


No.  82. 

Tilsit,  July  3,  1807. 

My  Dear^ — M.  de  Turenne  will  give  you  full  details  of  all 
that  has  occurred  here.  Everything  goes  excellently.  I  think  I 
told  you  that  the  Emperor  of  Russia  drinks  your  health  with 
much  cordiality.  He,  as  well  as  the  King  of  Prussia,  dines  with 
me  every  day.  I  sincerely  trust  that  you  are  happy. 
Adieu,  dear.  A  thousand  loving  remembrances. 


No.  83. 


Tilsit y  July  6,  1807. 

I  have  your  letter  of  June  25th.  I  was  grieved  to  see  that 
you  were  selfish,  and  that  the  success  of  my  arms  should  have  no 
charm  for  you. 

The  beautiful  Queen  of  Prussia  is  to  come  to-morrow  to 
dine  with  me. 

I  am  well,  and  am  longing  to  see  you  again,  when  destiny 
shall  so  order  it.  Still,  it  may  be  sooner  than  we  expect. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  a  thousand  loving  remembrances. 


No.  84. 

July  yfh. — Peace  signed  between  France  and  Russia. 

Tilsit  y  July  7,  1807. 

My  Dear, — Yesterday  the  Queen  of  Prussia  dined  with  me. 
I  had  to  be  on  the  defence  against  some  further  concessions  she 


wished  me  to  make  to  her  husband  ;  but  I  was  very  polite,  and 
yet  held  firmly  to  my  policy.  She  is  very  charming.  I  shall 
soon  give  you  the  details,  which  I  could  not  possibly  give  you 
now  unless  at  great  length.  When  you  read  this  letter,  peace 
with  Prussia  and  Russia  will  be  concluded,  and  Jerome  acknow- 
ledged King  of  Westphalia,  with  a  population  of  three  millions. 
This  news  is  for  yourself  alone. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  I  love  you,  and  wish  to  know  that  you  are 
cheerful  and  contented.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  85. 

Tilsit,  July  8,1  1807. 

The  Queen  of  Prussia  is  really  charming  ;  she  is  full  of 
coquetterle  for  me  ;  but  don't  be  jealous  ;  I  am  an  oil-cloth  over 
which  all  that  can  only  glide.  It  would  cost  me  too  much  to 
play  the  lover.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  12,875  of  the  Correspondence  (taken  from  Las  Cases). 

July  tyh. — Peace  signed  between  France  and  Prussia,  the  latter  resign- 
ing all  its  possessions  between  the  Rhine  and  the  Elbe. 

No.  86. 

Dresden,  July  18,  1807,  Noon. 

My  Dear, — Yesterday  I  arrived  at  Dresden  at  5  P.M.,  in 
excellent  health,  although  I  remained  a  hundred  hours  in  the 
carriage  without  getting  out.  I  am  staying  here  with  the  King 
of  Saxony,  with  whom  I  am  highly  pleased.  I  have  now  there- 
fore traversed  more  than  half  the  distance  that  separates  us. 

1  Presumed  date. 


It  is  very  likely  that  one  of  these  fine  nights  I  may  descend 
upon  St.  Cloud  like  a  jealous  husband,  so  beware. 

Adieu,  dear ;  I  shall  have  great  pleasure  in  seeing  you. — 
Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

July  2$th. — Plot  of  Prince  Ferdinand  of  Asturias  against  his  parents, 
the  King  and  Queen  of  Spain. 

July  2Jth. — Napoleon  arrives  at  St.  Cloud,  5  A.M. 

August  iqth. — Napoleon  suppresses  the  French  Tribunate. 

August  2Oth. — Marshal  Brune  captures  Stralsund from  the  Swedes. 

September  1st. — The  Ionian  Isles  become  part  of  the  French  Empire. 

September  $th  to  1th. — Bombardment  of  Copenhagen  by  the  English. 

September  fth. — Occupation  of  Rugen  by  Marshal  Brune. 

October  6th. — War  between  Russia  and  Sweden. 

October  1 6th. — Treaty  of  alliance  between  France  and  Denmark. 

October  l"]th. — Junot  with  27,000  men  starts  for  Portugal,  with  whom 
France  has  been  nominally  at  war  since  1801. 

October  27  th. — Treaty  of  Fontainebleau  signed  between  France  and 
Spain.  (  Plot  of  Prince  Ferdinand  against  his  father  discovered  at  Madrid 
the  same  day. ) 

November  8th. — Russia  declares  war  against  England. 

November  I  $th. — Napoleon  constitutes  the  kingdom  of  Westphalia,  with 
his  brother  Jerome  as  king. 

November  26th. — Junot  enters  Abrantes,  and  on 

November  $Oth,  enters  Lisbon. 

December  £)th. — Trade  suspended  between  England  and  the  United 
States  (re  rights  of  neutrals). 

December  2$rd. — France  levies  a  contribution  of  IOO  million  francs  on 


"  Napoleon  was  received  with  unbounded  adulation  by  all 
the  towns  of  Italy.  .  .  .  He  was  the  Redeemer  of  France, 
but  the  Creator  of  Italy." — ALISON,  Hist,  of  Europe  (vol.  xi. 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  264-267.) 


No.    I.   Milan     ........  264 

Mont  Cents       .......  264 

Eugene    .          .           .           .           .          .           .   •  264 

No.  2.  Venice  ........  265 

November  $oth           ......  265 

No.  3.  Udine  ........  265-7 

/  may  soon  be  in  Paris         .           .           .           .          .  267 



November  i6th. — Napoleon  leaves  Fontainebleau. 
November  ^^nd-^s>th. — At  Milan. 

No.  i. 

Mi/an,  November  25,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  been  here  two  days.  I  am  very  glad  that 
I  did  not  bring  you  here  ;  you  would  have  suffered  dreadfully  in 
crossing  Mont  Cenis,  where  a  storm  detained  me  twenty-four 

I  found  Eugene  in  good  health  ;  I  am  very  pleased  with  him. 
The  Princess  is  ill ;  I  went  to  see  her  at  Monza.  She  has  had  a 
miscarriage  ;  she  is  getting  better. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

November  2gtb  to  December  Jth. — At  Venice  (writes  Talleyrand,  "  This 
land  is  a  phenomenon  of  the  power  of  commerce  "). 

No.  2. 


Venice,  November  30,  1807. 

I  have  your  letter  of  November  22nd.     The  last  two  days  I 
have  been  at  Venice.     The  weather  is  very  bad,  which  has  not 


prevented  me  from  sailing  over  the  lagoons  in  order  to  see  the 
different  forts. 

I  am  glad  to  see  you  are  enjoying  yourself  at  Paris. 

The  King  of  Bavaria,  with  his  family,  as  well  as  the  Princess 
Eliza,  are  here. 

I  am  spending  December  2nd  l  here,  and  that  past  I  shall  be 
on  my  way  home,  and  very  glad  to  see  you. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  3. 

Udine,  December  1 1,  1807. 

My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter  of  December  3rd,  from  which 
I  note  that  you  were  much  pleased  with  the  Jardin  des  Plantes. 
Here  I  am  at  the  extreme  limit  of  my  journey  ;  it  is  possible  I 
may  soon  be  in  Paris,  where  I  shall  be  very  glad  to  see  you 
again.  The  weather  has  not  as  yet  been  cold  here,  but  very 
rainy.  I  have  profited  by  this  good  season  up  to  the  last  moment, 
for  I  suppose  that  at  Christmas  the  winter  will  at  length  make 
itself  felt. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

December  1 2th. — At  Udine. 

December  l^th. — At  Mantua. 

December  \6th. — At  Milan  (till  December  26th}. 

December  I  Jtb. — His  Milan  decree  against  English  commerce. 

December  2'jth-28tk. — At  Turin. 

January  1st. — At  Paris. 

1  His  Coronation  Day. 


"  The  imbecility  of  Charles  IV.,  the  vileness  of  Ferdinand, 
and  the  corruption  of  Godoy  were  undoubtedly  the  proximate 
causes  of  the  calamities  which  overwhelmed  Spain." — NAPIER'S 
Peninsular  War  (vol.  i.  preface). 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  267-269.) 


No.    I.   Bayonnc       ........      267 

No.    2.   A  country-house .  ......      267 

Everything  is  still  most  primitive  .  .  .  .267 

No.    3.   Prince  of  the  Asturias    .  .  .  .  .  .268 

The  Queen 268 

No.   4.   A  son  has  been  born        ......      268 

Arrive  on  the  27 'th  .  .  .  .  .  .  269 




"  This  year  offers  a  strange  picture.  The  Emperor  Napoleon  was 
at  Venice  in  the  month  of  January,  surrounded  by  the  homage  of  all  the 
courts  and  princes  of  Italy ;  in  the  month  of  April  he  was  at  Bayonne, 
surrounded  by  that  of  Spain,  and  the  great  personages  of  that  country  ; 
and,  finally,  in  the  month  of  October  he  is  at  Erfurth,  with  his  parterre 
of  kings." — Memoires  du  Due  de  Rovigo. 

January  2'Jth. — Queen  and  Prince  Regent  of  Portugal  reach  Rio 
de  Janeiro. 

February  2nd. — French  troops  enter  Rome. 

February  I'jth. — French  occupy  Pampcluna,  and 

February  2tyh. — Barcelona. 

March  ityh. — Charles  IV.  abdicates,  and  his  son  proclaimed  Ferdi- 
nand VII. 

March  2Oth. — Godoy  imprisoned  by  Ferdinand. 

March  2^rd. — Murat  enters  Madrid. 

March  2'Jth. — Napoleon  excommunicated. 

April  i  J//6. — Napoleon  arrives  at  Bayonne. 

No.  i. 

Bayonne^  April  1 6,  1808. 

I  have  arrived  here  in   good  health,  rather  tired   by  a  dull 
journey  and  a  very  bad  road. 



I  am  very  glad  you  stayed  behind,  for  the  houses  here  are 
wretched  and  very  small. 

I  go  to-day  into  a  small  house  in  the  country,  about  a  mile 
from  the  town. 

Adieu,  dear.     Take  care  of  yourself. 

No.  2. 

Bayonne,  April  17,  1808. 

I  have  just  received  yours  of  April  I5th.  What  you  tell  me 
of  the  owner  of  the  country-house  pleases  me.  Go  and  spend 
the  day  there  sometimes. 

I  am  sending  an  order  for  you  to  have  2O,OOO  francs  per 
month  additional  while  I  am  away,  counting  from  the  ist  of 

I  am  lodged  atrociously.  I  am  leaving  this  place  in  an  hour, 
to  occupy  a  country-house  (bastide)  about  a  mile  away.  The 
Infant  Don  Carlos  and  five  or  six  Spanish  grandees  are  here,  the 
Prince  of  the  Asturias  fifty  miles  away.  King  Charles  and  the 
Queen  are  due.  I  know  not  how  I  shall  lodge  all  these  people. 
Everything  here  is  still  most  primitive  (a  I'auberge).  The  health 
of  my  troops  in  Spain  is  good. 

It  took  me  some  time  to  understand  your  little  jokes  ;  I  have 
laughed  at  your  recollections.  O  you  women,  what  memories 
you  have  ! 

My  health  is  fairly  good,  and  I  love  you  most  affectionately. 
I  wish  you  to  give  my  kind  regards  to  everybody  at  Bordeaux  ;  I 
have  been  too  busy  to  send  them  to  anybody.  NAPOLEON. 

April  2Olh. — Ferdinand  arrives  at  Bayonne. 


No.  3. 

April  21,  1808. 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  of  April  igth.  Yesterday  I 
had  the  Prince  of  the  Asturias  and  his  suite  to  dinner,  which 
occasioned  me  considerable  embarrassment.  I  am  waiting  for 
Charles  IV.  and  the  Queen. 

My  health  is  good.  I  am  now  sufficiently  recovered  for  the 

Adieu,  dear.     Your  letters  always  give  me  much  pleasure. 


No.  4. 

Bayonne^  April  23,  1808. 

My  Dear, — A  son  has  been  born  to  Hortense  ; l  I  am  highly 
delighted.  I  am  not  surprised  that  you  tell  me  nothing  of  it, 
since  your  letter  is  dated  the  2ist,  and  the  child  was  only  born 
on  the  20th,2  during  the  night. 

You  can  start  on  the  26th,  sleep  at  Mont  de  Marsan,  and 
arrive  here  on  the  2yth.  Have  your  best  dinner-service  sent  on 
here  on  the  25th,  in  the  evening.  I  have  made  arrangements 
for  you  to  have  a  little  house  in  the  country,  next  to  the  one  I 
have.  My  health  is  good. 

I  am  waiting  for  Charles  IV.  and  his  wife. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

April  $Oth. — Charles  IV.  and  the  Queen  arrive  at  Bayonne. 
May  1st. — Ferdinand  gives  back  the  crown  to  his  father. 
May+2nd. — Murat  subdues  insurrection  at  Madrid. 
May  $th. — Treaty  of  Bayonne  ;   Charles  IV.  and  Ferdinand  (May  6) 
surrender  to  Napoleon  their  rights  to  the  Spanish  crown. 

1  Charles  Louis  Napoleon,  afterwards  Napoleon  III.         2  At  17  Rue  Lafitte. 


May  iyh. — Spanish  Junta  ask  for  Joseph  Bonaparte  to  be  their  king. 
June  6th. — King  Joseph  proclaimed  King  of  Spain  and  the  Indies  by 
Napoleon,  in  an  imperial  decree,  dated  Bayonne. 

June  'jth. — French,  under  Dupont,  sacked  Cordova. 

June  Qth. — Emperor  of  Austria  calls  out  his  militia. 

June  i$th. — French  fleet  at  Cadiz  surrender  to  the  Spanish. 

July    4//». — English   cease  hostilities    with    Spain,   and   recognise    Fer- 
dinand VII. 

July    'Jth. — Spanish   new  constitution  sworn   to  by  Joseph  and  by   the 

July  (jth. — Commences  the  siege  of  Saragassa. 

July    \^th. — Bessieres   defeats   40,000   Spaniards  at   Medina  de  Rio 

July  l$th. — Murat  declared  King  of  Naples. 

July    2Otk. — Joseph    enters     Madrid.       Mahmoud    deposed    by    his 
younger  brother  at  Constantinople. 

July  22nd. — Dupont  capitulates  at  Baylen — "  the  only  stain  on  French 
arms  for  twenty  years  (1792—1812)." — Montgaillard. 

July  $Oth. — French  protest  against  Austrian  armaments. 

August  1st. — Wellington  landed  in  Portugal. 

August  2 1  st. — Battle  of  Vimiera,  creditable  to  Junot. 

August  2$th. — Spanish  troops  reoccupy  Madrid. 

August  $Oth. — Convention  of  Cintra.       French   only   hold  Barcelona, 
Biscay,  Navarre,  and  Alava,  In  the  'whole  of  Spain. 

September  ftth. — Convention  of  Paris  (Prussia  and  France)  ;   Prussian 
army  not  to  exceed  40,000  men. 


"  When  he  shows  as  seeking  quarter,  with  paws  like  hands  in  prayer, 
That  is  the  time  of  peril — the  time  of  the  truce  of  the  Bear  !  " 




(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  269-273.) 


No.    I.   I  have  rather  a  cold      ......      270 

I  am  pleased  with  the  Emperor  .  .  .  .270 

No.   2.   Shooting  over  the  battlefield  of  Jena  .          .          .          .271 

The  Weimar  ball  .          .          .          .          .          .          .271 

A  few  trifling  ailments  .  .  .  .  .  .271 

No.  3«  I  am  pleased  with  Alexander  .  .  .  .  .272 
He  ought  to  be  with  me  .  .  .  ,  .  .  272 
Erfurt  ........  273 

STAY  AT  ERFURT,  1808. 

No.  i. 

Erfurt,  September  29,  1 808. 

I  have  rather  a  cold.  I  have  received  your  letter,  dated 
Malmaison.  I  am  well  pleased  with  the  Emperor  and  every 
one  here. 

It  is  an  hour  after  midnight,  and  I  am  tired. 
Adieu,  dear  ;  take  care  of  yourself. 


No.  2. 

October  9,  1808. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.  I  note  with  pleasure 
that  you  are  well.  I  have  just  been  shooting  over  the  battle- 
field of  Jena.  We  had  breakfast  (dejeune)  at  the  spot  where  I 
bivouacked  on  the  night  of  the  battle. 

I  assisted  at  the  Weimar  ball.  The  Emperor  Alexander 
dances  ;  but  not  I.  Forty  years  are  forty  years. 

My  health  is  really  sound,  in  spite  of  a  few  trifling  ailments. 

Adieu,  dear ;  I  hope  to  see  you  soon. — Yours  ever, 



No.  3. 

My  ZWr, — I  write  you  seldom  ;  I  am  very  busy.  Conver- 
sations which  last  whole  days,  and  which  do  not  improve  my  cold. 
Still  all  goes  well.  I  am  pleased  with  Alexander  ;  he  ought  to 
be  with  me.  If  he  were  a  woman,  I  think  I  should  make  him 
my  sweetheart. 

I  shall  be  back  to  you  shortly ;  keep  well  and  let  me  find 
you  plump  and  rosy. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 


"  The  winter  campaign  commenced  on  the  I  st  of  November 
1808,  and  terminated  on  the  ist  of  March  1809,  to  the  advantage 
of  the  French,  who,  for  that  reason,  denominate  it  the  Imperial 
Campaign.  The  Spaniards  were  long  before  they  could  recover 
from  the  terror  caused  by  the  defeat  of  their  armies,  the  capture  of 
Madrid,  the  surrender  of  Saragossa,  and  the  departure  of  the  English 
from  Corunna." — Sarrazins  History  of  the  War  in  Spain  and 
Portugal,  1815. 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  273-278.) 


No.     5.  Aranda           .......  273 

No.     6.  Madrid          .......  273 

Parisian  tveather     .          .          .          .          .          .  273 

No.      8.   Kourak'm        .......  274 

No.     9.   The  English  appear   to  have  received  reinforce- 
ments      .......  274 

No.    IO.   Bena-vmte       .......  274 

The  English  flee  panic-stricken    .          .          .           .  274 

The  'weather  .          .          .          .          .          .          .  274 

Lefebvre         .          .          .           .          .           .          .  275 

No.    II.    Tour  letters    .......  275-6 

No.    12.   The  English  are  in  utter  rout       .          .          .          .  276 

Nos.   13  &   14.  Valladolid  ......  277 

Eugene  has  a  daughter      .          .           .          .          .  277 

They  are  foolish  in  Paris  .          .          .          .          .  277 


SPANISH  CAMPAIGN,  1808  AND  1809. 

October  2gth. — English  enter  Spain. 

October  3  ist. — Blake  defeated  by  Lefebvre  at  Tornosa. 

No.  i. 

November  3,  1808. 

I  arrived  to-night1  with  considerable  trouble.     I  had  ridden 
several  stages  at  full  speed.     Still,  I  am  well. 
To-morrow  I  start  for  Spain. 
My  troops  are  arriving  in  force. 
Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

November  ^th. — Napoleon  enters  Spain. . 

No.  2. 

Tolosa,  November  5,  1808. 

I  am  at  Tolosa.  I  am  starting  for  Vittoria,  where  I  shall  be 
in  a  few  hours.  I  am  fairly  well,  and  I  hope  everything  will 
soon  be  completed.  NAPOLEON. 

1  At  Bayonne. 


No.  3. 

Vittoria,  November  J. 

My  Deary — I  have  been  the  last  two  days  at  Vittoria.  I  am 
in  good  health.  My  troops  are  arriving  daily  ;  the  Guard  arrived 

The  King  is  in  very  good  health.     I  am  very  busy. 
I  know  that  you  are  in  Paris.     Never  doubt  my  affection. 


November  loth. — Battle  of  Burgos.  Sou/t  and  Bessieres  defeat 
Spaniards,  nuho  lose  3000  killed  and  3000  prisoners,  and  2O  cannon. 

November  i2tb. — Battle  of  Espinosa.  Marshal  Victor  defeats  La 
Romano  and  Blake,  luho  lose  2O,ooo  men  and  50  cannon. 

No.  4. 

November  i^th. — Third  revolution  at  Constantinople.  Mahmoud  IV. 
assassinated  (November  I5/^). 


Burgos^  November  14,  1808. 

Matters  here  are  progressing  at  a  great  rate.  The  weather  is 
very  fine.  We  are  successful.  My  health  is  very  good. 


November  2$rd. — Battle  of  Tudela.  Castanos  and  Palafox  defeated, 
with  loss  of  7000  men  and  30  cannon,  by  Marshal  Lannes.  "  The  battle 
of  Tudela  makes  the  pendant  of  that  of  Espinosa." — Napoleon. 

No.  5. 

November  26,  1808. 

I  have  received  your  letter.  I  trust  that  your  health  be  as 
good  as  mine  is,  although  I  am  very  busy.  All  goes  well  here. 


I  think  you  should  return  to  the  Tuileries  on  December  2ist, 
and  from  that  date  give  a  concert  daily  for  eight  days. — Yours 
ever,  NAPOLEON. 

Kind  regards  to  Hortense  and  to  M.  Napoleon. 

December  $rd. — French  voluntarily  evacuate  Berlin. 

December  qth. — Surrender  of  Madrid.  Napoleon  abolishes  the  Inquisi- 
tion and  feudal  rights.  {"He  regards  the  taking  of  a  capital  as  decisive  for 
the  submission  of  a  'whole  kingdom  ;  thus  in  1814  'will  act  his  adversaries, 
pale  but  judicious  imitators  of  his  strategy." — Montgaillard.) 

No.  6. 

December  7,  1808. 

Your  letter  of  the  28th  to  hand.  I  am  glad  to  see  that  you 
are  well.  You  will  have  seen  that  young  Tascher  has  dis- 
tinguished himself,  which  has  pleased  me.  My  health  is  good. 

Here  we  are  enjoying  Parisian  weather  of  the  last  fortnight 
in  May.  We  are  hot,  and  have  no  fires ;  but  the  nights  are 
rather  cool. 

Madrid  is  quiet.     All  my  affairs  prosper. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

Kind  regards  to  Hortense  and  to  M.  Napoleon. 

No.  7. 

Chamartiri)  December  IO,  1808. 

My  Dear, — Yours  to  hand,  in  which  you  tell  me  what  bad 
weather  you  are  having  in  Paris ;  here  it  is  the  best  weather 
imaginable.  Please  tell  me  what  mean  these  alterations  Hortense 
is  making  ;  I  hear  she  is  sending  away  her  servants.  Is  it  be- 
cause they  have  refused  to  do  what  was  required  ?  Give  me 
some  particulars.  Reforms  are  not  desirable. 


Adieu,  dear.  The  weather  here  is  delightful.  All  goes 
excellently,  and  I  pray  you  to  keep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  8. 

December  21,  1808. 

You  ought  to  have  been  at  the  Tuileries  on  the  I2th.  I 
trust  you  may  have  been  pleased  with  your  rooms. 

I  have  authorised  the  presentation  of  Kourakin  to  you  and 
the  family ;  be  kind  to  him,  and  let  him  take  part  in  your  plays. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  am  well.  The  weather  is  rainy  ;  it  is  rather 
cold.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  9. 
December  22nd. — Napoleon  quits  Madrid. 


Madrid,  December  22,  1808. 

I  start  at  once  to  outmanoeuvre  the  English,  who  appear  to 
have  received  reinforcements  and  wish  to  look  big. 

The  weather  is  fine,  my  health  perfect ;  don't  be  uneasy. 


No.  10. 

Benavento,  December  31,  1808. 

My  Dear, — The  last  few  days  I  have  been  in  pursuit  of  the 
English,  but  they  flee  panic-stricken.  They  have  pusillanimously 
abandoned  the  remnant  of  La  Romana's  army  in  order  not  to 
delay  its  retreat  a  single  half  day.  More  than  a  hundred  waggons 
of  their  baggage  have  already  been  taken.  The  weather  is 
very  bad. 


Lefebvre l  has  been  captured.  He  took  part  in  a  skirmish  with 
300  of  his  chasseurs  ;  these  idiots  crossed  a  river  by  swimming  and 
threw  themselves  in  the  midst  of  the  English  cavalry  ;  they  killed 
several,  but  on  their  return  Lefebvre  had  his  horse  wounded  ;  it 
was  swimming,  the  current  took  him  to  the  bank  where  the 
English  were  ;  he  was  taken.  Console  his  wife. 

Adieu,  dear.     Bessieres,  with  10,000  cavalry,  is  at  Astorga. 


A  happy  New  Year  to  everybody. 

No.  ii. 

January  3,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letters  of  the  i8th  and  2ist. 
I  am  close  behind  the  English. 

The  weather  is  cold  and  rigorous,  but  all  goes  well. 
Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

A  happy  New  Year,  and  a  very  happy  one,  to  my  Josephine. 

No.  12. 

Benavento,  January  5,  1809. 

My  Dear^ — I  write  you  a  line.     The  English  are  in  utter 
rout ;  I  have  instructed  the  Duke  of  Dalmatia  to  pursue  them 
closely  (I'tyee  dans  les  reins).     I  am  well ;  the  weather  bad. 
Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  13. 


January  8,  1809. 

I  have  received  yours  of  the  23rd  and  26th.  I  am  sorry  to 
see  you  have  toothache.  I  have  been  here  two  days.  The 

1  General  Lefebvre — Desnouettes. 


weather  is  what  we  must  expect  at  this  season.     The  English  are 
embarking.     I  am  in  good  health. 

Adieu,  dear. 

I  am  writing  Hortense.     Eugene  has  a  daughter. 

Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  14. 


January  9,  1809. 

Moustache  brings  me  your  letter  of  3ist  December.  I  see 
from  it,  dear,  that  you  are  sad  and  have  very  gloomy  disquietudes. 
Austria  will  not  make  war  on  me  ;  if  she  does,  I  have  150,000 
men  in  Germany  and  as  many  on  the  Rhine,  and  400,000 
Germans  to  reply  to  her.  Russia  will  not  separate  herself  from 
me.  They  are  foolish  in  Paris  ;  all  goes  well. 

I  shall  be  at  Paris  the  moment  I  think  it  worth  while.  I 
advise  you  to  beware  of  ghosts  ;  one  fine  day,  at  two  o'clock  in 
the  morning. 

But  adieu,  dear  ;  I  am  well,  and  am  yours  ever, 



"  Berthier,  incapable  of  acting  a  principal  part,  was  surprised, 
and  making  a  succession  of  false  movements  that  would  have 
been  fatal  to  the  French  army,  if  the  Emperor,  journeying 
night  and  day,  had  not  arrived  at  the  very  hour  when  his  lieu- 
tenant was  on  the  point  of  consummating  the  ruin  of  the  army. 
But  then  was  seen  the  supernatural  force  of  Napoleon's  genius. 
In  a  few  hours  he  changed  the  aspect  of  affairs,  and  in  a  few 
days,  maugre  their  immense  number,  his  enemies,  baffled  and 
flying  in  all  directions,  proclaimed  his  mastery  in  an  art  which, 
up  to  that  moment,  was  imperfect ;  for  never,  since  troops  first 
trod  a  field  of  battle,  was  such  a  display  of  military  genius  made 
by  man." — NAPIER. 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  278-295.) 


Napoleon's  position  in  Europe  .          .          .          .  278 

No.      I.   Donauwerth 281 

The  Ratisbon  proclamation,  and  first  successes  of 

the  campaign  up  to  April  23rd    .          .          .  281-2 

No.     2.   May  6th 282 

The  ball  that  touched  me    .           .          .          .          .  283 
No.     3.   Baron  Marbot's  foray  ;  and  memories  of  Richard 

Coeur  de  Lion           .....  284 
No.      4.   Schoenbrunn     .          .           .          .          .          .          .284—5 

May  12th 285 

No.      5.  Ebersdorf       ....  286 

Eugene  .   .    .   has  completely  performed  the  task       .  287 

No.      6.   May  2<)th 288 

No.      7.   1  have  ordered  the  t<wo  prince s    ....  288—9 

The  Duke  of  Montebello 289 

Thus  everything  ends          .          .          .          .          .  289 

No.     9.  Eugene  won  a  battle          .          .          .          .          .  290 

No.    ii.    Wagram          .......  290 

Lasalle            .          .          .          .          .          .          .  291 

I  am  sunburnt           .          .          .          .          .          .  291 

No.    12.   A  surfeit  of  bile        .          .          .           .          .          .  291 

Wolkersdorf  .          .          .          .          .          .          .  291 

No.    1 6.   My  affairs  follow  my  wishes       .           .          .          .  292 

No.    17.   August  2lst  .......  292 

No.    1 8.    Comedians       .......  292 

Women  ...   no/  having  been  presented         .          .  293 

No.    19.  All  this  is  very  suspicious  .          .          .          .          .  293 

No.   20.    Krems 293 

My  health  has  never  been  better  .          .          .          .  293 

No.   23.   October  l^th  .......  294 

No.   24.   Stuttgard 295 



EVENTS  OF  1809. 

January  Jth. — Ring  and  Queen  of  Prussia  visit  Alexander  at  St. 

January  I2th. — Cayenne  and  French  Guiana  captured  by  Spanish 
and  Portuguese  South  Americans. 

January  i  ^th. — Combat  of  Alcazar.     Victor  defeats  Spaniards. 

January  i  qjh. — Treaty  of  Alliance  between  England  and  Spain. 

January  i6th. — Battle  of  Corunna.     Moore  killed  ;  Baird  wounded. 

January  I'jth. — English  army  sails  for  England. 

January  22nd. — King  Joseph  returns  to  Madrid. 

January  2Jtb. — Soult  takes  Ferrol  (retaken  by  English,  June  22nd). 

February  2 1st. — Lannes  takes  Saragossa. 

February  2$rd. — English  capture  Martinique. 

March  4//>. — Madison  made  President  of  United  States. 

March  2()th. — Soult  fights  battle  of  Oporto.  Spaniards  lose  2O,OOO 
men  and  200  guns.  Gustavus  Adolphus  abdicates  throne  of  Sweden. 

April  gth. — Austrians  under  Archduke  Charles  cross  the  Inn,  enter 
Bavaria,  and  take  Munich.  Napoleon  receives  this  news  April  i2th,  and 
reaches  Strasburg  April  l$th. 

April  i  $th. — Eugene  defeated  on  the  Tagliamento. 

April  i6th. — And  at  Sacile. 

April  i()th, — Combat  of  Pfafferhofen.  Oudinot  repulses  Austrians, 
while  Davoust  wins  the  Battle  of  Thann.  Napoleon  joins  the  army. 

April  2Oth. — Battle  of  Abensberg.  Archduke  Louis  defeated. 
Austrians  take  Ratisbon,  and  1800  prisoners.  Poles  defeated  by  Arch- 
duke Ferdinand  at  Baszy. 

April  2ist. — Combat  of  Landshut ;  heavy  Austrian  losses.  Austrians 
under  Archduke  Ferdinand  take  Warsaw. 



April  22nd. — Battle  of  Eckmiihl.     Napoleon  defeats  Archduke  Charles. 

April  2$rd. — French  take  Ratisbon. 

April  2$th. — King  of  Bavaria  re-enters  Munich. 

April  26th. — French  army  crosses  the  Inn. 

April  2%th-T)oth. — French  force  the  Salza,  and  cut  in  two  the  main 
Austrian  army — "  One  of  the  most  beautiful  manoeuvres  of  modern 
tactics"  (Monlgaillard}. 

April  zyth. — Combat  of  Caldiero.     Eugene  defeats  Archduke  John. 

May  $rd. — Russia  declares  war  on  Austria,  and  enters  Galicia. 

May  ajh. — Combat  of  Ebersberg.  Massena  defeats  Austrians,  but 
loses  a  large  number  of  men. 

No.   i. 

Donauwoerth,  April  17,  1809. 

I  arrived  here  yesterday  at  4  A.M. ;  I  am  just  leaving  it. 
Everything  is  under  way.  Military  operations  are  in  full  activity. 
Up  to  the  present,  there  is  nothing  new. 

My  health  is  good. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  2. 

Enns,  May  6,  1809,  Noon. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.  The  ball  that 
touched  me  has  not  wounded  me  ;  it  barely  grazed  the  tendon 

My  health  is  very  good.     You  are  wrong  to  be  uneasy. 
My  affairs  here  go  excellently. — Yours  ever, 

Kind  regards  to  Hortense  and  the  Duke  de  Berg.1 

May  8/^. — Eugene  crosses  the  Piave,  and  defeats  Archduke  John. 

1  Napoleon  Louis,  Prince  Royal  of  Holland,  and  Grand  Duke  of  Berg  from 
March  3,  1809. 


No.  3. 

Saint-Polten,  May  9,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  write  you  from  Saint-Polten.  To-morrow  I 
shall  be  before  Vienna  ;  it  will  be  exactly  a  month  to  the  day 
after  the  Austrians  crossed  the  Inn,  and  violated  peace. 

My  health  is  good,  the  weather  splendid,  and  the  soldiery  very 
cheerful ;  there  is  wine  here. 

Keep  well. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

May  I3//6. — French  occupy  Vienna,  after  a  bombardment  of  thirty- 
six  hours. 

May  I'jth. — Roman  States  united  to  the  French  Empire. 

May  i8th. — French  occupy  Trieste. 

May  iqth. — Lefebvre  occupies  Innsbruck. 

May  2Oth. — Eugene  reaches  Klagenfurt. 

May  2ist—22nd. — Battle  of  Essling.  A  drawn  battle,  unfavourable 
to  the  French,  who  lose  Marshal  Lannes,  three  generals  killed,  and  500 
officers  and  18,000  men  wounded.  The  Archduke  admits  a  loss  of 
4200  killed  and  16,000  wounded. 

May  22nd. — Meerveldt  with  4000  men  surrenders  at  Laybach  to 

May  2$th. — Eugene  reaches  Leoben  in  Styria,  and  captures  most  of 
the  corps  of  Jellachich. 

May  26th. — Eugene  joins  the  army  of  Germany,  at  Bruck  in  Styria. 

No.  4. 

May  \2th. — Soult  evacuates  Portugal.  Wellington  crosses  the 
Douro,  and  enters  Spain. 


Schoenbrunriy  May  12,  1809. 

I  am  despatching  the  brother  of  the  Duchess  of  Montebello 
to  let  you  know  that  I  am  master  of  Vienna,  and  that  everything 
here  goes  perfectly.  My  health  is  very  good.  NAPOLEON. 



No.  5. 

Ebendorf,  May  27,  1809. 

I  am  despatching  a  page  to  tell  you  that  Eugene  has  rejoined 
me  with  all  his  army  ;  that  he  has  completely  performed  the  task 
that  I  entrusted  him  with  ;  and  has  almost  entirely  destroyed  the 
enemy  ""s  army  opposed  to  him. 

I  send  you  my  proclamation  to  the  army  of  Italy,  which  will 
make  you  understand  all  this. 

I  am  very  well. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

P.5. — You  can  have  this  proclamation  printed  at  Strasburg, 
and  have  it  translated  into  French  and  German,  in  order  that  it 
may  be  scattered  broadcast  over  Germany.  Give  a  copy  of  the 
proclamation  to  the  page  who  goes  on  to  Paris. 

May  28tf>. — Hofer  defeats  Bavarians  at  Innsbruck. 

No.  6. 

Ebersdorf,  May  29,  1809,  7  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  have  been  here  since  yesterday  ;  I  am  stopped 
by  the  river.  The  bridge  has  been  burnt ;  I  shall  cross  at  mid- 
night. Everything  here  goes  as  I  wish  it,  viz.,  very  well. 

The  Austrians  have  been  overwhelmed  (frapph  de  la  foudre). 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  7. 

Ebendorf,  May  31,  1809. 

Your  letter  of  the  26th  to  hand.  I  have  written  you  that 
you  can  go  to  Plombieres.  I  do  not  care  for  you  to  go  to  Baden  ; 


it  is  not  necessary  to  leave  France.  I  have  ordered  the  two 
princes  to  re-enter  France.1 

The  loss  of  the  Duke  of  Montebello,  who  died  this  morning, 
has  grieved  me  exceedingly.  Thus  everything  ends  !  ! 

Adieu,  dear  ;  if  you  can  help  to  console  the  poor  Marechale, 
do  so. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

June  1st. — Archduke  Ferdinand  evacuates  Warsaw. 

June  6th. — Regent  of  Sweden  proclaimed  King  as  Charles  XIII. 

No.  8. 

Schoenbrunn,  June  9,  1809. 

I  have  received  your  letter  ;  I  see  with  pleasure  that  you  are 
going  to  the  waters  at  Plombieres,  they  will  do  you  good. 

Eugene  is  in  Hungary  with  his  army.  I  am  well,  the  weather 
very  fine.  I  note  with  pleasure  that  Hortense  and  the  Duke  of 
Berg  are  in  France. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

June  loth. — Union  of  the  Papal  States  to  France  promulgated  in 

June  llth. — Napoleon  and  all  his  abettors  excommunicated. 

June  i^th. — Eugene,  aided  by  Macdonald  and  Lauriston,  defeats 
Archduke  Ferdinand  at  Raab. 

No.  9. 

Schoenbrunn,  June  1 6,  1809. 

I  despatch  a  page  to  tell  you  that,  on  the  I4th,  the  anni- 
versary of  Marengo,  Eugene  won  a  battle  against  the  Archduke 

1  Her  two  grandsons,  who,  with  Hortense,  their  mother,  were  at  Baden. 


John  and  the  Archduke  Palatine,  at  Raab,  in  Hungary  ;  that  he 
has  taken  3000  men,  many  pieces  of  cannon,  4  flags,  and  pur- 
sued them  a  long  way  on  the  road  to  Buda-Pesth. 


June  iSth.  —  Combat  of  Belchite.  Blake  defeated  by  Suchet  near 

No.  IO. 


Schoenbrunn^  June  19,  1809,  Noon. 

I  have  your  letter,  which  tells  me  of  your  departure  for 
Plombieres.  I  am  glad  you  are  making  this  journey,  because  I 
trust  it  may  do  you  good. 

Eugene  is  in  Hungary,  and  is  well.  My  health  is  very  good, 
and  the  army  in  fighting  trim. 

I  am  very  glad  to  know  that  the  Grand  Duke  of  Berg  is 
with  you. 

Adieu,  dear.  You  know  my  affection  for  my  Josephine  ;  it 
never  varies.  —  Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

July  Afth-yh.  —  French  cross  Danube,  and  win  battle  of  EnzersdorfF. 

July  $th-6th.  —  Pope  Pius  VII.  carried  off  from  Rome  by  order  of 
Murat  ;  eventually  kept  at  Savona. 

July  6th.  —  Battle  of  Wagram.  The  most  formidable  artillery  battle 
ever  fought  up  to  this  date  (900  guns  in  action).  The  Austrians  had 
120,000  men,  with  more  guns  and  of  larger  calibre  than  those  of  the 

No.  II. 

July  Jib.  —  St.  Domingo  surrenders  to  the  English. 

Ebersdorf,  July  7,  1809,  5  A.M. 

I  am  despatching  a  page  to  bring  you  the  good  tidings  of  the 
victory  of  Enzersdorf,  which  I  won  on  the  5th,  and  that  of 
Wagram,  which  I  won  on  the  6th. 


The  enemy's  army  flies  in  disorder,  and  all  goes  according  to 
my  prayers  (voeux). 

Eugene  is  well.  Prince  Aldobrandini  is  wounded,  but 

Bessieres  has  been  shot  through  the  fleshy  part  of  his  thigh  ; 
the  wound  is  very  slight.  Lasalle  was  killed.  My  losses  are 
full  heavy,  but  the  victory  is  decisive  and  complete.  We  have 
taken  more  than  100  pieces  of  cannon,  12  flags,  many  prisoners. 

I  am  sunburnt. 

Adieu,  dear.     I  send  you  a  kiss.     Kind  regards  to  Hortense. 


No.  12. 

Wolkersdorf^  July  9,  1809,  2  A.M. 

My  Dear, — All  goes  here  as  I  wish.  My  enemies  are  de- 
feated, beaten,  utterly  routed.  They  were  in  great  numbers ;  I 
have  wiped  them  out.  To-day  my  health  is  good  ;  yesterday  I 
was  rather  ill  with  a  surfeit  of  bile,  occasioned  by  so  many  hard- 
ships, but  it  has  done  me  much  good. 

Adieu,  dear.     I  am  in  excellent  health.  NAPOLEON. 

July    \2th. — Armistice  of  Znaim.      Archduke  Charles  resigns  his 

No.  13. 

In  the  Campy  before  Znaim,  July  13,  1809. 
I  send  you  the  suspension  of  arms  concluded  yesterday  with 
the  Austrian  General.    Eugene  is  on  the  Hungary  side,  and  is  well. 


Send  a  copy  of  the  suspension  of  arms  to  Cambaceres,  in  case  he 
has  not  yet  received  one. 

I  send  you  a  kiss,  and  am  very  well.  NAPOLEON. 

You  may  cause  this  suspension  of  arms  to  be  printed  at  Nancy. 

July  nth. — English  seize  Senegal.  Oudinot,  Marmont,  Macdonald 
made  Marshals. 

No.  14. 

Schoenbrunn,  July  17,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  have  sent  you  one  of  my  pages.  You  will 
have  learnt  the  result  of  the  battle  of  Wagram,  and,  later,  of  the 
suspension  of  arms  of  Znaim. 

My  health  is  good.  Eugene  is  well,  and  I  long  to  know  that 
you,  as  well  as  Hortense,  are  the  same. 

Give  a  kiss  for  me  to  Monsieur,  the  Grand  Duke  of  Berg. 

No.  15. 

Schoenbrunn,  July  24,  1809. 

I  have  just  received  yours  of  July  i8th.     I  note  with  pleasure 
that  the  waters  are  doing  you  good.     I  see  no  objection  to  you 
going  back  to  Malmaison  after  you  have  finished  your  treatment. 
It  is  hot  enough  here  in  all  conscience.     My  health  is  ex- 

Adieu,  dear.  Eugene  is  at  Vienna,  in  the  best  of  health. — 
Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

July  28tb. — Battle  of  Tala-vera.  Wellington  repulses  Victor,  who 
attacks  by  King  Joseph's  order,  without  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  Souk 
with  the  main  army.  Wellington  retires  on  Portugal. 

July  29/^-3 1 st — Walcheren  Expedition;  17,000  English  land  in 


No.  1 6. 

Schoenbrunn,  August  7,  1809. 

I  see  from  your  letter  that  you  are  at  Plombieres,  and  intend 
to  stay  there.  You  do  well ;  the  waters  and  the  fine  climate  can 
only  do  you  good. 

I  remain  here.     My  health  and  my  affairs  follow  my  wishes. 

Please  give  my  kind  regards  to  Hortense  and  the  Napoleons. 
— Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

August  8th — Combat  of  Arzobispo.     Soult  defeats  the  Spaniard*. 
August  i  $th — Flushing  surrenders  to  the  English. 

No.  17. 

Schoenbrunn,  August  21,  1809. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  August  I4th,  from  Plombieres  ; 
I  see  from  it  that  by  the  i8th  you  will  be  either  at  Paris  or  Mal- 
maison.  The  heat,  which  is  very  great  here,  will  have  upset 
you.  Malmaison  must  be  very  dry  and  parched  at  this  time  of 

My  health  is  good.  The  heat,  however,  has  brought  on  a 
slight  catarrh. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  1 8. 

Schoenbrunny  August  26,  1809. 

I  have  your  letter  from  Malmaison.  They  bring  me  word 
that  you  are  plump,  florid,  and  in  the  best  of  health.  I  assure 


you  Vienna  is  not  an  amusing  city.     I  would  very  much  rather 
be  back  again  in  Paris. 

Adieu,  dear.  Twice  a  week  I  listen  to  the  comedians 
(bouffbns] ;  they  are  but  very  middling  ;  it,  however,  passes  the 
evenings.  There  are  fifty  or  sixty  women  of  Vienna,  but  out- 
siders (au  parterre],  as  not  having  been  presented. 


No.  19. 

Schoenbrunn,  August  31,  1809. 

I  have  had  no  letter  from  you  for  several  days  ;  the  pleasures 
of  Malmaison,  the  beautiful  greenhouses,  the  beautiful  gardens, 
cause  the  absent  to  be  forgotten.  It  is,  they  say,  the  rule  of  your 
sex.  Every  one  speaks  only  of  your  good  health  ;  all  this  is  very 

To-morrow  I  am  off  with  Eugene  for  two  days  in  Hungary. 

My  health  is  fairly  good. 

Adieu,  dear. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  20. 

KremSj  September  9,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  arrived  here  yesterday  at  2  A.M.  ;  I  have  come 
here  to  see  my  troops.  My  health  has  never  been  better.  I 
know  that  you  are  very  well. 

I  shall  be  in  Paris  at  a  moment  when  nobody  will  expect  me. 
Everything  here  goes  excellently  and  to  my  satisfaction. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 


No.  21. 

Schoenbrunri)  September  23,  1809. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  1 6th,  and  note  that  you  are 
well.  The  old  maid's  house  is  only  worth  120,000 *  francs  ;  they 
will  never  get  more  for  it.  Still,  I  leave  you  mistress  to  do  what 
you  like,  since  it  amuses  you  ;  only,  once  purchased,  don't  pull 
it  down  to  put  a  rockery  there. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  22. 

Schoenbrunriy  September  25,  1809. 

I  have  received  your  letter.  Be  careful,  and  I  advise  you  to  be 
vigilant,  for  one  of  these  nights  you  will  hear  a  loud  knocking. 

My  health  is  good.  I  know  nothing  about  the  rumours ;  I 
have  never  been  better  for  many  a  long  year.  Corvisart  was  no 
use  to  me. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  everything  here  prospers. — Yours  ever, 


September  26th. — Battle  of  Silistria  ;  Turks  defeat  Russians. 

No.  23. 

October  i^th. — Treaty  of  Vienna,  between  France  and  Austria. 

Schoenbrunn,  October  14,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  write  to  advise  you  that  Peace  was  signed  two 
hours  ago  between  Champagny  and  Prince  Metternich. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

October  igth. — Mortier  routs  Spaniards  at  Ocjana. 

1  Boispreau,  belonging  to  Mademoiselle  Julien. 


No.  24. 

Nymphenburg,  near  Munich,  October  21,  1809. 

I  arrived  here  yesterday  in  the  best  of  health,  but  shall  not 
start  till  to-morrow.  I  shall  spend  a  day  at  Stuttgard.  You  will 
be  advised  twenty-four  hours  in  advance  of  my  arrival  at  Fon- 

I  look  forward  with  pleasure  to  seeing  you  again,  and  I  await 
that  moment  impatiently. 

I  send  you  a  kiss. — Yours  ever,  NAPOLEON. 

No.  25. 

Munich,  October  22,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  start  in  an  hour.  I  shall  be  at  Fontainebleau 
from  the  26th  to  2Jth  ;  you  may  meet  me  there  with  some  of 
your  ladies.  NAPOLEON. 

November  2$tb. — Disappearance  of  Benjamin  Bathurst,  erroneously 
thought  to  have  been  murdered  by  the  French,  really  by  robbers. 

December  1st. — Capture  of  Gerona  and  200  cannon  by  Augereau. 

December  1 6th. — French  Senate  pronounce  the  divorce  of  Napoleon  and 

December  2$th. — English  re-embark  from  Flushing. 


"  Josenhine,  my  excellent  Josephine,  thou  knowest  if  I  have 
loved  thee  !  To  thee,  to  thee  alone  do  I  owe  the  only  moments 
of  happiness  which  I  have  enjoyed  in  this  world.  Josephine, 
my  destiny  overmasters  my  will.  My  dearest  affections  must 
be  silent  before  the  interests  of  France."  —  BOURRIENNE'S 

1  Also  MEME'S  Memoirs  of  Josephine,  p.  333. 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  295-304.) 


No.      i.  A  Family  Council  .         .         .         .          .         .  295 

No.      2.   Savary  ........  297 

Queen  of  Naples       ......  298 

The  hunt         .......  298 

No.      4.    The  -weather  is  very  damp           ....  298 

No.      5.    King  of  Bavaria     ......  299 

No.     6.   Their  last  dinner  together         .          .          .         .  299 

No.      7.    Tuileries          .......  299 

No.      8.   A  house  vacant  in  Paris  .           .          .          .          .  299 

No.      9.   Hortense          .......  300 

No.   10.  A  visit  to  Josephine          .          .          .          .          .  300 

No.    II.    JVhat  charms  your  society  has     ....  300 

No.    12.   King  of  Westphalia           .          .          .          .          .  301 

No.    13.   Sensible 301 

No.    14.   D'Audenarde           ......  302 

No.   1 6.  The  choosing  of  a  bride  .....  302 

No.   17.  Date 302 

Nos.  1 8  &  19.   L'£/ysee 302-3 

No.    2O.   Bessieres'  country-house    .....  303 

No.   21.   Rambouillet     .......  303 

Adieu   .......;  303 



DECEMBER,  1809,  TO  APRIL  2,  1810. 

No.  i. 

December  1809,  8  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  found  you  to-day  weaker  than  you  ought  to 
be.  You  have  shown  courage  ;  it  is  necessary  that  you  should 
maintain  it  and  not  give  way  to  a  doleful  melancholy.  You 
must  be  contented  and  take  special  care  of  your  health,  which  is 
so  precious  to  me. 

If  you  are  attached  to  me  and  if  you  love  me,  you  should 
show  strength  of  mind  and  force  yourself  to  be  happy.  You 
cannot  question  my  constant  and  tender  friendship,  and  you 
would  know  very  imperfectly  all  the  affection  I  have  for  you  if 
you  imagined  that  I  can  be  happy  if  you  are  unhappy,  and  con- 
tented if  you  are  ill  at  ease. 

Adieu,  dear.     Sleep  well ;  dream  that  I  wish  it. 



No.  2. 

Tuesday,  6  o'clock. 

The  Queen  of  Naples,  whom  I  saw  at  the  hunt  in  the  Bois 
de  Boulogne,  where  I  rode  down  a  stag,  told  me  that  she  left 
you  yesterday  at  I  P.M.  in  the  best  of  health. 

Please  tell  me  what  you  are  doing  to-day.  As  for  me,  I  am 
very  well.  Yesterday,  when  I  saw  you,  I  was  ill.  I  expect  you 
will  have  been  for  a  drive. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  3. 


Trianon,  J  P.M. 

My  Dear, — I  have  just  received  your  letter.  Savary  tells  me 
that  you  are  always  crying ;  that  is  not  well.  I  trust  that  you 
have  been  a  drive  to-day.  I  sent  you  my  quarry.  I  shall  come 
to  see  you  when  you  tell  me  you  are  reasonable,  and  that  your 
courage  has  the  upper  hand. 

To-morrow,  the  whole  day,  I  am  receiving  Ministers. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  also  am  sad  to-day  ;  I  need  to  know  that  you 
are  satisfied  and  to  learn  that  your  equilibrium  (aplomb]  is  restored. 
Sleep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  4. 

Thursday,  Noon,  1809. 

My  Dear, — I  wished  to  come  and  see  you  to-day,  but  I  was 
very  busy  and  rather  unwell.     Still,  I  am  just  off  to  the  Council. 
Please  tell  me  how  you  are. 
This  weather  is  very  damp,  and  not  at  all  healthy. 



No.  5. 


I  should  have  come  to  see  you  to-day  if  I  had  not  been  obliged 
to  come  to  see  the  King  of  Bavaria,  who  has  just  arrived  in  Paris. 
I  shall  come  to  see  you  to-night  at  eight  o'clock,  and  return 
at  ten. 

I  hope  to  see  you  to-morrow,  and  to  see  you  cheerful  and 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  6. 

Trianon^  Tuesday. 

My  Dear, — I  lay  down  after  you  left  me  yesterday  ; x  I  am 
going  to  Paris.  I  wish  to  hear  that  you  are  cheerful.  I  shall 
come  to  see  you  during  the  week. 

I  have  received  your  letters,  which  I  am  going  to  read  in  the 
carriage.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  7. 

PariSy  Wednesday,  Noon,  2Jth  December  1809. 

Eugene  told  me  that  you  were  very  miserable  all  yesterday. 
That  is  not  well,  my  dear  ;  it  is  contrary  to  what  you  pro- 
mised me. 

I  have  been  thoroughly  tired  in  revisiting  the  Tuileries ;  that 
great  palace  seemed  empty  to  me,  and  I  felt  lost  in  it. 

Adieu,  dear.     Keep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

1  The  Empress,  with  Hortense,  had  been  to  dine  at  Trianon. 


No.  8. 

Paris,  Sunday,  December  31,  IO  A.M.,  1809. 

My  Dear, — To-day  I  have  a  grand  parade  ;  I  shall  see  all  my 
Old  Guard  and  more  than  sixty  artillery  trains. 

The  King  of  Westphalia  is  returning  home,  which  will  leave 
a  house  vacant  in  Paris.  I  am  sad  not  to  see  you.  If  the  parade 
finishes  before  3  o'clock,  I  will  come  ;  otherwise,  to-morrow. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  9. 

Thursday  Evening,  1810. 

My  Dear, — Hortense,  whom  I  saw  this  afternoon,  has  given 
me  news  of  you.  I  trust  that  you  will  have  been  able  to  see 
your  plants  to-day,  the  weather  having  been  fine.  I  have  only 
been  out  for  a  few  minutes  at  three  o'clock  to  shoot  some  hares. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  sleep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  10. 

Friday,  8  P.M.,  1810. 

I  wished  to  come  and  see  you  to-day,  but  I  cannot ;  it  will 
be,  I  hope,  in  the  morning.  It  is  a  long  time  since  I  heard  from 
you.  I  learnt  with  pleasure  that  you  take  walks  in  your  garden 
these  cold  days. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  keep  well,  and  never  doubt  my  affection. 



No.  ii. 

Sunday ,  8  P.M.,  1810. 

I  was  very  glad  to  see  you  yesterday  ;  I  feel  what  charms 
your  society  has  for  me. 

To-day  I  walked  with  Esteve.1  I  have  allowed  £4000  for 
1810,  for  the  extraordinary  expenses  at  Malmaison.  You  can 
therefore  do  as  much  planting  as  you  like  ;  you  will  distribute 
that  sum  as  you  may  require.  I  have  instructed  Esteve  to  send 
£8000  the  moment  the  contract  for  the  Maison  Julien  shall  be 
made.  I  have  ordered  them  to  pay  for  your  parure  of  rubies, 
which  will  be  valued  by  the  Department,  for  I  do  not  wish  to 
be  robbed  by  jewellers.  So,  there  goes  the  £16,000  that  this 
may  cost  me. 

I  have  ordered  them  to  hold  the  million  which  the  Civil  List 
owes  you  for  1810  at  the  disposal  of  your  man  of  business,  in 
order  to  pay  your  debts. 

You  should  find  in  the  coffers  of  Malmaison  twenty  to 
twenty-five  thousand  pounds  ;  you  can  take  them  to  buy  your 
plate  and  linen. 

I  have  instructed  them  to  make  you  a  very  fine  porcelain 
service  ;  they  will  take  your  commands  in  order  that  it  may  be  a 
very  fine  one.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  12. 

Wednesday,  6  P.M.,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  see  no  objection  to  your  receiving  the  King  of 
Westphalia  whenever  you  wish.  The  King  and  Queen  of 
Bavaria  will  probably  come  to  see  you  on  Friday. 

I  long  to  come  to  Malmaison,  but  you  must  really  show  for- 

1  General  Treasurer  of  the  Crown. 



titude  and  self-restraint ;  the  page  on  duty  this  morning  told  me 
that  he  saw  you  weeping. 

I  am  going  to  dine  quite  alone. 

Adieu,  dear.  Never  doubt  the  depth  of  my  feelings  for  you  ; 
you  would  be  unjust  and  unfair  if  you  did. 


No.  13. 

Saturday,  I  P.M.,  1810. 

My  Dear, — Yesterday  I  saw  Eugene,  who  told  me  that  you 
gave  a  reception  to  the  kings.  I  was  at  the  concert  till  eight 
o'clock,  and  only  dined,  quite  alone,  at  that  hour. 

I  long  to  see  you.  If  I  do  not  come  to-day,  I  will  come  after 

Adieu,  dear.  I  hope  to  find  you  sensible  and  in  good  health. 
This  weather  should  indeed  make  you  put  on  flesh. 


January  9. — The  clergy  of  Paris  annul  the  religious  marriage  of  Napoleon 
with  Josephine  (so  Biographic  Un'rverselle,  Michaud ;  Montgaillard  gives 
January  18).  Confirmed  by  the  Metropolitan  Officialite,  January  12 
(Pasquier). . 

No.  14. 

Trianon,  January  17,  1810. 

My  Dear, — D'Audenarde,  whom  I  sent  to  you  this  morning, 
tells  me  that  since  you  have  been  at  Malmaison  you  have  no 
longer  any  courage.  Yet  that  place  is  full  of  our  happy  memo- 
ries, which  can  and  ought  never  to  change,  at  least  on  my  side. 

I  want  badly  to  see  you,  but  I  must  have  some  assurance  that 


you  are  strong  and  not  weak  ;  I  too  am  rather  like  you,  and  it 
makes  me  frightfully  wretched. 

Adieu,  Josephine ;  good-night.  If  you  doubted  me,  you 
would  be  very  ungrateful.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  15. 

January  2O,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  send  you  the  box  that  I  promised  you  the  day 
before  yesterday — representing  the  Island  of  Lobau.  I  was  rather 
tired  yesterday.  I  work  much,  and  do  not  go  out. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  1 6. 


Noon,  Tuesday,  1810. 

I  hear  that  you  are  making  yourself  miserable  ;  this  is  too 
bad.  You  have  no  confidence  in  me,  and  all  the  rumours  that 
are  being  spread  strike  you  ;  this  is  not  knowing  me,  Josephine. 
I  am  much  annoyed,  and  if  I  do  not  find  you  cheerful  and  con- 
tented, I  shall  scold  you  right  well. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  17. 


Sunday,  9  P.M.,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  was  very  glad  to  see  you  the  day  before  yes- 

I  hope  to  go  to  Malmaison  during  the  week.  I  have  had  all 
your  affairs  looked  after  here,  and  ordered  that  everything  be 
brought  to  the  Elysee-Napoleon. 

Please  take  care  of  yourself. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 


No.  1 8. 

January  30,  1810. 

My  Dear, — Your  letter  to  hand.  I  hope  the  walk  you  had 
yesterday,  in  order  to  show  people  your  conservatories,  has  done 
you  good. 

I  will  gladly  see  you  at  the  Elyse'e,  and  shall  be  very  glad  to 
see  you  oftener,  for  you  know  how  I  love  you.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  19. 

Saturday ,  6  P.M.,  1810. 

I  told  Eugene  that  you  would  rather  give  ear  to  the  vulgar 
gossip  of  a  great  city  than  to  what  I  told  you  ;  yet  people  should 
not  be  allowed  to  invent  fictions  to  make  you  miserable. 

I  have  had  all  your  effects  moved  to  the  Elysee.  You  shall 
come  to  Paris  at  once ;  but  be  at  ease  and  contented,  and  have 
full  confidence  in  me.  NAPOLEON. 

February  2. — Soult  occupies  Seville.  The  Junta  takes  refuge  at 

February  6. — Guadeloupe  surrenders  to  the  English. 

February  7. — Convention  of  marriage  between  the  Emperor  Napoleon 
and  the  Archduchess  Marie  Louise. 

No.  20. 


February  19,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.     I  long  to  see  you, 
but  the  reflections  that  you  make  may  be  true.     It  is,  perhaps, 


not  desirable  that  we  should  be  under  the  same  roof  for  the  first 
year.  Yet  Bessieres'  country-house  is  too  far  off  to  go  and  return 
in  one  day ;  moreover  I  have  rather  a  cold,  and  am  not  sure  of 
being  able  to  go  there. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  21. 

Friday ',  6  P.M.,  1810. 

Savary,  as  soon  as  he  arrived,  brought  me  your  letter  ;  I  am 
sorry  to  see  you  are  unhappy.  I  am  very  glad  that  you  saw 
nothing  of  the  fire. 

I  had  fine  weather  at  Rambouillet. 

Hortense  told  me  that  you  had  some  idea  of  coming  to  a 
dinner  at  Bessieres,  and  of  returning  to  Paris  to  sleep.  I  am 
sorry  that  you  have  not  been  able  to  manage  it. 

Adieu,  dear.  Be  cheerful,  and  consider  how  much  you 
please  me  thereby.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  22. 

March  12,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  trust  that  you  will  be  pleased  with  what  I  have 
done  for  Navarre.  You  must  see  from  that  how  anxious  I  am  to 
make  myself  agreeable  to  you. 

Get  ready  to  take  possession  of  Navarre  ;  you  will  go  there 
on  March  25,  to  pass  the  month  of  April. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

April  i. — Civil  marriage  of  Napoleon  and  Marie  Louise.      (Religious 
marriage,  April  2.) 



{after  the  Marriage  with  Marie  Louise], 

Bella  gerant  alii,  tu,  felix  Austria !   nube." 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  304-310.) 


No.    i.   Navarre  ........      304 

To  Malmaison     .  .  .  .  .  .          .305 

No.    I  a.  It  is  written  in  a  bad  style     .....      305 

No.  2.  Josephine's  wishes       ......     305 

No.    la.  Ttvo  letters          .......      306 

No.  3.  The  northern  tour  of  1 8 10  .  ....  306 

I 'will  come  to  see  you  ......      307 

No.  4.  July  Stt> 308 

Tou  •will  have  seen  Eugene   .          .          .          .  .308 

That  unfortunate  daughter     .  .          .          .          .308 

No.    5.   The  conduct  of  the  King  of  Holland  .          .  .308 

No.  6.   To  die  in  a  lake  .......      309 

No.   8.   Paris,  this  Friday        .          .          .          .          .          .309 

No.   9.   The  only  suitable  places  .  .  .  .          .310 

No.  10.  Malmaison  .  .  .  .  .  .  .310 

The  Empress  progresses  satisfactorily        .          .          .310 


No.  i. 


Navarre^  April  19,  1810. 

Sire, — I  have  received,  by  my  son,  the  assurance  that  your 
Majesty  consents  to  my  return  to  Malmaison,  and  grants  to  me 
the  advances  asked  for  in  order  to  make  the  chateau  of  Navarre 
habitable.  This  double  favour,  Sire,  dispels  to  a  great  extent  the 
uneasiness,  nay,  even  the  fears  which  your  Majesty's  long  silence 
had  inspired.  I  was  afraid  that  I  might  be  entirely  banished 
from  your  memory ;  I  see  that  I  am  not.  I  am  therefore  less 
wretched  to-day,  and  even  as  happy  as  henceforward  it  will  be 
possible  for  me  to  be. 

I  shall  go  at  the  end  of  the  month  to  Malmaison,  since  your 
Majesty  sees  no  objection  to  it.  But  I  ought  to  tell  you,  Sire, 
that  I  should  not  so  soon  have  taken  advantage  of  the  latitude 
which  your  Majesty  left  me  in  this  respect  had  the  house  of 
Navarre  not  required,  for  my  health's  sake  and  for  that  of  my 
household,  repairs  which  are  urgent.  My  idea  is  to  stay  at  Mal- 
maison a  very  short  time  ;  I  shall  soon  leave  it  in  order  to  go  to 
the  waters.  But  while  I  am  at  Malmaison,  your  Majesty  may 
be  sure  that  I  shall  live  there  as  if  I  were  a  thousand  leagues 
from  Paris.  I  have  made  a  great  sacrifice,  Sire,  and  every  day  I 
realise  more  its  full  extent.  Yet  that  sacrifice  will  be,  as  it 
ought  to  be,  a  complete  one  on  my  part.  Your  Highness,  amid 
your  happiness,  shall  be  troubled  by  no  expression  of  my  regret. 

I  shall  pray  unceasingly  for  your  Majesty's  happiness,  perhaps 

even  I  shall  pray  that  I  may  see  you  again  ;  but  your  Majesty 



may  be  assured  that  I  shall  always  respect  our  new  relationship. 
I  shall  respect  it  in  silence,  relying  on  the  attachment  that  you 
had  to  me  formerly  ;  I  shall  call  for  no  new  proof ;  I  shall  trust 
to  everything  from  your  justice  and  your  heart. 

I  limit  myself  to  asking  from  you  one  favour  :  it  is,  that  you 
will  deign  to  find  a  way  of  sometimes  convincing  both  myself 
and  my  entourage  that  I  have  still  a  small  place  in  your  memory 
and  a  great  place  in  your  esteem  and  friendship.  By  this  means, 
whatever  happens,  my  sorrows  will  be  mitigated  without,  as  it 
seems  to  me,  compromising  that  which  is  of  permanent  import- 
ance to  me,  the  happiness  of  your  Majesty. 


No.  IA. 
(Reply  of  the  Emperor  Napoleon  to  the  preceding.} 


Compiegney  April  21 ,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  yours  of  April  1 8th  ;  it  is  written  in  a 
bad  style.  I  am  always  the  same  ;  people  like  me  do  not  change. 
I  know  not  what  Eugene  has  told  you.  I  have  not  written  to 
you  because  you  have  not  written  to  me,  and  my  sole  desire  is  to 
fulfil  your  slightest  inclination. 

I  see  with  pleasure  that  you  are  going  to  Malmaison  and  that 
you  are  contented  ;  as  for  me,  I  shall  be  so  likewise  on  hearing 
news  from  you  and  in  giving  you  mine.  I  say  no  more  about  it 
until  you  have  compared  this  letter  with  yours,  and  after  that  I 
will  leave  you  to  judge  which  of  us  two  is  the  better  friend. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  keep  well,  and  be  just  for  your  sake  and  mine. 


April  2$rd. — Battle  of  Lerida.      Suchet  defeats  Spaniards. 


No.  2. 

A  thousand,  thousand  loving  thanks  for  not  having  forgotten 
me.  My  son  has  just  brought  me  your  letter.  With  what  im- 
petuosity I  read  it,  and  yet  I  took  a  long  time  over  it,  for  there 
was  not  a  word  which  did  not  make  me  weep  ;  but  these  tears 
were  very  pleasant  ones.  I  have  found  my  whole  heart  again — 
such  as  it  will  always  be  ;  there  are  affections  which  are  life 
itself,  and  which  can  only  end  with  it. 

I  was  in  despair  to  find  my  letter  of  the  igth  had  displeased 
you  ;  I  do  not  remember  the  exact  expressions,  but  I  know  what 
torture  I  felt  in  writing  it — the  grief  at  having  no  news  from  you. 

I  wrote  you  on  my  departure  from  Malmaison,  and  since 
then  how  often  have  I  wished  to  write  you  !  but  I  appreciated 
the  causes  of  your  silence  and  feared  to  be  importunate  with  a 
letter.  Yours  has  been  the  true  balm  for  me.  Be  happy,  be  as 
much  so  as  you  deserve  ;  it  is  my  whole  heart  which  speaks  to 
you.  You  have  also  just  given  me  my  share  of  happiness,  and  a 
share  which  I  value  the  most,  for  nothing  can  equal  in  my  esti- 
mation a  proof  that  you  still  remember  me. 

Adieu,  dear ;  I  again  thank  you  as  affectionately  as  I  shall 
always  love  you.  JOSEPHINE. 

No.  2A. 


Comp'iegne^  April  28,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  just  received  two  letters  from  you.  I  am 
writing  to  Eugene.  I  have  ordered  that  the  marriage  of  Tascher 
with  the  Princess  de  la  Leyen  shall  take  place. 

To-morrow  I  shall  go  to  Antwerp  to  see  my  fleet  and  to 
give  orders  about  the  works.  I  shall  return  on  May  i5th. 

Eugene  tells  me  that  you  wish  to  go  to  the  waters ;  trouble 
yourself  about  nothing.  Do  not  listen  to  the  gossip  of  Paris  ;  it 


is  idle  and  far  from  knowing  the  real  state  of  things.  My  affec- 
tion for  you  does  not  change,  and  I  long  to  know  that  you  are 
happy  and  contented.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  3. 


My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter.  Eugene  will  give  you  tidings 
of  my  journey  and  of  the  Empress.  I  am  very  glad  that  you  are 
going  to  the  waters.  I  trust  they  may  do  you  good. 

I  wish  very  much  to  see  you.  If  you  are  at  Malmaison  at 
the  end  of  the  month,  I  will  come  to  see  you.  I  expect  to  be  at 
St.  Cloud  on  the  3Oth  of  the  month.  My  health  is  very  good 
...  it  only  needs  to  hear  that  you  are  contented  and  well.  Let 
me  know  in  what  name  you  intend  to  travel. 

Never  doubt  the  whole  truth  of  my  affection  for  you  ;  it  will 
last  as  long  as  I.  You  would  be  very  unjust  if  you  doubted  it. 


July  1st. — Louis  Bonaparte,  King  of  Holland,  abdicates  in  favour  of 
his  son. 

No.  4. 


Rambouilletj  July  8,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter  of  July  8th.  You  will  have 
seen  Eugene,  and  his  presence  will  have  done  you  good.  I  learn 
with  pleasure  that  the  waters  are  beneficial  to  you.  The  King 
of  Holland  has  just  abdicated  the  throne,  while  leaving  the 
Regency,  according  to  the  Constitution,  in  the  hands  of  the 
Queen.  He  has  quitted  Amsterdam  and  left  the  Grand  Duke 
of  Berg  behind. 

I  have  reunited  Holland  to  France,  which  has,  however,  the 
advantage  of  setting  the  Queen  at  liberty,  and  that l  unfortunate 

1  So  Collection  Didot,  followed  by  Aubenas.     St.  Amand  has  "  ton  infortune'e 


girl  is  coming  to  Paris  with  her  son  the  Grand  Duke  of  Berg — 
that  will  make  her  perfectly  happy. 

My  health  is  good.  I  have  come  here  to  hunt  for  a  few  days. 
I  shall  see  you  this  autumn  with  pleasure.  Never  doubt  my 
friendship  ;  I  never  change. 

Keep  well,  be  cheerful,  and  believe  in  the  truth  of  my 
attachment.  NAPOLEON. 

July  gth. — Holland  incorporated  with  the  French  Empire. 
July  lot  A. — Ney  takes  Ciudad  Rodrigo,  after  twenty-five  days  open 

No.  5. 


St.  Cloud,  July  20,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter  of  July  I4th,  and 
note  with  pleasure  that  the  waters  are  doing  you  good,  and  that 
you  like  Geneva.  I  think  that  you  are  doing  well  to  go  there 
for  a  few  weeks. 

My  health  is  fairly  good.  The  conduct  of  the  King  of 
Holland  has  worried  me. 

Hortense  is  shortly  coming  to  Paris.  The  Grand  Duke  of 
Berg  is  on  his  way  ;  I  expect  him  to-morrow. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  6. 


Trianon,  August  IO,  1810. 

Your  letter  to  hand.  I  was  pained  to  see  what  a  risk  you 
had  run.  For  an  inhabitant  of  the  isles  of  the  ocean  to  die  in  a 
lake  would  have  been  a  fatality  indeed  ! 


The  Queen  is  better,  and  I  hope  her  health  will  be  re-estab- 
lished. Her  husband  is  in  Bohemia,  apparently  not  knowing 
what  to  do. 

I  am  fairly  well,  and  beg  you  to  believe  in  my  sincere 
attachment.  NAPOLEON. 

August  2ist. — Swedes  elect  Marshal   Bernadotte  Crown   Prince  of 

August  27 th. — Massena  takes  Almeida. 

No.  7. 


St.  C/oudy  September  14,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter  of  September  gth.  I  learn 
with  pleasure  that  you  keep  well.  There  is  no  longer  the 
slightest  doubt  that  the  Empress  has  entered  on  the  fourth  month 
of  her  pregnancy  ;  she  is  well,  and  is  much  attached  to  me. 
The  young  Princes  Napoleon  are  very  well ;  they  are  in  the 
Pavilion  d'ltalie,  in  the  Park  of  St.  Cloud. 

My  health  is  fairly  good.  I  wish  to  learn  that  you  are  happy 
and  contented.  I  hear  that  one  of  your  entourage  has  broken  a 
leg  while  going  on  the  glacier. 

Adieu,  dear.  Never  doubt  the  interest  I  take  in  you  and 
the  affection  that  I  bear  towards  you.  NAPOLEON. 

September  2jtk. — Battle  of  Busaco.  Like  Ebersburg,  another  of 
Massena' s  expensive  and  unnecessary  frontal  attacks.  He  loses  5000 
men,  but  next  day  turns  the  position  of  Wellington,  who  continues  to 


No.  8. 

Paris,  this  Friday. 

My  Dear, — Yours  to  hand.  I  am  sorry  to  see  that  you  have 
been  ill ;  I  fear  it  must  be  this  bad  weather. 

Madame  de  la  T is  one  of  the  most  foolish  women  of 

the  Faubourg.  I  have  borne  her  cackle  for  a  very  long  time  ;  I 
am  sick  of  it,  and  have  ordered  that  she  does  not  come  again  to 
Paris.  There  are  five  or  six  other  old  women  that  I  equally  wish 
to  send  away  from  Paris ;  they  are  spoiling  the  young  ones  by 
their  follies. 

I  will  name  Madame  de  Makau  Baroness  since  you  wish  it, 
and  carry  out  your  other  commissions. 

My  health  is  pretty  good.  The  conduct  of  B appears 

to  me  very  ridiculous.  I  trust  to  hear  that  you  are  better. 

Adieu,  dear.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  9. 

Fontainebleau,  October  I,  1810. 

I  have  received  your  letter.  Hortense,  whom  I  have  seen, 
will  have  told  you  what  I  think.  Go  to  see  your  son  this 
winter ;  come  back  to  the  waters  of  Aix  next  year,  or,  still 
better,  wait  for  the  spring  at  Navarre.  I  would  advise  you  to  go 
to  Navarre  at  once,  if  I  did  not  fear  you  would  get  tired  of  it. 
In  my  view,  the  only  suitable  places  for  you  this  winter  are 
either  Milan  or  Navarre  ;  after  that,  I  approve  of  whatever  you 
may  do,  for  I  do  not  wish  to  vex  you  in  anything. 

Adieu,  dear.  The  Empress  is  as  I  told  you  in  my  last  letter. 
I  am  naming  Madame  de  Montesquieu  governess  of  the  Children 


of  France.     Be  contented,  and  do  not  get  excited  ;  never  doubt 
my  affection  for  you.  NAPOLEON. 

October  6tb. — Wellington  reaches  the  lines  of  Torres  Vedras. 
November  tyh. — Opening  of  St.  Quentin  Canal  at  Paris. 

No.  10. 

Fontainebleau,  November  14,  1810. 

My  Dear, — I  have  received  your  letter.  Hortense  has  spoken 
to  me  about  it.  I  note  with  pleasure  that  you  are  contented. 
I  hope  that  you  are  not  very  tired  of  Navarre. 

My  health  is  very  good.  The  Empress  progresses  satis- 
factorily. I  will  do  the  various  things  you  ask  regarding  your 
household.  Take  care  of  your  health,  and  never  doubt  my 
affection  for  you.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  ii. 

I  have  your  letter.  I  see  no  objection  to  the  marriage  of 
Mackau  with  Wattier,  if  he  wishes  it ;  this  general  is  a  very 
brave  man.  I  am  in  good  health.  I  hope  to  have  a  son  ;  I  shall 
let  you  know  immediately. 

Adieu,  dear.  I  am  very  glad  that  Madame  d'Arberg1  has 
told  you  things  which  please  you.  When  you  see  me,  you  will 
find  me  with  my  old  affection  for  you.  NAPOLEON. 

December  yd. — English  take  Mauritius. 

1  Josephine's  chief  maid-of-honour. 



"  Nun  steht  das  Reich  gesichert,  wie  gegriindet, 
Nun  fiihlt  er  froh  im  Sohne  sich  gegriindet. 

Und  sei  durch  Sie  dies  letze  Gliick  beschieden — 
Der  alles  wollen  kann,  will  auch  den  Frieden." 

— GOETHE  (Ibro  der  Kaiserin  von  Frankreich  Majestat}. 

177  M 


(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  311-312.) 


No.    I .    The  New  Tear     .          .          .          .  .  .  .      3 1 1 

More  women  than  men  .          .          .  .  .  .311 

Keep  well  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .311 

No.  2.  Birth  of  the  King  of  Rome  .  .  .  .  .  311 

Eugene  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .311 

No.   4.   As  fat  as  a  good  Normandy  farmeress  .  .  .312 


No.  i. 

Paris,  January  8th,  i8ll. 

I  have  your  New  Year's  letter.  I  thank  you  for  its  contents. 
I  note  with  pleasure  that  you  are  well  and  happy.  I  hear  that 
there  are  more  women  than  men  at  Navarre. 

My  health  is  excellent,  though  I  have  not  been  out  for  a 
fortnight.  Eugene  appears  to  have  no  fears  about  his  wife  ;  he 
gives  you  a  grandson. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  keep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

February  i  gth. — Soult  defeats  Spaniards  at  the  Gebora,  near  Badajoz. 

February  28tb. — French  occupy  Duchy  of  Oldenburg,  to  complete 
the  line  of  the  North  Sea  blockade  against  England.  This  occupation 
embitters  the  Emperor  of  Russia  and  his  family. 

March  loth. — Mortier  captures  Badajoz  after  a  siege  of  54  days. 

March  2Otb. — Birth  of  the  King  of  Rome — "  a  pompous  title  buried 
in  the  tomb  of  the  Ostrogoths." 

No.  2. 

Paris,  March  22nd,  l8ll. 

My  Dear, — I  have  your  letter.     I  thank  you  for  it. 

My  son  is  fat,  and  in  excellent  health.  I  trust  he  may  con- 
tinue to  improve.  He  has  my  chest,  my  mouth,  and  my  eyes. 
I  hope  he  may  fulfil  his  destiny.  I  am  always  well  pleased  with 
Eugene  j  he  has  never  given  me  the  least  anxiety. 



April  4/£. — Battle  of  Fuentes  d'Onoro.  Massena  attacks  English, 
and  is  repulsed. 

June  i  Rth.  —  Wellington  raises  siege  of  Badajoz,  and  retires  on 

June  2$th. — French  storm  Tarragona,  whereupon  Suchet  created 

No.  3. 

Trianon,  August  l^th,  1811. 

I  have  your  letter.  I  see  with  pleasure  that  you  are  in  good 
health.  I  have  been  for  some  days  at  Trianon.  I  expect  to  go 
to  Compiegne.  My  health  is  very  good. 

Put  some  order  into  your  affairs.  Spend  only  £60,000,  and 
save  as  much  every  year ;  that  will  make  a  reserve  of  £600,000 
in  ten  years  for  your  grandchildren.  It  is  pleasant  to  be  able 
to  give  them  something,  and  be  helpful  to  them.  Instead  of 
that,  I  hear  you  have  debts,  which  would  be  really  too  bad. 
Look  after  your  affairs,  and  don't  give  to  every  one  who  wants 
to  help  himself.  If  you  wish  to  please  me,  let  me  hear  that 
you  have  accumulated  a  large  fortune.  Consider  how  ill  I 
must  think  of  you,  if  I  know  that  you,  with  £125,000  a  year, 
are  in  debt. 

Adieu,  dear  ;  keep  well.  NAPOLEON. 

No.  4. 

Friday,  8  A.M.,  1811. 

I  send  to  know  how  you  are,  for  Hortense  tells  me  you  were 
in  bed  yesterday.  I  was  annoyed  with  you  about  your  debts.  I 
do  not  wish  you  to  have  any  ;  on  the  contrary,  I  wish  you  to  put 
a  million  aside  every  year,  to  give  to  your  grandchildren  when 
they  get  married. 


Nevertheless,  never  doubt  my  affection   for  you,  and  don't 
worry  any  more  about  the  present  embarrassment. 

Adieu,  dear.     Send,  me  word  that  you  are  well.     They  say 
that  you  are  as  fat  as  a  good  Normandy  farmeress. 


October  2$th—z6th. — Battle  of  Murviedro  and  capture  of  Sagunto : 
Blake  and  O'Donnell  heavily  defeated  by  Suchet. 

December  2Otb. — Senatus  Consultus  puts  120,000  conscripts  (born  in 
1792)  at  disposal  of  Government  for  1812. 

December  26th. — Suchet  defeats  Spanish,  and  crosses  Guadalaviar. 


1  'Tis  the  same  landscape  which  the  modern  Mars  saw 
Who  march'd  to  Moscow,  led  by  Fame,  the  siren ! 
To  lose  by  one  month's  frost,  some  twenty  years 
Of  conquest,  and  his  guard  of  grenadiers." 

— BYRON  (Don  Juan,  canto  x.  stanza  58). 



(For  subjoined  Notes  to  this  Series  see  pages  312-315.) 


No.   I.   Konigsberg          .          .          .          .          .          .         .312 

No.   2.    Gumblnnen  .          ,          .          ,          .          .          .          .313 


Montgaillard  sums  up  his  tirade  against  Napoleon  for  the  Russian 
campaign  by  noting  that  it  took  the  Romans  ten  years  to  conquer  Gaul, 
while  Napoleon  "  would  not  give  two  to  the  conquest  of  that  vast  desert 
of  Scythia  which  forced  Darius  to  flee,  Alexander  to  draw  back,  Crassus 
to  perish  ;  where  Julian  terminated  his  career,  where  Valerian  covered 
himself  with  shame,  and  which  saw  the  disasters  of  Charles  XII." 

January  tyh. — Suchet  captures  Valencia,  18,000  Spanish  troops,  and 
400  cannon.  The  marshal  is  made  Duke  of  AlbufeYa. 

January  l$th. — Imperial  decree  ordains  100,000  acres  to  be  put 
under  cultivation  of  beetroot,  for  the  manufacture  of  indigenous  sugar. 

January  igth. — Taking  of  Ciudad  Rodrigo  by  Wellington. 

January  26th — French,  under  General  Friand,  occupy  Stralsund  and 
Swedish  Pomerania. 

February  ^4fth. — Treaty  of  alliance  between  France  and  Prussia;  the 
latter  to  support  France  in  case  of  a  war  with  Russia. 

March  i$th. — Senatus  Consultus  divides  the  National  Guards  into 
three  bans,  to  include  all  capable  men  not  already  in  military  service. 
They  are  not  to  serve  outside  France.  A  hundred  cohorts,  each  970 
strong,  of  the  first  ban  (men  between  20  and  26),  put  at  disposal  of 

March  i^th. — Treaty  between  France  and  Austria  ;  reciprocal  help, 
in  need,  of  30,000  men  and  60  guns.  The  integrity  of  European  Turkey 
mutually  guaranteed. 

March  26th. — Treaty  between  Russia  and  Sweden.  Bernadotte  is 
promised  Norway  by  Alexander. 

April  7th. — The  English  take  Badajoz  by  assault.  "The  French 
General,  Philippon,  with  but  3000  men,  has  been  besieged  thrice  within 
thirteen  months  by  armies  of  50,000  men  "  (Montgaillard). 

April  2^th. — Alexander  leaves  St.  Petersburg,  to  take  command  of 
his  Grand  Army. 

May  qth. — Napoleon  leaves  Paris  for  Germany. 

May  nth. — Assassination  of  English  Prime  Minister,  Perceval. 



May  iy//>-28/^. — Napoleon  at  Dresden  ;  joined  there  by  the  Emperor 
and  Empress  of  Austria,  and  afresh  "parterre  of kings ." 

May  2&th. — Treaty  of  Bucharest,  between  Turkey  and  Russia.  The 
Pruth  as  boundary,  and  Servia  restored  to  Turkey.  This  treaty,  so  fatal 
to  Napoleon,  and  of  which  he  only  heard  in  October,  was  mainly  the 
work  of  Stratford  de  Redcliffe,  then  aged  twenty-five.  Wellington, 
thinking  the  treaty  his  brother's  work,  speaks  of  it  as  "  the  most  important 
service  that  ever  fell  to  the  lot  of  any  individual  to  perform." 

No.  i. 

June  \2th. — Suchet  defeats  an  Anglo- Spanish  army  outside  Tarra- 


June  I2th,  1812. 

My  Dear, — I  shall  always  receive  news  from  you  with  great 

The  waters  will,  I  hope,  do  you  good,  and  I  shall  see  you 
with  much  pleasure  on  your  return. 

Never  doubt  the  interest  I  feel  in  you.  I  will  arrange  all  the 
matters  of  which  you  speak.  NAPOLEON. 

June  i6th. — Lord  Liverpool  Prime  Minister  of  England. 
June  i8/A. — United  States  declares  war  against  England  concerning 
rights  of  neutrals. 

June  ityh. — The  captive  Pope  (Pius  VII.)  brought  to  Fontainebleau. 

No.  2. 

Gumbinnen,  June  2Oth,  1812. 

I  have  your  letter  of  June  loth.  I  see  no  obstacle  to  your 
going  to  Milan,  to  be  near  the  Vice-Reine.  You  will  do  well  to 
go  incognito.  You  will  find  it  very  hot. 


My  health  is  very  good.  Eugene  is  well,  and  is  doing  good 
work.  Never  doubt  the  interest  I  have  in  you,  and  my  friend- 
ship. NAPOLEON. 

June  22nd. — Napoleon  from  his  headquarters,  Wtlkoiuyszki,  declares 
•war  against  Russia.  His  army  comprised  550,000  men  and  I2OO  cannon, 
and  he  held  sway  at  this  epoch  over  85,000,000  souls — half  the  then  popu- 
lation of  Europe. 

June  24/A — French  cross  the  Niemen,  over  450,000  strong.1  Of 
these  20,000  are  Italians,  80,000  from  Confederation  of  the  Rhine, 
30,000  Poles,  30,000  Austrians,  and  20,000  Prussians.  The  Russian 
army  numbers  360,000. 

June  2%tk. — French  enter  Wilna,  the  old  capital  of  Lithuania. 
Napoleon  remains  here  till  July  1 6th,  establishing  a  provisional  government, 
and  leaving  his  Foreign  Minister,  Maret,  there. 

July  itth. — Americans  invade  Canada. 

July  1 8th. — Treaty  of  peace  between  England  and  Sweden  ;  and 
between  Russia  and  the  Spanish  Regency  at  Cadiz. 

July  22nd. — Battle  of  Salamanca  (Arapiles).  Marmont  defeated  by 
Wellington,  and  badly  wounded.  French  lose  nearly  8000  men  and 
5000  prisoners  ;  English  loss,  5200.  The  Spanish  Regency  had  decided 
to  submit  to  Joseph  Bonaparte,  but  this  battle  deters  them.  French 
retire  behind  the  Douro. 

July  2-^rd. — Combat  of  Mohilow,  on  the  Dneiper.  Davoust  defeats 

July  2$tk. — French  enter  Witepsk. 

August  ist. — Treaty  of  alliance  between  Great  Britain  and  Russia. 
English  fleet  henceforward  guards  the  Gulf  of  Riga.  Combat  of  Obai- 
arzma,  on  the  bank  of  the  Drissa.  Marshal  Oudinot  defeats  Wittgen- 
stein. Russians  lose  5000  men  and  14  guns. 

August  qth — Battle  of  Brownstown  (near  Toronto).  Americans 
defeated;  surrender  August  i6th  with  2500  men  and  33  guns  to  General 

August  12th. — Wellington  enters  Madrid. 

August  iJtf>~lSth. — Battle  and  capture  of  Smolensk.  Napoleon  defeats 
Barclay  de  Tolly  ;  Russians  lose  1 2,OOO,  French  less  than  half. 

1  Averaged  from  early  historians  of  the  campaigns.  Marbot  gives  the  numbers 
155,400  French  and  175,000  Allies.  Allowing  for  the  secession  of  the  Austrian 
and  Prussian  contingents  and  for  30,000  prisoners,  he  gives  the  actual  French 
death-roll  by  February  1813  at  65,000.  This  is  a  minimum  estimate. 


August  iSth. — Battle  of  Polotsk,  fifty  miles  from  Witepsk,  down  the 
Dwina.  St.  Cyr  defeats  Wittgenstein's  much  larger  army,  and  takes  20 
guns.  (St.  Cyr  made  marshal  for  this  battle,  August  27th.) 

August  igth. — Combat  of  Volontino-Cova,  beyond  Smolensk.  Ney 
defeats  Russians. 

August  27th. — Norway  guaranteed  Sweden  in  lieu  of  Finland  by 

August  28th. — Interview  at  Abo,  in  Finland,  between  Alexander, 
Bernadotte,  and  Lord  Cathcart  (English  ambassador).  Decided  that 
Sweden  shall  join  the  crusade  against  France,  and  that  Moreau  be  im- 
ported from  U.S.A.  to  command  another  army. 

August  2()th. — Viazma,  burnt  by  Russians,  entered  by  the  French. 

September  ^th. — Battle  of  Borodino  (La  Moskoiva).  Nearly  all  the 
Russian  generals  are  present :  Barclay  de  Tolly,  Beningsen,  Bagration 
(who  is  killed),  all  under  Kutusoff.  Russians  lose  30,000  men,  French 
20,000,  including  many  generals  who  had  survived  all  the  campaigns  of 
the  Revolution.  The  French,  hungry  and  soaked  in  rain,  have  no  energy 
to  pursue. 

September  i^th. — Occupation  of  Moscow;  fired  by  emissaries  of 
Rostopchin,  its  late  governor.  Of  4000  stone  houses  only  200  remain, 
of  8000  wooden  ones  500.  Over  20,000  sick  and  wounded  burnt  in 
their  beds.  Fire  lasts  till  September  2Oth. 

September  1 8th. — Russian  Army  of  the  Danube  under  Admiral  Tschit- 
chagow  joins  the  Army  of  Reserve. 

September  26th. — Russian  troops  from  Finland  disembark  at  Riga. 

September  $Oth. — Napoleon  Jinds  a  copy  of  Treaty  of  Bucharest  at 

October  1 1  th. — Admiral  Tschitchagow  with  36,000  men  reaches  Bresc, 
on  the  Bug,  threatening  the  French  communications  with  Warsaw. 

October  ijth-iyth. — Second  combat  of  Polotsk.  Wittgenstein  again 
defeated  by  St.  Cyr,  who  it  wounded. 

October  i8th. — Combat  of  Winkowo ;  Kutusoff  defeats  Murat. 
Americans  defeated  at  Queenston  Heights,  on  the  Niagara,  and  lose 
900  men. 

October  iqth. — Commencement  of  the  Retreat  from  Moscow. 

October  22nd. — Burgos  captured  by  Wellington. 

October  2$rd. — Conspiracy  of  Malet  at  Paris;  Cambacer£s  to  the 
rescue.  Evacuation  of  Moscow  by  Mortier  after  forty  days'  occupation. 
The  French  army  now  retreating  has  only  half  its  original  strength,  and 
the  best  cavalry  regiments  boast  only  100  horses. 

October  2^th. — Battle  of  Malo-Jaros/avitz.      Eugene  with    17,000 


men  defeats  Kutusoff  with  6o,OOO  ;  but  Napoleon  finds  the  enemy  too  strong 
and  too  tenacious  to  risk  the  fertile  Kaluga  route. 

November  ^rd. — Battle  of  Wiazma.  Rearguard  action,  in  which 
Ney  and  Eugene  are  distinguished. 

November  gth. — Napoleon  reaches  Smolensk  and  hears  of  Malet  con- 

November  i^ih. — Evacuation  of  Smolensk. 

November  \6th. — Russian  Army  (of  the  Danube)  takes  Minsk,  and 
cuts  off  the  French  from  the  Niemen. 

November  \6th-i£)th. — Combat  of  Krasnoi,  twenty-five  miles  west  of 
Smolensk.  Kutusoff  with  30,000  horse  and  70,000  foot  tries  to  stop 
the  French,  who  have  only  25,000  effective  combatants.  Magnificent 
fighting  by  Ney  with  his  rearguard  of  6000. 

November  2ist. — Russians  seize  at  Borizow  the  bridges  over  the  Bere- 
sina,  which  are 

November  2'ttrd. — Retaken  by  Oudinot. 

November  26th-2%th. — French  cross  the  Beresina,  but  lose  2O,OOO 
prisoners  and  nearly  all  their  cannon  (150). 

November  2tyth. — Napoleon  'writes  Maret  he  has  heard  nothing  of 
France  or  Spain  for  Jif teen  days. 

December  -^rd. — Twenty-ninth  bulletin  dated  Malodeczna,  fifty  miles 
west  of  Borisow. 

December  $th. — Napoleon  reaches  Smorgoni,  and  starts  for  France. 

December  loth. — Murat,  left  in  command,  evacuates  Wilna.  French 
retreat  in  utter  rout ;  "  It  is  not  General  Kutusoff  who  routed  the  French, 
it  is  General  Morosow  "  (the  frost),  said  the  Russians. 

December  i^th. — Napoleon  reaches  Dresden,  and 

December  1 8th. — Paris. 

December  igth. — Evacuation  of  Kovno  and  passage  of  the  Niemen. 

December  2Oth. — Napoleon  welcomed  by  the  Senate  in  a  speech  by  the 
naturalist  Latepede :  "  The  absence  of  your  Majesty,  sire,  is  always  a 
national  calamity." 

December  $oth. — Defection  of  the  Prussian  General  York  and  Con- 
vention of  Taurogen,  near  Tilsit,  between  Russia  and  Prussia.  This 
defection  is  the  signal  for  the  uprising  of  Germany  from  the  Oder  to  the 
Rhine,  from  the  Baltic  to  the  Julienne  Alps. 


January  $th. — Konigsberg  occupied  by  the  Russians. 
January  i$th. — Senatus  Consultus  calls  up  250,000  conscripts. 


January  22nd. — Americans  defeated  at  Frenchtown,  near  Detroit, 
and  lose  1200  men. 

January  2$th. — Concordat  at  Fontainebleau  between  Napoleon  and  Pope 
Pius  VII.)  with  advantageous  terms  for  the  Papacy.  The  Pope,  however, 
soon  breaks  faith. 

January  28th. — Murat  deserts  the  French  army  for  Naples,  and  leaves 
Posen.  "  Tour  husband  is  very  brave  on  the  battlefield,  but  he  is  weaker 
than  a  woman  or  a  monk  'when  he  is  not  face  to  face  •with  an  enemy.  He 
has  no  moral  courage  "  [Napoleon  to  his  sister  Caroline,  January  24^,1813. 
Brotonne,  1032).  Replaced  by  Eugene  [Napoleons  letter  dated  January 

February  1st. — Proclamation  of  Louis  XVIII.  to  the  French  people 
(dated  London). 

February  Sth. — Warsaw  surrenders  to  Russia. 

February  loth. — Proclamation  of  Emperor  Alexander  calling  on  the 
people  of  Germany  to  shake  off  the  yoke  of  "  one  man." 

February  28th. — Sixth  Continental  Coalition  against  France.  Treaty 
signed  between  Russia  and  Prussia  at  Kalisch. 

March  yd. — New  treaty  between  England  and  Sweden  at  Stock- 
holm :  Sweden  to  receive  a  subsidy  of  a  million  sterling  and  the  island  of 
Guadaloupe  in  return  for  supporting  the  Coalition  with  30,000  men. 

March  4/A. — Cossacks  occupy  Berlin.  Madison  inaugurated  Presi- 
dent U.S.A. 

March  qth. — Eugene  removes  his  headquarters  to  Leipsic. 

March  12th. — French  evacuate  Hamburg. 

March  2ist. — Russians  and  Prussians  take  new  town  of  Dresden. 

April  1st. — France  declares  war  on  Prussia. 

April  loth. — Death  of  Lag  range,  mathematician  ;  greatly  bemoaned  by 
Napoleon,  -who  considered  his  death  as  a  "presentiment"  (D'Abrant£s). 

April  i^th. — Swedish  army  lands  in  Germany. 

April  i$th. — Napoleon  leaves  Paris;  arrives  Erfurt  (April  2$th). 
Americans  take  Mobile. 

April  i6th. — Thorn  (garrisoned  by  900  Bavarians)  surrenders  to  the 
Russians.  Fort  York  (now  Toronto)  and 

April  21th. — Upper  Canada  taken  by  the  Americans. 

May  1st. — Death  of  the  Abbe  Delille,  poet.  Opening  of  campaign. 
French  forces  scattered  in  Germany,  166,000 men;  Allies'  forces  ready 
for  action,  225,000  men.  Marshal  Bessi£res  killed  by  a  cannon-ball  at 

May  2nd. — Napoleon  with  90,000  men  defeats  Prussians  and  Russians  at 
Lutzen  [Gross-Goerschen)  with  I  IO,OOO  ;  French  loss,  IO,OOO.  Battle  won 


chiefly  by  French   artillery.     Emperor   of  Russia    and   King    of  Prussia 

May  8th. — Napoleon  and  the  French  reoccupy  Dresden. 

May  iSth. — Eugene  reaches  Milan,  and  enrols  an  Italian  army 
47,000  strong. 

May  igth-2lsf. — Combats  of  Konigswartha,  Bautzen,  Hochkirch, 
Wurschen.  Napoleon  defeats  Prussians  and  Russians ;  French  loss,  I2,OOO; 
Allies )  2O,OOO. 

May  2yd. — Duroc  (shot  on  May  22nd)  dies.  "Duroc,"  said  the 
Emperor,  "  there  is  another  life.  It  is  there  you  -will  go  to  await  me,  and 
there  rwe  shall  meet  again  some  day." 

May  27  th. — Americans  capture  Fort  George  (Lake  Ontario)  and 

May  2tyh. — Defeat  English  at  Sackett's  Harbour. 

May  $oth. — French  re-enter  Hamburg  and 

June  1st. — Occupy  Breslau.  British  frigate  Shannon  captures  Chesa- 
peake in  fifteen  minutes  outside  Boston  harbour. 

June  Ofth. — Armistice  of  P/essivitz,  bet-ween  Napoleon  and  the  Allies. 

June  6th. — Americans  (3500)  surprised  at  Burlington  Heights  by 
700  British. 

June  I  $th. — Siege  of  Tarragona  raised  by  Suchet  ;  English  re-embark, 
leaving  their  artillery.  "  If  I  had  had  two  marshals  such  as  Suchet,  I 
should  not  only  have  conquered  Spain,  but  I  should  have  kept  it"  (Napoleon 
in  Campan's  Memoirs). 

June  2ist. — Battle  of  Vittoria ;  total  rout  of  the  French  under 
Marshal  Jourdan  and  King  Joseph.  In  retreat  the  army  is  much  more 
harassed  by  the  guerillas  than  by  the  English. 

June  2$rd. — Admiral  Cockburn  defeated  at  Craney  Island  by 

June  2qth. — Five  hundred  Americans  surrender  to  two  hundred 
Canadians  at  Beaver's  Dams. 

June  2$th. — Combat  of  Tolosa.  Foy  stops  the  advance  of  the 
English  right  wing. 

June  $Oth. — Convention  at  Dresden.  Napoleon  accepts  the  mediation  of 
Austria  ;  armistice  prolonged  to  August  I  oth. 

July  1st. — Souk  sent  to  take  chief  command  in  Spain. 

July  loth. — Alliance  between  France  and  Denmark. 

July  12th. — Congress  of  Prague.  Austria,  Prussia,  and  Russia  decide 
that  Germany  must  be  independent,  and  the  French  Empire  bounded  by  the 
Rhine  and  the  Alps  ;  "  but  to  reign  over  36,000,000  men  did  not  appear  to 
Napoleon  a  sufficiently  great  destiny"  (Montgaillard).  Congress  breaks  up 
July  2%tL 


July  26th. — Moreau  arrives  from  U.S.,  and  lands  at  Gothenburg. 

July  $ist. — Soult  attacks  Anglo-Spanish  army  near  Roncesvalles  in 
order  to  succour  Pampeluna.  Is  repulsed,  with  loss  of  8000  men. 

August  1 2th. — Austria  notifies  its  adhesion  to  the  Allies. 

August  1 $th. — Jomini,  the  Swiss  tactician,  turns  traitor  and  escapes  to 
the  Allies.  He  advises  them  of  Napoleon  s  plans  to  seize  Berlin  and  relieve 
Dantzic  [_see  letter  to  Ney,  No.  19,714,  20,006,  and  especially  20,360 
{August  1 2th)  in  Correspondence]].  On  August  i6th  Napoleon  writes  to 
Cambaceres  :  "  Jomini,  Ney's  chief  of  staff",  has  deserted.  It  is  he  'who 
published  some  volumes  on  the  campaigns  and  who  has  been  in  the  pay  of 
Russia  for  a  long  time.  He  has  yielded  to  corruption.  He  is  a  soldier  of 
little  value,  yet  he  is  a  'writer  'who  has  grasped  some  of  the  sound  principles 
of  war" 

August  ijth. — Renewal  of  hostilities  in  Germany.  Napoleon's  army, 
280,000,  of  whom  half  recruits  who  had  never  seen  a  battle;  the  Allies 
520,000,  excluding  militia.  In  his  counter-manifesto  to  Austria,  dated 
Bautzen,  Napoleon  declares  "  Austria,  the  enemy  of  France,  and  cloaking 
her  ambition  under  the  mask  of  a  mediation,  complicated  everything.  .  .  . 
But  AustriOf  our  avowed  foe,  is  in  a  truer  guise,  and  one  perfectly  obvious. 
Europe  is  therefore  much  nearer  peace  ;  there  is  one  complication  the  /ess." 

August  i%th. — Suchet,  having  blown  up  fortifications  of  Tarragona, 
evacuates  Valentia. 

August  list. — Opening  of  the  campaign  in  Italy.  Eugene,  with 
50,000  men,  commands  the  Franco-Italian  army. 

August  2^rd. — Combats  of  Gross-Beeren  and  Ahrensdorf,  near  Berlin. 
Bernadotte  defeats  Oudinot  with  loss  of  1 500  men  and  20  guns.  Berlin 
is  preserved  to  the  Allies.  Oudinot  replaced  by  Ney.  Lauriston  defeats 
Army  of  Silesia  at  Goldberg  with  heavy  loss. 

August  26th— 27th. — Battle  of  Dresden. — Napoleon  marches  a  hundred 
miles  in  seventy  hours  to  the  rescue.  With  less  than  IOO,OOO  men  he  defeats 
the  Allied  Army  of  l8o,OOO  under  Schwartzenberg,  Wittgenstein,  and 
Kleist.  Austrians  lose  2O,OOO  prisoners  and  60  guns.  Moreau  is  mor- 
tally wounded  {dies  September  1st).  Combat  of  the  Katzbach,  in  Silesia. 
Blucher  defeats  Macdonald  with  heavy  loss,  who  loses  10,000  to  12,000 
men  in  his  retreat. 

August  1,0th. — Combat  of  Kulm.  Vandamme  enveloped  in  Bohemia, 
and  surrenders  with  12,000  men. 

August  $ist. — Combat  of  Irun.  Soult  attacks  Wellington  to  save 
San  Sebastian,  but  is  repulsed.  Graham  storms  San  Sebastian. 

September  6th. — Combat  of  Dennewitz  (near  Berlin).  Ney  routed 
by  Bulow  and  Bernadotte ;  loses  his  artillery,  baggage,  and  1 2,000  men. 


September  loth. — Americans  capture  the  English  flotilla  on  Lake 

September  \2th. — Combat  of  Villafranca  (near  Barcelona).  Suchet 
defeats  English  General  Bentinck. 

October  jth. — Wellington  crosses  the  Bidassoa  into  France.  "  It  is 
on  the  frontier  of  France  itself  that  ends  the  enterprise  of  Napoleon  on 
Spain.  The  Spaniards  have  given  the  first  conception  of  a  people's  war 
versus  a  war  of  professionals.  For  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  think  that 
the  battles  of  Salamanca  (July  22nd,  1812)  and  Vittoria  (June  zist, 
1813)  forced  the  French  to  abandon  the  Peninsula.  ...  It  was  the 
daily  losses,  the  destruction  of  man  by  man,  the  drops  of  French  blood 
falling  one  by  one,  which  in  five  years  aggregated  a  death-roll  of  1 50,000 
men.  As  to  the  English,  they  appeared  in  this  war  only  as  they  do  in 
every  world-crisis,  to  gather,  in  the  midst  of  general  desolation,  the  fruits 
of  their  policy,  and  to  consolidate  their  plans  of  maritime  despotism,  of 
exclusive  commerce  "  (Montgaillard). 

October  I  $th. — Bavarian  army  secedes  and  joins  the  Austrians. 

October  \6th-igth. — Battles  of  Leipsic.  Allied  army  330,000  men 
(Schwartzenberg,  Bernadotte,  Blucher,  Beningsen},  Napoleon  175,000. 
Twenty-six  battalions  and  ten  squadrons  of  Saxon  and  Wurtemberg  men 
leave  Napoleon  and  turn  their  guns  against  the  French.  Napoleon  is  not  de- 
feated, but  determines  to  retreat.  The  rearguard  (2O,OOO  men}  and  2OO 
cannon  taken.  Poniatowski  drowned  ;  Reynier  and  Lauriston  captured. 

October  2Oth. — Blucher  made  Field-Marshal. 

October  2$rd. — French  army  reach  Erfurt. 

October  $Oth. — Combat  of  Hanau.  Napoleon  defeats  Wrede  with  heavy 

October  $ist. — Combat  and  capture  of  Bassano  by  Eugene.  English 
capture  Pampeluna. 

November  2nd. — Napoleon  arrives  at  Mayence  (where  typhus  carries 
off  40,000  French}^  and  is 

November  qth. — At  St.  Cloud. 

November  loth. — Wellington  defeats  Soult  at  St.  Jean  de  Luz. 

November  nth. — Surrender  of  Dresden  by  Gouvion  St.  Cyr  ;  its 
French  soldiers  to  return  under  parole  to  France.  Austrians  refuse  to 
ratify  the  convention,  and  1700  officers  and  23,000  men  remain  prisoners 
of  war. 

November  i^th. — Napoleon  addresses  the  Senate  :  "  All  Europe  marched 
with  us  a  year  ago  ;  all  Europe  marches  against  us  to-day.  That  is  because 
the  world's  opinion  is  directed  either  by  France  or  England" 



November  i$th. — Eugene  defeats  Austrians  at  Caldiero.  Senatus- 
Consultus  puts  300,000  conscripts  at  disposal  of  government. 

November  2^th. — Capture  of  Amsterdam  by  Prussian  General  Bulow. 

December  1st. — Allies  declare  at  Frankfort  that  they  are  at  war  with 
the  Emperor  and  not  with  France. 

December  2nd. — Bulow  occupies  Utrecht.  Holland  secedes  from  the 
French  Empire. 

December  $th. — Capture  of  Lubeck  by  the  Swedes,  and  surrender  of 
Stettin  (7000  prisoners),  Zamosk  (December  22nd),  Modlin  (December 
25th),  and  Torgau  (December  26th,  with  10,000  men). 

December  8th-i$tb. — Soult  defends  the  passage  of  the  Nive — costly 
to  both  sides.  Murat  (now  hostile  to  Napoleon)  enters  Ancona. 

December  gth-ioth. — French  evacuate  Breda. 

December  nth. — Treaty  of  Valen$ay  between  Napoleon  and  his  prisoner 
Ferdinand  VII.,  'who  is  to  reign  over  Spain,  but  not  to  cede  Minorca  or 
Ceuta  (now  in  their  power}  to  the  English. 

December  i$th. — Denmark  secedes  from  French  alliance. 

December  2ist. — Allies,  ioo,ooo  strong,  cross  the  Rhine  in  ten  divi- 
sions (Bale  to  Schaffhausen).  Jomini  is  said  to  have  contributed  to  this 
violation  of  Swiss  territory. 

December  2^th. — Final  evacuation  of  Holland  by  the  French. 

December  28tb. — Austrians  capture  Ragusa. 

December  3 1st. — Napoleon,  having  trouble  with  his  Commons,  dissolves 
the  Corps  Legislatif.  Austrians  capture  Geneva.  Blucher  crosses  the 
Rhine  at  Mannheim  and  Coblentz.  Exclusive  of  Landwehr  and  levies 
en  masse,  there  are  now  a  million  trained  men  in  arms  against  Napoleon. 


"  The  Allied  Powers  having  proclaimed  that  the  Emperor  Napoleon 
was  the  sole  obstacle  to  the  re-establishment  of  the  Peace  of  Europe, 
the  Emperor  Napoleon,  faithful  to  his  oath,  declares  that  he  renounces, 
for  himself  and  his  heirs,  the  thrones  of  France  and  Italy,  and  that  there 
is  no  personal  sacrifice,  even  that  of  life  itself,  that  he  will  not  be  ready 
to  make  for  the  sake  of  France." — {Act  of  Abdication.") 

January  1st. — Capitulation  of  Danzic,  which  General  Rapp  had 
defended  for  nearly  a  year,  having  lost  20,000  (out  of  30,000)  men  by 
fever.  Russians,  who  had  promised  to  send  the  French  home,  break 
faith,  following  the  example  of  Schwartzenberg  at  Dresden. 

January  2nd. — Russians  take  Fort  Louis  (Lower  Rhine)  ;  and 
January  ^rd. — Austrians  Montbe"liard ;  and  Bavarians  Colmar. 


January  6th. — General  York  occupies  Treves.  Convention  between 
Murat  and  England  and  (January  nth)  with  Austria.  Murat  is  to  join 
Allies  with  30,000  men. 

January  'jth. — Austrians  occupy  Vesoul. 

January  8/£. — French  Rentes  5  per  cents,  at  47.50.  Wurtemberg 
troops  occupy  Epinal. 

January  loth. — General  York  reaches  Forbach  (on  the  Moselle). 

January  \$th. — Cossacks  occupy  Cologne. 

January  i6th. — Russians  occupy  Nancy. 

January  igth. — Austrians  occupy  Dijon;  Bavarians,  Neufchateau. 
Murat's  troops  occupy  Rome. 

January  2Oth. — Capture  of  Toul  by  the  Russians  ;  and  of  Chambery 
by  the  Austrians. 

January  2ist. — Austrians  occupy  Chilons-sur-Saone.  General 
York  crosses  the  Meuse. 

January  2$rd. — Pope  Pius  VII.  returns  to  Rome. 

January  2$th. — General  York  and  Army  of  Silesia  established  at 
St.  Dizier  and  Joinville  on  the  Marne.  .  Austrians  occupy  Bar-sur-Aube. 
Napoleon  leaves  Paris  ;  and 

January  26th. — Reaches  Chdlons-sur- Marne  ;  and 

January  2"]th. — Retakes  St.  Dizier  in  person. 

January  2<)th. — Combat  of  Brienne.      Napoleon  defeats  Blucher. 

February  1st. — Battle  of  La  Rothiere,  six  miles  north  of  Brienne. 
French,  40,000  ;  Allies,  1 10,000.  Drawn  battle,  but  French  retreat  on 
Troyes  ;  French  evacuate  Brussels. 

February  ^th. — Eugene  retires  upon  the  Mincio. 

February  $th. — Cortes  disavow  Napoleon's  treaty  of  Falenfay  ivith 
Ferdinand  VII.  Opening  of  Congress  of  Chatillon.  General  York 
occupies  Chalons-sur-Marne. 

February  'jth. — Allies  seize  Troyes. 

February  8th. — Battle  of  the  Mincio.  Eugene  with  30,000  con- 
scripts defeats  Austrians  under  Bellegarde  with  50,000  veterans. 

February  iQth. — Combat  of  Champaubert.      Napoleon  defeats  Russians. 

February  llth. — Combat  of  Montmirail.  Napoleon  defeats  Sacken. 
Russians  occupy  Nogent-sur-Seine  ;  and 

February  12th. — Laon. 

February  l^th. — Napoleon  routs  Blucher  at  Vauchamp.  His  losses, 
IO,OOO  men  ;  French  loss,  600  men.  In  Jive  days  Napoleon  has  wiped  out 
the  Jive  corps  of  the  Army  of  Silesia,  inflicting  a  loss  c/"  2  5,000  men. 

February  IJth. — Combat  near  Nangis.  Napoleon  defeats  Austro- 
Russians  with  loss  of  IO,OOO  men  and  12  cannon. 


February  iSth. — Combat  of  Montereau.  Prince  Royal  of  Wurtem- 
berg  defeated  with  loss  of  7000. 

February  2ist. — Comte  d'Artois  arrives  at  Veioul. 

February  22nd. — Combat  of  Mery-sur-Seine.  Sacken  defeated  by 
Boyer's  Division,  who  fight  in  masks — it  being  Shrove  Tuesday. 

February  2$th. — French  re-enter  Troyes. 

February  2"]th. — Bulow  captures  La  Fere  with  large  stores.  Battle 
of  Orthes  (Pyrenees),  Wellington  with  70,000  defeats  Soult  entrenched 
with  38,000.  Foy  badly  wounded. 

February  2Jth-28tb. — Combats  of  Bar  and  Ferte-sur-Aube.  Marshals 
Oudinot  and  Macdonald  forced  to  retire  on  the  Seine. 

March  ist. — Treaty  of  Chaumont — Allies  against  Napoleon. 

March  2nd. — Bulow  takes  Soissons. 

March  4//>. — Macdonald  evacuates  Troyes. 

March  Jtt> — Battle  of  Craonne  bet-ween  Napoleon  (30,000  men)  and 
Sacken  (100,000).  Indecisive. 

March  gth. — English  driven  from  Berg-op-Zoom. 

March  qth—ioth. — Combat  under  Laon :  depot  of  Allied  army. 
Napoleon  fails  to  capture  it. 

March  \2th. — Due  d'Angouleme  arrives  at  Bordeaux.  This  town 
is  the  first  to  declare  for  the  Bourbons,  and  to  welcome  him  as 
Louis  XVIII. 

March  ityh. — Ferdinand  VII.  set  at  liberty. 

March  i^th. — Napoleon  retakes  Rheims  from  the  Russians. 

March  I  gth. — Rupture  of  Treaty  of  Chatillon. 

March  2Oth. — Battle  of  Tarbes.      Wellington  defeats  French. 

March  2Oth-2ist. — Battle  of  Arcis-sur-Aube.     Indecisive. 

March  2lst. — Austrians  enter  Lyons.  Augereau  retires  on  Valence. 
Had  Eugene  joined  him  with  his  40,000  men  he  might  have  saved 
France  after  Vauchamp. 

March  2$th. — Combat  of  Fere-Champenoise.  Marmont  and  Mortier 
defeated  with  Joss  of  9000  men. 

March  26th. — Combat  of  St.  Dizier.  Napoleon  defeats  Russians,  and 
starts  to  save  Paris. 

March  2Qth. — Allies  outside  Paris.    Napoleon  at  Troyes  (125  miles  off  ). 

March  $oth. — Sat  tie  of  Paris.  The  Emperor's  orders  disobeyed. 
Heavy  cannon  from  Cherbourg  left  outside  Paris,  also  20,000  men. 
Clarke  deserts  to  the  Allies.  Joseph  runs  away,  leaving  Marmont 
permission  to  capitulate.  After  losing  5000  men  (and  Allies  8000) 
Marmont  evacuates  Paris  and  retires.  Napoleon  reaches  Fontainebleau  in 
the  evening,  and  hears  the  bad  news. 


March  3U/. — Emperor  of  Russia,  King  of  Prussia,  and  36,000 
men  enter  Paris.  Stocks  and  shares  advance.  Emperor  Alexander 
states,  "  The.  Allied  Sovereigns  will  treat  no  longer  with  Napoleon 
Bonaparte,  nor  any  of  his  family." 

April  ist. — Senate,  with  Talleyrand  as  President,  institute  a  Pro- 
visional Government. 

April  2nd. — Provisional  Government  address  the  army :  "  You  are 
no  longer  the  soldiers  of  Napoleon  ;  the  Senate  and  the  whole  of  France 
absolve  you  from  your  oaths."  They  also  declare  Napoleon  deposed 
from  the  throne,  and  his  family  from  the  succession. 

April  4/i, — Napoleon  signs  a  declaration  of  abdication  in  favour  of  his 
son,  but  after  t<wo  days'  deliberation,  and  Mormon?  s  defection,  Alexander 
insists  on  an  absolute  abdication. 

April  $th. — Convention  of  Chevilly.  Marmont  agrees  to  join  the 
Provisional  Government,  and  disband  his  army  under  promise  that  Allies 
will  guarantee  life  and  liberty  to  Napoleon  Bonaparte.  Funds  on  March 
zgth  at  45,  now  at  63.75. 

April  6th. — New  Constitution  decreed  by  the  Senate.  The  National 
Guard  ordered  to  wear  the  White  Cockade  in  lieu  of  the  Tricolor. 

April  loth — Battle  of  Toulouse.  Hotly  contested  ;  almost  a  defeat 
for  Wellington. 

April  nth. — Treaty  of  Paris  between  Napoleon  and  Allies  [Austria, 
Russia,  and  Prussia}.  Isle  of  Elba  reserved  for  Napoleon  and  his  family, 
•with  a  revenue  of  ^200,000  ;  the  Duchies  of  Parma  and  Placentia  for 
Marie  Louise  and  her  son.  England  accedes  to  this  Treaty.  Act  of 
Abdication  of  the  Emperor  Napoleon. 

April  1 2th. — Count  d' Artois  enters  Paris. 

April  i6th. — Convention  between  Eugene  and  Austrian  General 
Bellegarde.  Emperor  of  Austria  sees  Marie  Louise  at  the  little  Trianon, 
and  decides  upon  his  daughter's  return  to  Vienna. 

April  i8t&. — Armistice  of  Soult  and  Wellington. 

April  2Oth. — Napoleon  leaves  Fontainebleau,  and  bids  adieu  to  his  Old 
Guard  :  "  Do  not  mourn  over  my  fate;  if  I  have  determined  to  survive,  it  is 
in  order  still  to  dedicate  myself  to  your  glory  ;  I  wish  to  write  about  the 
great  things  rwe  have  done  together" 

April  24//». — Louis  XVIII.  lands  at  Calais,  and 

May  ^rd. — Enters  Paris. 

May  Afth. — Napoleon  reaches  Elba. 

May  2gth. — Death  of  Josephine,  aged  51. 

May  $Oth. — Peace  of  Paris, 



(The  numbers  correspond  to  the  numbers  of  the  Letters.] 

No.  i. 

Bonaparte  made  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Army  of  Italy. — 
Marmont's  account  of  how  this  came  to  pass  is  probably  sub- 
stantially correct,  as  he  has  less  interest  in  distorting  the  facts 
than  any  other  writer  as  well  fitted  for  the  task.  The  winter 
had  rolled  by  in  the  midst  of  pleasures — soirees  at  the  Luxembourg, 
dinners  of  Madame  Tallien,  "nor,"  he  adds,  "were  we  hard  to 
please."  "The  Directory  often  conversed  with  General  Bona- 
parte about  the  army  of  Italy,  whose  general — Scherer — was 
always  representing  the  position  as  difficult,  and  never  ceasing  to 
ask  for  help  in  men,  victuals,  and  money.  General  Bonaparte 
showed,  in  many  concise  observations,  that  all  that  was  super- 
fluous. He  strongly  blamed  the  little  advantage  taken  from  the 
victory  at  Loano,  and  asserted  that,  even  yet,  all  that  could  be 
put  right.  Thus  a  sort  of  controversy  was  maintained  between 
Scherer  and  the  Directory,  counselled  and  inspired  by  Bonaparte." 
At  last  when  Bonaparte  drew  up  plans — afterwards  followed — 
for  the  invasion  of  Piedmont,  Scherer  replied  roughly  that  he  who 
had  drawn  up  the  plan  of  campaign  had  better  come  and  execute 
it.  They  took  him  at  his  word,  and  Bonaparte  was  named 
General-in-Chief  of  the  army  of  Italy  (vol.  i.  93). 

"  7  A.M." — Probably  written  early  in  March.  Leaving  Paris 
on  March  nth,  Napoleon  writes  Letourneur,  President  of  the 


NOTES  199 

Directory,  of  his  marriage  with  the  "  citoyenne  Tascher  Beau- 
harnais,"  and  tells  him  that  he  has  already  asked  Barras  to  inform 
them  of  the  fact.  "The  confidence  which  the  Directory  has 
shown  me  under  all  circumstances  makes  it  my  duty  to  keep  it 
advised  of  all  my  actions.  It  is  a  new  link  which  binds  me  to 
the  fatherland  ;  it  is  one  more  proof  of  my  fixed  determination  to 
find  safety  only  in  the  Republic."  l 

No.  2. 

"  Our  good  Ossian" — The  Italian  translation  of  Ossian  by 
Cesarotti  was  a  masterpiece  ;  better,  in  fact,  than  the  original. 
He  was  a  friend  of  Macpherson,  and  had  learnt  English  in  order 
to  translate  his  work.  Cesarotti  lived  till  an  advanced  age,  and 
was  sought  out  in  his  retirement  in  order  to  receive  honours  and 
pensions  from  the  Emperor  Napoleon. 

"  Our  good  Ossian  "  speaks,  like  Homer,  of  the  joy  of  grief. 

No.  4. 

"  Chauvet  is  dead" — Chauvet  is  first  mentioned  in  Napoleon's 
correspondence  in  a  letter  to  his  brother  Joseph,  August  9,  1795. 
Mdme.  Junot,  Memoirs,  i.  138,  tells  us  that  Bonaparte  was  very 
fond  of  him,  and  that  he  was  a  man  of  gentle  manners  and  very 
ordinary  conversation.  She  declares  that  Bonaparte  had  been  a 
suitor  for  the  hand  of  her  mother  shortly  before  his  marriage  with 
Josephine,  and  that  because  the  former  rejected  him,  the  general 
had  refused  a  favour  to  her  son  ;  this  had  caused  a  quarrel 
which  Chauvet  had  in  vain  tried  to  settle.  On  March  2Jth 
Bonaparte  had  written  Chauvet  from  Nice  that  every  day  that 
he  delayed  joining  him,  "takes  away  from  my  operations  one 
chance  of  probability  for  their  success." 

No.  5. 

St.  Amand  notes  that  Bonaparte  begins  to  suspect  his  wife 
in  this  letter,  while  the  previous  ones,  especially  that  of  April 
3rd,  show  perfect  confidence.  Napoleon  is  on  the  eve  of  a 

1  No.  89  of  Napoleon  III.'s  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  I.,  vol.  i.,  the  last 
letter  signed  Buonaparte  ;  after  March  24  we  only  find  Bonaparte. 

200  NOTES 

serious  battle,  and  has  only  just  put  his  forces  into  fighting  trim. 
On  the  previous  day  (April  6th)  he  wrote  to  the  Directory  that 
the  movement  against  Genoa,  of  which  he  does  not  approve,  has 
brought  the  enemy  out  of  their  winter  quarters  almost  before  he 
has  had  time  to  make  ready.  "The  army  is  in  a  state  of  alarming 
destitution  ;  I  have  still  great  difficulties  to  surmount,  but  they 
are  surmountable  :  misery  has  excused  want  of  discipline,  and 
without  discipline  never  a  victory.  I  hope  to  have  all  in  good 
trim  shortly — there  are  signs  already  ;  in  a  few  days  we  shall  be 
fighting.  The  Sardinian  army  consists  of  50,000  foot,  and  5000 
horse;  I  have  only  45,000  men  at  my  disposal,  all  told.  Chauvet, 
the  commissary-general,  died  at  Genoa  :  it  is  a  heavy  loss  to  the 
army,  he  was  active  and  enterprising." 

Two  days  later  Napoleon,  still  at  Albenga,  reports  that  he 
has  found  Royalist  traitors  in  the  army,  and  complains  that  the 
Treasury  had  not  sent  the  promised  pay  for  the  men,  "  but  in 
spite  of  all,  we  shall  advance."  Massena,  eleven  years  older  than 
his  new  commander-in-chief,  had  received  him  coldly,  but  soon 
became  his  right-hand  man,  always  genial,  and  full  of  good  ideas. 
Massena's  men  are  ill  with  too  much  salt  meat,  they  have  hardly 
any  shoes,  but,  as  in  I  Soo,1  he  has  never  a  doubt  that  Bonaparte 
will  make  a  good  campaign,  and  determines  to  loyally  support 
him.  Poor  Laharpe,  so  soon  to  die,  is  a  man  of  a  different  stamp 
— one  of  those,  doubtless,  of  whom  Bonaparte  thinks  when  he 
writes  to  Josephine,  "Men  worry  me."  The  Swiss,  in  fact,  was 
a  chronic  grumbler,  but  a  first-rate  fighting  man,  even  when  his 
men  were  using  their  last  cartridges. 

"  The  lovers  of  nineteen" — The  allusion  is  lost.  Aubenas, 
who  reproduces  two  or  three  of  these  letters,  makes  a  comment 
to  this  sentence,  "  Nous  n'avons  pu  trouver  un  nom  a  mettre  sous 
cette  fantasque  imagination"  (vol.  i.  317). 

" My  brother"  viz.  Joseph. — He  and  Junot  reached  Paris  in 
five  days,  and  had  a  great  ovation.  Carnot,  at  a  dinner-party, 
showed  Napoleon's  portrait  next  to  his  heart,  because  "I  foresee 
he  will  be  the  saviour  of  France,  and  I  wish  him  to  know  that  he 
has  at  the  Directory  only  admirers  and  friends." 

1  Compelled  to  surrender  Genoa,  before  Marengo  takes  place,  he  swears  to 
the  Austrian  general  he  will  be  back  there  in  fourteen  days,  and  keeps  his  word. 

NOTES  201 

No.  6. 

Unalterably  good. — "  C'est  Joseph  peint  d'un  seul  trait." — 
Aubenas  (vol.  i.  320). 

"  If  you  want  a  place  for  any  oney  you  can  send  him  here.  I  will 
give  him  one" — Bonaparte  was  beginning  to  feel  firm  in  the 
saddle,  while  at  Paris  Josephine  was  treated  like  a  princess. 
Under  date  April  25th,  Letourneur,  as  one  of  the  Directory, 
writes  him,  "A  vast  career  opens  itself  before  you;  the  Directory 
has  measured  the  whole  extent  of  it."  They  little  knew  !  The 
letter  concludes  by  expressing  confidence  that  their  general  will 
never  be  reproached  with  the  shameful  repose  of  Capua.  In  a 
further  letter,  bearing  the  same  date,  Letourneur  insists  on  a  full  and 
accurate  account  of  the  battles  being  sent,  as  they  will  be  necessary 
"  for  the  history  of  the  triumphs  of  the  Republic."  In  a  private 
letter  to  the  Directory  (No.  22O,  vol.  i.  of  the  Correspondence^ 
1858),  dated  Carru,  April  24th,  Bonaparte  tells  them  that  when 
he  returns  to  camp,  worn-out,  he  has  to  work  all  night  to  put 
matters  straight,  and  repress  pillage.  "Soldiery  without  bread 
work  themselves  into  an  excess  of  frenzy  which  makes  one  blush 
to  be  a  man."  l  ..."  I  intend  to  make  terrible  examples.  I 
shall  restore  order,  or  cease  to  command  these  brigands.  The 
campaign  is  not  yet  decided.  The  enemy  is  desperate,  numerous, 
and  fights  well.  He  knows  I  am  in  want  of  everything,  and 
trusts  entirely  to  time  ;  but  I  trust  entirely  to  the  good  genius  of 
the  Republic,  to  the  bravery  of  the  soldiers,  to  the  harmony  of 
the  officers,  and  even  to  the  confidence  they  repose  in  me." 

No.  7. 

Aubenas  goes  into  ecstasies  over  this  letter,  "  the  longest,  most 
eloquent,  and  most  impassioned  of  the  whole  series"  (vol.  i.  322). 

1  Two  days  later  he  evidently  feels  this  letter  too  severe,  and  writes:  "All 
goes  well.  Pillage  is  less  pronounced.  This  first  thirst  of  an  army  destitute  of 
everything  is  quenched.  The  poor  fellows  are  excusable  ;  after  having  sighed 
for  three  years  at  the  top  of  the  Alps,  they  arrive  in  the  Promised  Land,  and  wish 
to  taste  of  it." 



Au   Quanirr  General  dt    Cajv\4t-*+.  It 

fan  fuarriemt  Je  la  Rfput/iqut  Francaite  ,   unf  tt  inUv'mtU: 



-AV*^*  ^^-^<?t<^tt>-^^«^^^^  ""^-A^-tK**^. 

~-  -c^zi  .* 

fcu^-    /  'If^-    "  \. 

L-  C, 

204  NOTES 

June  15. — Here  occurs  the  first  gap  in  the  correspondence, 
but  his  letters  to  the  Directory  between  this  date  and  the  last 
letter  to  Josephine  extant  (April  24)  are  full  of  interest,  including 
his  conscientious  disobedience  at  Cherasco,  and  the  aura  of  his 
destiny  to  "  ride  the  whirlwind  and  direct  the  storm  "  which  first 
inspired  him  after  Lodi.  On  April  28th  was  signed  the  armistice 
of  Cherasco,  by  which  his  rear  was  secured  by  three  strong 
fortresses.1  He  writes  the  Directory  that  Piedmont  is  at  their 
mercy,  and  that  in  making  the  armistice  into  a  definite  peace 
he  trusts  they  will  not  forget  the  little  island  of  Saint-Pierre, 
which  will  be  more  useful  in  the  future  than  Corsica  and  Sardinia 
combined.  He  looks  upon  northern  Italy  as  practically  conquered, 
and  speaks  of  invading  Bavaria  through  the  Tyrol.  "Prodigious  " 
is  practically  the  verdict  of  the  Directory,  and  later  of  Jomini. 
"  My  columns  are  marching  ;  Beaulieu  flees.  I  hope  to  catch 
him.  I  shall  impose  a  contribution  of  some  millions  on  the  Duke 
of  Parma  :  he  will  sue  for  peace  :  don't  be  in  a  hurry,  so  that  I 
may  have  time  to  make  him  also  contribute  to  the  cost  of  the 
campaign,  by  replenishing  our  stores  and  rehorsing  our  waggons 
at  his  expense."  Bonaparte  suggests  that  Genoa  should  pay 
fifteen  millions  indemnity  for  the  frigates  and  vessels  taken  in 
the  port.  Certain  risks  had  to  be  run  in  invading  Lombardy, 
owing  to  want  of  horse  artillery,  but  at  Cherasco  he  secured 
artillery  and  horses.  When  writing  to  the  Directory  for  a  dozen 
companies,  he  tells  them  not  to  entrust  the  execution  of  this 
measure  "  to  the  men  of  the  bureaus,  for  it  takes  them  ten  days 
to  forward  an  order."  Writing  to  Carnot  on  the  same  day  he 
states  he  is  marching  against  Beaulieu,  who  has  26,000  foot  out 
of  38,000  at  commencement  of  campaign.  Napoleon's  force  is 
28,000,  but  he  has  less  cavalry.  On  May  ist,  in  a  letter  dated 
Acqui  to  Citizen  Faipoult,  he  asks  for  particulars  of  the  pictures, 

1  Bingham,  with  his  customary  ill-nature,  remarks  that  Bonaparte,  "in  spite 
of  the  orders  of  the  Directory,  took  upon  himself  to  sign  the  armistice."  These 
orders,  dated  March  6th,  were  intended  for  a  novice,  and  no  longer  applicable  to 
the  conqueror  of  two  armies,  and  which  a  Despatch  on  the  way,  dated  April  25th, 
already  modified.  Jomini  admits  the  wisdom  of  this  advantageous  peace,  which 
secured  Nice  and  Savoy  to  France,  and  gave  her  all  the  chief  mountain-passes 
leading  into  Italy. 

NOTES  205 

statues,  &c.,  of  Milan,  Parma,  Placentia,  Modena,  and  Bologna. 
On  the  same  day  Massena  writes  that  his  men  are  needing  shoes. 
On  May  6th  Bonaparte  announces  the  capture  of  Tortona,  "a 
very  fine  fortress,  which  cost  the  King  of  Sardinia  over  fifteen 
millions,"  while  Cherasco  has  furnished  him  with  twenty-eight 
guns.  Meanwhile  Massena  has  taken  possession  of  Alessandria, 
with  all  its  stores.  On  May  gth  Napoleon  writes  to  Carnot, 
"We  have  at  last  crossed  the  Po.  The  second  campaign  is 
begun  ;  Beaulieu  .  .  .  has  fool-hardiness  but  no  genius.  One 
more  victory,  and  Italy  is  ours."  A  clever  commissary-general 
is  all  he  needs,  and  his  men  are  growing  fat — with  good  meat 
and  good  wine.  He  sends  to  Paris  twenty  old  masters,  with  fine 
examples  of  Correggio  and  Michael-Angelo.  It  is  pleasant  to 
find  Napoleon's  confidence  in  Carnot,  in  view  of  Barras'  in- 
sinuations that  the  latter  had  cared  only  for  Moreau — his  type 
of  Xenophon.  In  this  very  letter  Napoleon  writes  Carnot,  "I 
owe  you  my  special  thanks  for  the  care  that  you  have  kindly 
given  to  my  wife  ;  I  recommend  her  to  you,  she  is  a  sincere 
patriot,  and  I  love  her  to  distraction."  He  is  sending  "  a  dozen 
millions  "  to  France,  and  hopes  that  some  of  it  will  be  useful  to 
the  army  of  the  Rhine.  Meanwhile,  and  two  days  before 
Napoleon's  letter  to  Carnot  just  mentioned,  the  latter,  on  behalf 
of  the  Directory,  suggests  the  division  of  his  command  with  the 
old  Alsatian  General  Kellermann.  The  Directory's  idea  of  a 
gilded  pill  seems  to  be  a  prodigiously  long  letter.  It  is  one  of 
those  heart-breaking  effusions  that,  even  to  this  day,  emanate 
from  board-rooms,  to  the  dismay  and  disgust  of  their  recipients. 
After  plastering  him  with  sickening  sophistries  as  to  his  "sweetest 
recompense,"  it  gives  the  utterly  unnecessary  monition,  "March  ! 
no  fatal  repose,  there  are  still  laurels  to  gather  "  !  Nevertheless, 
his  plan  of  ending  the  war  by  an  advance  through  the  Tyrol  strikes 
them  as  too  risky.  He  is  to  conquer  the  Milanais,  and  then  divide 
his  army  with  Kellermann,  who  is  to  guard  the  conquered  pro- 
vince, while  he  goes  south  to  Naples  and  Rome.  As  an  implied 
excuse  for  not  sending  adequate  reinforcements,  Carnot  adds,  "The 
exaggerated  rumours  that  you  have  skilfully  disseminated  as  to 
the  numbers  of  the  French  troops  in  Italy,  will  augment  the  fear 
of  our  enemies  and  almost  double  your  means  of  action."  The 

206  NOTES 

Milanais  is  to  be  heavily  mulcted,  but  he  is  to  be  prudent.  If 
Rome  makes  advances,  his  first  demand  should  be  that  the  Pope 
may  order  immediate  public  prayers  for  the  prosperity  and  success 
of  the  French  Republic  !  The  sending  of  old  masters  to  France 
to  adorn  her  National  Galleries  seems  to  have  been  entirely  a 
conception  of  Napoleon's.  He  has  given  sufficiently  good  reasons, 
from  a  patriotic  point  of  view  ;  for  money  is  soon  spent,  but  a 
masterpiece  may  encourage  Art  among  his  countrymen  a  genera- 
tion later.  The  plunderers  of  the  Parthenon  of  1800  could  not 
henceforward  throw  stones  at  him  in  this  respect.  But  his  real 
object  was  to  win  the  people  of  Paris  by  thus  sending  them 
Glory  personified  in  unique  works  of  genius. 

The  Directory,  already  jealous  of  his  fame,  endeavour  to 
neutralise  the  effect  of  his  initiative  by  hearty  concurrence,  and 
write,  "  Italy  has  been  illumined  and  enriched  by  their  possession, 
but  the  time  is  now  come  when  their  reign  should  pass  to  France 
to  stablish  and  beautify  that  of  Liberty."  The  despatch  adds 
somewhat  naively  that  the  effects  of  the  vandalism  committed 
during  their  own  Republican  orgies  would  be  obliterated  by  this 
glorious  campaign,  which  should  "join  to  the  splendour  of 
military  trophies  the  charm  of  beneficent  and  restful  arts."  The 
Directory  ends  by  inviting  him  to  choose  one  or  two  artists  to 
select  the  most  valuable  pictures  and  other  masterpieces. 

Meanwhile,  the  Directory's  supineness  in  pushing  on  the  war 
on  the  Rhine  is  enabling  the  Austrians  to  send  large  reinforce- 
ments against  Napoleon.  Bonaparte,  who  has  recently  suffered 
(Jomini,  vol.  viii.  113)  from  Kellermann's  tardiness  in  sending 
reinforcements  at  an  important  moment,  replies  to  the  letters  of 
May  yth  a  week  later,  and  writes  direct  to  Citizen  Carnot  from 
Lodi,  as  well  as  to  the  Executive  Directory.  "  On  the  receipt  of 
the  Directory's  letter  of  the  yth  your  wishes  were  fulfilled,  and 
the  Milanais  is  ours.  I  shall  shortly  march,  to  carry  out  your 
intentions,  on  Leghorn  and  Rome  ;  all  that  will  soon  be  done. 
I  am  writing  the  Directory  relatively  to  their  idea  of  dividing  the 
army.  I  swear  that  I  have  no  thought  beyond  the  interest  of 
my  country.  Moreover,  you  will  always  find  me  straight  (dans 
la  ligne  droit}.  ...  As  it  might  happen  that  this  letter  to  the 
Directory  may  be  badly  construed,  and  since  you  have  assured 

NOTES  207 

me  of  your  friendship,  I  take  this  opportunity  of  addressing  you, 
begging  you  to  make  what  use  of  it  your  prudence  and  attach- 
ment for  me  may  suggest.  .  .  .  Kellermann  will  command  the 
army  as  well  as  I,  for  no  one  is  more  convinced  than  I  am  that 
the  victories  are  due  to  the  courage  and  pluck  of  the  army  ;  but 
I  think  joining  Kellermann  and  myself  in  Italy  is  to  lose  every- 
thing. I  cannot  serve  willingly  with  a  man  who  considers 
himself  the  first  general  in  Europe  ;  and,  besides,  I  believe  one 
bad  general  is  better  than  two  good  ones.  War  is  like  govern- 
ment :  it  is  an  affair  of  tact.  To  be  of  any  use,  I  must  enjoy 
the  same  confidence  that  you  testified  to  me  in  Paris.  Where  I 
make  war,  here  or  there,  is  a  matter  of  indifference.  To  serve 
my  country,  to  deserve  from  posterity  a  page  in  our  history,  to 
give  the  Government  proofs  of  my  attachment  and  devotion — 
that  is  the  sum  of  my  ambition.  But  I  am  very  anxious  not  to 
lose  in  a  week  the  fatigues,  anxieties,  and  dangers  of  two  months, 
and  to  find  myself  fettered.  I  began  with  a  certain  amount  of 
fame  ;  I  wish  to  continue  worthy  of  you."  To  the  Directory 
he  writes  that  the  expeditions  to  Leghorn,  Rome,  and  Naples  are 
small  affairs,  but  to  be  safely  conducted  must  have  one  general  in 
command.  "  I  have  made  the  campaign  without  consulting  a 
soul ;  I  should  have  done  no  good  if  I  had  had  to  share  my  views 
with  another.  I  have  gained  some  advantages  over  superior 
forces,  and  in  utter  want  of  everything,  because,  certain  of  your 
confidence,  my  marches  have  been  as  quick  as  my  thoughts." 
He  foretells  disaster  if  he  is  shackled  with  another  general. 
"  Every  one  has  his  own  method  of  making  war.  General 
Kellermann  has  more  experience,  and  will  do  it  better  than  I ; 
but  both  together  will  do  it  very  badly."  With  Barras  he  knew 
eloquence  was  useless,  and  therefore  bribed  him  with  a  million 
francs.  On  May  loth  was  gained  the  terrible  battle  of  the 
Bridge  of  Lodi,  where  he  won  promotion  from  his  soldiers,  and 
became  their  "  little  corporal,"  and  where  he  told  Las  Cases  that 
he  "  was  struck  with  the  possibility  of  becoming  famous.  It  was 
then  that  the  first  spark  of  my  ambition  was  kindled."  On  entering 
Milan  he  told  Marmont,  "  Fortune  has  smiled  on  me  to-day,  only 
because  I  despise  her  favours  ;  she  is  a  woman,  and  the  more 
she  does  for  me,  the  more  I  shall  exact  from  her.  In  our  day  no 

2o8  NOTES 

one  has  originated  anything  great ;  it  is  for  me  to  give  the 

On  May  I5th,  thirty-five  days  after  the  commencement  of 
the  campaign,  he  entered  Milan,  under  a  triumphal  arch  and 
amid  the  acclamations  of  the  populace.  On  the  previous  evening 
he  was  guilty  of  what  Dr.  Johnson  would  have  considered  a 
fitting  herald  of  his  spoliation  of  picture-galleries — the  perpetration 
of  a  pun.  At  a  dinner-table  the  hostess  observed  that  his  youth 
was  remarkable  in  so  great  a  conqueror,  whereat  he  replied, 
"  Truly,  madam,  I  am  not  very  old  at  present — barely  twenty- 
seven — but  in  less  than  twenty-four  hours  I  shall  count  many 
more,  for  I  shall  have  attained  Milan  "  (milk  ans]. 

On  May  22nd  he  returned  to  Lodi,  but  heard  immediately 
that  Lombardy  in  general,  and  Pavia  in  particular,  was  in  open 
revolt.  He  makes  a  terrible  example  of  Pavia,  shooting  its  chief 
citizens,  and,  for  the  only  time,  giving  up  a  town  to  three  hours' 
pillage.  The  Directory  congratulates  him  on  these  severe 
measures  :  "The  laws  of  war  and  the  safety  of  the  army  render 
them  legitimate  in  such  circumstances."  He  writes  them  that 
had  the  blood  of  a  single  Frenchman  been  spilt,  he  would  have 
erected  a  column  on  the  ruins  of  Pavia,  on  which  should  have 
been  inscribed,  "  Here  was  the  town  of  Pavia." 

On  May  2ist,  Carnot  replies  to  the  letter  from  Lodi  :  "You 
appear  desirous,  citizen  general,  of  continuing  to  conduct  the 
whole  series  of  military  operations  in  Italy,  at  the  actual  seat  of 
war.  The  Directory  has  carefully  considered  your  proposition, 
and  the  confidence  that  they  place  in  your  talents  and  republican 
zeal  has  decided  this  question  in  the  affirmative.  .  .  .  The  rest  of 
the  military  operations  towards  the  Austrian  frontier  and  round 
Mantua  are  absolutely  dependent  on  your  success  against  Beaulieu. 
The  Directory  feels  how  difficult  it  would  be  to  direct  them  from 
Paris.  It  leaves  to  you  in  this  respect  the  greatest  latitude,  while 
recommending  the  most  extreme  prudence.  Its  intention  is,  how- 
ever, that  the  army  shall  cross  into  the  Tyrol  only  after  the 
expedition  to  the  south  of  Italy." 

This  was  a  complete  victory  for  Bonaparte  (Bingham  calls  it 
the  Directory's  "abject  apology"),  and,  as  Scott  points  out,  he 
now  "  obtained  an  ascendency  which  he  took  admirable  care  not 

NOTES  209 

to  relinquish  ;  and  it  became  the  sole  task  of  the  Directory,  so 
far  as  Italy  was  concerned,  to  study  phrases  for  intimating  their 
approbation  of  the  young  general's  measures." 

He  had  forged  a  sword  for  France,  and  he  now  won  her 
heart  by  gilding  it.  On  May  1 6th  the  Directory  had  asked  him 
to  supply  Kellermann  with  money  for  the  army  of  the  Alps,  and 
by  May  22nd  he  is  able  to  write  that  six  or  eight  million  francs 
in  gold,  silver,  ingots,  or  jewels  is  lying  at  their  disposal  with  one 
of  the  best  bankers  in  Genoa,  being  superfluous  to  the  needs  of 
the  army.  "  If  you  wish  it,  I  can  have  a  million  sent  to  Bale  for 
the  army  of  the  Rhine."  He  has  already  helped  Kellermann, 
and  paid  his  men.  He  also  announces  a  further  million  requisi- 
tioned from  Modena.  "  As  it  has  neither  fortresses  nor  muskets, 
I  could  not  ask  for  them." 

Henceforth  he  lubricates  the  manifold  wheels  of  French 
policy  with  Italian  gold,  and  gains  thereby  the  approbation  and 
gratitude  of  the  French  armies  and  people.  Meanwhile  he 
does  not  neglect  those  who  might  bear  him  a  grudge.  To 
Kellermann  and  to  all  the  Directors  he  sends  splendid  chargers. 
From  Parma  he  has  the  five  best  pictures  chosen  for  Paris — 
the  Saint  Jerome  and  the  Madonna  della  Scodella,  both  by 
Correggio;  the  Preaching  of  St.  John  in  the  Desert,  a  Paul 
Veronese,  and  a  Van  Dyck,  besides  fine  examples  of  Raphael, 
Caracci,  &c. 

The  Directory  is  anxious  that  he  shall  chastise  the  English 
at  Leghorn,  as  the  fate  of  Corsica  is  somewhat  dependent  on  it, 
whose  loss  "  will  make  London  tremble."  They  secretly  dread 
a  war  in  the  Tyrol,  forgetting  that  Bonaparte  is  a  specialist  in 
mountain  fighting,  educated  under  Paoli.  They  remind  him 
that  he  has  not  sent  the  plans  of  his  battles.  "  You  ought 
not  to  lack  draughtsmen  in  Italy.  Eh !  what  are  your  young 
engineer  officers  doing  ?  " 

On  May  3ist  Carnot  writes  to  urge  him  to  press  the  siege 
of  Mantua,  reasserting  that  the  reinforcements  which  Beaulieu 
has  received  will  not  take  from  that  army  its  sense  of  inferiority, 
and  that  ten  battalions  of  Hoc  he's  army  are  on  the  way.  It 
approves  and  confirms  the  "  generous  fraternity "  with  which 
Bonaparte  offers  a  million  francs  to  the  armies  on  the  Rhine. 


210  NOTES 

On  June  yth  he  tells  the  Directory  that  Rome  is  about  to  fulmi- 
nate a  bull  against  the  French  Royalists,  but  that  he  thinks  the 
expedition  to  Naples  should  be  deferred,  and  also  a  quarrel  with 
Venice — at  least  till  he  has  beaten  his  other  enemies  ;  it  is  not 
expedient  to  tackle  every  one  at  once.  On  June  6th  he  thanks 
Carnot  for  a  kind  letter,  adding  that  the  best  reward  to  sweeten 
labour  and  perils  is  the  esteem  of  the  few  men  one  really  admires. 
He  fears  the  hot  weather  for  his  men  :  "  we  shall  soon  be  in  July, 
when  every  march  will  cost  us  200  sick."  The  same  day  he 
writes  General  Clarke  that  all  is  flourishing,  but  that  the  dog-star 
is  coming  on  at  a  gallop,  and  that  there  is  no  remedy  against  its 
malign  influence.  "  Luckless  beings  that  we  are  !  Our  position 
with  nature  is  merely  observation,  without  control."  He  holds 
that  the  only  safe  way  to  end  the  campaign  without  being  beaten 
is  not  to  go  to  the  south  of  Italy.  On  the  gth  he  thanks  Keller- 
man  n  for  the  troops  he  sends,  and  their  excellent  discipline.  On 
the  nth — always  as  anxious  to  help  his  generals  as  himself — he 
urges  the  Directory  to  press  the  Swiss  Government  to  refund 
La  Harpe's  property  to  his  children. 

"Presentiment  of  ill" — Marmont  tells  us  what  this  was.  The 
glass  of  his  wife's  portrait,  which  he  always  carried  with  him,  was 
found  to  be  broken.  Turning  frightfully  pale,  he  said  to  Mar- 
mont, "  My  wife  is  either  very  ill,  or  unfaithful."  She  left  Paris 
June  24th.  Marmont  says,  "  Once  at  Milan,  General  Bona- 
parte was  very  happy,  for  at  that  time  he  lived  only  for  his  wife. 
.  .  .  Never  love  more  pure,  more  true,  more  exclusive,  has  pos- 
sessed the  heart  of  any  man." 

No.  8. 

Between  June  I5th  and  the  renewal  of  Josephine's  corre- 
spondence a  glance  at  the  intervening  dates  will  show  that 
Bonaparte  and  his  army  were  not  wasting  time.  The  treaty 
with  Rome  was  a  masterpiece,  as  in  addition  to  money  and 
works  of  art,  he  obtained  the  port  of  Ancona,  siege-guns  with 
which  to  bombard  Mantua,  and  best  of  all,  a  letter  from  the 
Pope  to  the  faithful  of  France,  recommending  submission  to  the 
new  government  there.  In  consideration  of  this,  and  possibly 

NOTES  211 

yielding  to  the  religious  sentiments  of  Josephine,  he  spared  Rome 
his  presence — the  only  capital  which  he  abstained  from  entering, 
when  he  had,  as  in  the  present  case,  the  opportunity.  It  was 
not,  however,  until  February  1797  that  the  Pope  fulfilled  his 
obligations  under  this  Treaty,  and  then  under  new  compulsion. 
Fortune. — Josephine's  dog  (see  note  to  Letter  2,  Series  B). 


No.  i. 

July  6,  Sortie  from  Mantua  of  the  Austrians. — According  to 
Jomini  the  French  on  this  occasion  were  not  successful  (vol.  viii. 
162).  In  one  of  his  several  letters  to  the  Directory  on  this  date 
is  seen  Bonaparte's  anxiety  for  reinforcements  ;  the  enemy  has 
already  67,000  men  against  his  available  40,000.  Meanwhile 
he  is  helping  the  Corsicans  to  throw  off  the  British  yoke,  and 
believes  that  the  French  possession  of  Leghorn  will  enable  the 
French  to  gain  that  island  without  firing  a  shot. 

No.  2. 

Marmirolo. — On  July  1 2th  he  writes  to  the  Directory  from 
Verona  that  for  some  days  he  and  the  enemy  have  been  watching 
each  other.  "Woe  to  him  who  makes  a  false  move."  He 
indicates  that  he  is  about  to  make  a  coup  de  main  on  Mantua, 
with  300  men  dressed  in  Austrian  uniforms.  He  is  by  no 
means  certain  of  success,  which  "depends  entirely  on  luck — 
either  on  a  dog *  or  a  goose."  He  complains  of  much  sickness 
among  his  men  round  Mantua,  owing  to  the  heat  and  miasmata 
from  the  marshes,  but  so  far  no  deaths.  He  will  be  ready  to 
make  Venice  disgorge  a  few  millions  shortly,  if  the  Directory 
make  a  quarrel  in  the  interim. 

On  the  1 3th  he  was  with  Josephine,  as  he  writes  from  Milan, 
but  leaves  on  the  I4th,  and  on  the  I7th  is  preparing  a  coup  de 

1  Murat,  says  Marmont,  who  hated  him,  was  the  culprit  here. 

212  NOTES 

main  with  800  grenadiers,  which,  as  we  see  from  the  next  letter, 

Fortune. — Arnault  tells  an  anecdote  of  this  lap-dog,  which  in 
1794,  in  the  days  of  the  Terror,  had  been  used  as  a  bearer  of 
secret  despatches  between  Josephine  in  prison  and  the  governess 
of  her  children  outside  the  grille.  Henceforward  Josephine 
would  never  be  parted  from  it.  One  day  in  June  1797  the  dog 
was  lying  on  the  same  couch  as  its  mistress,  and  Bonaparte, 
accosting  Arnault  and  pointing  to  the  dog  with  his  finger,  said, 
"  You  see  that  dog  there.  He  is  my  rival.  He  was  in  possession 
of  Madame's  bed  when  I  married  her.  I  wished  to  make  him 
get  out — vain  hope !  I  was  told  I  must  resign  myself  to  sleep 
elsewhere,  or  consent  to  share  with  him.  That  was  sufficiently 
exasperating,  but  it  was  a  question  of  taking  or  leaving,  and  I 
resigned  myself.  The  favourite  was  less  accommodating  than  I. 
I  bear  the  proof  of  it  in  this  leg." 

Not  content  with  barking  at  every  one,  he  bit  not  only  men 
but  other  dogs,  and  was  finally  killed  by  a  mastiff,  much  to 
Bonaparte's  secret  satisfaction  ;  for,  as  St.  Amand  adds,  "  he 
could  easily  win  battles,  accomplish  miracles,  make  or  unmake 
principalities,  but  could  not  show  a  dog  the  door." 

No.  3. 

"  The  village  of  Virgil" — Michelet  (Jusqu'au  18  Brumaire] 
thinks  that  here  he  got  the  idea  of  the  Fete  of  Virgil,  established 
a  few  months  later.  In  engravings  of  the  hero  of  Italy  we  see 
him  near  the  tomb  of  Virgil,  his  brows  shaded  by  a  laurel 

No.  4. 

Achille. — Murat.  He  had  been  appointed  one  of  Bonaparte's 
aides-de-camp  February  29th,  made  General  of  Brigade  after  the 
Battle  of  Lodi  (May  loth) ;  is  sent  to  Paris  after  Junot  with 
nine  trophies,  and  arrives  there  first.  He  flirts  there  outrageously 
with  Josephine,  but  does  not  escort  her  back  to  her  husband. 

NOTES  213 

No.  5. 

1  Will  0'  the  wisp"  i.e.  r ardent. — This  word,  according  to 
Menage,  was  given  by  the  Sieur  de  St.  Germain  to  those  lively 
young  sparks  who,  about  the  year  1634,  used  to  meet  at  the 
house  of  Mr.  Marsh  (M.  de  Marest),  who  was  one  of  them. 

No.  6. 

The  needs  of  the  army. — Difficulties  were  accumulating,  and 
Napoleon  was,  as  he  admits  at  St.  Helena,  seriously  alarmed. 
Wurmser's  force  proves  to  be  large,  Piedmont  is  angry  with  the 
Republic  and  ready  to  rise,  and  Venice  and  Rome  would 
willingly  follow  its  example  ;  the  English  have  taken  Porto- 
Ferrajo,  and  their  skilful  minister,  Windham,  is  sowing  the  seeds 
of  discord  at  Naples.  Although  on  July  2Oth  he  has  written  a 
friend  in  Corsica  that  "  all  smiles  on  the  Republic,"  he  writes 
Saliceti,  another  brother  Corsican,  very  differently  on  August 
ist.  "Fortune  appears  to  oppose  us  at  present.  ...  I  have 
raised  the  siege  of  Mantua  ;  I  am  at  Brescia  with  nearly  all  my 
army.  I  shall  take  the  first  opportunely  of  fighting  a  battle  with 
the  enemy  which  will  decide  the  fate  of  Italy — if  I'm  beaten,  I 
shall  retire  on  the  Adda  ;  if  I  win,  I  shall  not  stop  in  the  marshes 
of  Mantua.  .  .  .  Let  the  citadels  of  Milan,  Tortona,  Alessandria, 
and  Pavia  be  provisioned.  .  .  .  We  are  all  very  tired;  I  have  ridden 
five  horses  to  death."  Reading  between  the  lines  of  this  letter  to 
Josephine,  it  is  evident  that  he  thinks  she  will  be  safer  with  him 
than  at  Milan — Wurmser  having  the  option  of  advancing  via 
Brescia  on  Mi'an,  and  cutting  off  the  French  communications. 
The  Marshal's  fatal  mistake  was  in  using  only  half  his  army  for 
the  purpose.  This  raising  of  the  siege  of  Mantua  (July  3ist) 
was  heart-rending  work  for  Bonaparte,  but,  as  Jomini  shows,  he 
had  no  artillery  horses,  and  it  was  better  to  lose  the  siege  train, 
consisting  of  guns  taken  from  the  enemy,  than  to  jeopardise  the 
whole  army.  Wurmser  had  begun  his  campaign  successfully  by 
defeating  Massena,  and  pushing  back  Sauret  at  Salo.  "  The 
Austrians,"  wrote  Massena,  "  are  drunk  with  brandy,  and  fight 
furiously,"  while  his  men  are  famished  and  can  only  hang  on  by 

2i4  NOTES 

their  teeth.  Bonaparte  calls  his  first  war  council,  and  thinks  for 
a  moment  of  retreat,  but  Augereau  insists  on  fighting,  which  is 
successfully  accomplished  while  Wurmser  is  basking  himself 
among  the  captured  artillery  outside  Mantua.  Bonaparte  had 
been  perfectly  honest  in  telling  the  Directory  his  difficulties,  and 
sends  his  brother  Louis  to  the  Directory  for  that  purpose  on  the 
eve  of  battle.  He  is  complimented  in  a  letter  from  the  Directory 
dated  August  I2th — a  letter  probably  the  more  genuine  as  they 
had  just  received  a  further  despatch  announcing  a  victory.  On 
August  3rd  Bonaparte  won  a  battle  at  Lonato,  and  the  next  day 
Augereau  gained  great  laurels  at  Castiglione  ;  in  later  years  the 
Emperor  often  incited  Augereau  by  referring  to  those  "  fine  days 
of  Castiglione."  Between  July  2Qth  and  August  I2th  the 
French  army  took  15,000  prisoners,  70  guns,  and  wounded  or 
killed  25,000,  with  little  more  than  half  the  forces  of  the 
Austrians.  Bonaparte  gives  his  losses  at  7000,  exclusive  of  the 
15,000  sick  he  has  in  hospital ;  from  July  3ist  to  August  6th  he 
never  changed  his  boots,  or  lay  down  in  a  bed.  Nevertheless, 
Jomini  thinks  that  he  showed  less  vigour  in  the  execution  of  his 
plans  than  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  campaign  ;  but,  as  an  opinion 
per  contra,  we  may  note  that  the  French  grenadiers  made  their 
"  little  Corporal "  Sergeant  at  Castiglione.  Doubtless  the 
proximity  of  his  wife  at  the  commencement  (July  3ist)  made 
him  more  careful,  and  therefore  less  intrepid.  On  August  i8th 
he  wrote  Kellermann  with  an  urgent  request  for  troops.  On 
August  1 7th  Colonel  Graham,  after  hinting  at  the  frightful 
excesses  committed  by  the  Austrians  in  their  retreat,  adds  in  a 
postscript — "  From  generals  to  subalterns  the  universal  language 
of  the  army  is  that  we  must  make  peace,  as  we  do  not  know  how 
to  make  war." 1 

On  August  1 3th  Bonaparte  sent  to  the  Directory  his  opinion 
of  most  of  his  generals,  in  order  to  show  that  he  required  some 
better  ones.  Some  of  his  criticisms  are  interesting  : — 

Berthier — "  Talents,  activity,  courage,  character  ;  he  has 
them  all." 

Augereau — "  Much  character,  courage,  firmness,  activity  ;  is 

1  J.  H.  Rose  in  Eng.  Hist.  Review,  January  1899. 

NOTES  215 

accustomed  to  war,  beloved  by  the  soldiers,  lucky  in  his  opera- 

Massena — "  Active,  indefatigable,  has  boldness,  grasp,  and 
promptitude  in  making  his  decisions." 

Serrurier — "  Fights  like  a  soldier,  takes  no  responsibility  ; 
determined,  has  not  much  opinion  of  his  troops,  is  often  ailing." 

Despinois — "  Flabby,  inactive,  slack,  has  not  the  genius  for 
war,  is  not  liked  by  the  soldiers,  does  not  fight  with  his  head  ; 
has  nevertheless  good,  sound  political  principles  :  would  do  well 
to  command  in  the  interior." 

Sauret — "  A  good,  very  good  soldier,  not  sufficiently  en- 
lightened to  be  a  general ;  unlucky." 

Of  eight  more  he  has  little  good  to  say,  but  the  Directory  in 
acknowledging  his  letter  of  August  23rd  remarks  that  he  has 
forgotten  several  officers,  and  especially  the  Irish  general  Kil- 

About  the  same  time  Colonel  Graham  (Lord  Lynedoch)  was 
writing  to  the  British  Government  from  Trent  that  the  Austrians, 
despite  their  defeats,  were  "  undoubtedly  brave  fine  troops,  and 
an  able  chief  would  put  all  to  rights  in  a  little  time."1  On 
August  1 8th  he  adds — "  When  the  wonderful  activity,  energy, 
and  attention  that  prevail  in  the  French  service,  from  the 
commander-in-chief  downward,  are  compared  to  the  indecision, 
indifference,  and  indolence  universal  here,  the  success  of  their 
rash  but  skilful  manoeuvres  is  not  surprising." 

No.  7. 

Brescia. — Napoleon  was  here  on  July  27th,  meeting  Josephine 
about  the  date  arranged  (July  25th),  and  she  returned  with  him. 
On  July  29th  they  were  nearly  captured  by  an  Austrian  ambus- 
cade near  Ceronione,  and  Josephine  wept  with  fright.  "  Wurm- 
ser,"  said  Napoleon,  embracing  her,  "  shall  pay  dearly  for  those 
tears."  She  accompanies  him  to  Castel  Nova,  and  sees  a  skirmish 
at  Verona;  but  the  sight  of  wounded  men  makes  her  leave  the  army, 
and,  finding  it  impossible  to  reach  Brescia,  she  flees  vid  Ferrara 

1  See  Essay  by  J.  H.  Rose  in  Eng.  Hist.  Revuw,  January  1899. 

216  NOTES 

and  Bologna  to  Lucca.  She  leaves  the  French  army  in  dire  straits 
and  awaits  news  anxiously,  while  the  Senate  of  Lucca  presents 
her  with  the  oil  kept  exclusively  for  royalty.  Thence  she  goes 
via  Florence  to  Milan.  By  August  Jth  the  Austrian  army  was 
broken  and  in  full  retreat,  and  Bonaparte  conducts  his  correspond- 
ence from  Brescia  from  August  nth  to  i8th.  On  the  25th  he 
is  at  Milan,  where  he  meets  his  wife  after  her  long  pilgrimage, 
and  spends  four  days.  By  August  3Oth  he  is  again  at  Brescia, 
and  reminds  her  that  he  left  her  "  vexed,  annoyed,  and  not  well." 
From  a  letter  to  her  aunt,  Madame  de  Renaudin,  at  this  time, 
quoted  by  Aubenas,  we  can  see  her  real  feelings  :  "  I  am  feted 
wherever  I  go  ;  all  the  princes  of  Italy  give  me  fetes,  even  the 
Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  brother  of  the  Emperor.  Ah,  well,  I 
prefer  being  a  private  individual  in  France.  I  care  not  for 
honours  bestowed  in  this  country.  I  get  sadly  bored.  My 
health  has  undoubtedly  a  great  deal  to  do  with  making  me 
unhappy  ;  I  am  often  out  of  sorts.  If  happiness  could  assure 
health,  I  ought  to  be  in  the  best  of  health.  I  have  the  most 
amiable  husband  imaginable.  I  have  no  time  to  long  for  any- 
thing. My  wishes  are  his.  He  is  all  day  long  in  adoration 
before  me,  as  if  I  were  a  divinity  ;  there  could  not  possibly  be  a 
better  husband.  M.  Serbelloni  will  tell  you  how  he  loves  me. 
He  often  writes  to  my  children  ;  he  loves  them  dearly.  He  is 
sending  Hortense,  by  M.  Serbelloni,  a  lovely  repeater,  jewelled 
and  enamelled  ;  to  Eugene  a  splendid  gold  watch." 

No.  9. 

"  /  hope  we  shall  get  into  Trent  by  the  $th" — He  entered  the 
city  on  that  day.  In  his  pursuit  of  Wurmser,  he  and  his  army 
cover  sixty  miles  in  two  days,  through  the  terrific  Val  Saguna 
and  Brenta  gorges,  brushing  aside  opposition  by  the  way. 

No.  12. 

"  One  of  these  nights  the  doors  will  be  burst  open  with  a  bang" — 
Apparently  within  two  or  three  days,  for  Bonaparte  is  at  Milan 
on  September  2ist,  and  stays  with  his  wife  till  October  I2th. 

NOTES  217 

On  October  1st  he  writes  to  the  Directory  that  his  total  forces 
are  only  27,900  ;  and  that  the  Austrians,  within  six  weeks,  will 
have  50,000.  He  asks  for  26,000  more  men  to  end  the  war 
satisfactorily  :  "  If  the  preservation  of  Italy  is  dear  to  you,  citizen 
directors,  send  me  help."  On  the  8th  they  reply  with  the  pro- 
mise of  IO,OOO  to  I2,OOO,  to  which  he  replies  (October  I  ith)  that 
if  10,000  have  started  only  5000  will  reach  him.  The  Directory 
at  this  time  are  very  poverty  stricken,  and  ask  him  once  more  to 
pay  Kellermann's  Army  of  the  Alps,  as  being  "  to  some  extent 
part  of  that  which  you  command."  This  must  have  been 
"  nuts  and  wine  "  for  the  general  who  was  to  have  been  super- 
seded by  Kellermann  a  few  months  earlier.  On  October  ist 
they  advise  him  that  Wurmser's  name  is  on  the  list  of  emigrants, 
and  that  if  the  Marshal  will  surrender  Mantua  at  once  he  need 
not  be  sent  to  Paris  for  trial.  If,  however,  Bonaparte  thinks  that 
this  knowledge  will  make  the  old  Marshal  more  desperate,  he  is  not 
to  be  told.  Bonaparte,  of  course,  does  not  send  the  message. 
For  some  time  these  letters  had  been  signed  by  the  President 
Lareveillere  Lepeaux,  but  on  September  iQth  there  was  a  charm- 
ing letter  from  Carnot  :  "  Although  accustomed  to  unprecedented 
deeds  on  your  part,  our  hopes  have  been  surpassed  by  the  victory 
of  Bassano.  What  glory  is  yours,  immortal  Bonaparte  !  Moreau 
was  about  to  effect  a  juncture  with  you  when  that  wretched 
reculade  of  Jourdan  upset  all  our  plans.  Do  not  forget  that 
immediately  the  armies  go  into  winter  quarters  on  the  Rhine 
the  Austrians  will  have  forces  available  to  help  Wurmser."  At 
Milan  Bonaparte  advises  the  Directory  that  he  is  dealing  with 
unpunished  "  fripponeries  "  in  the  commissariat  department.  Here 
he  receives  from  young  Kellermann,  afterwards  the  hero  of 
Marengo,  a  precis  of  the  condition  of  the  Brescia  fever-hospitals, 
dated  October  6th  :  "  A  wretched  mattress,  dirty  and  full  of 
vermin,  a  coarse  sheet  to  each  bed,  rarely  washed,  no  counter- 
panes, much  dilatoriness,  such  is  the  spectacle  that  the  fever- 
hospitals  of  Brescia  present ;  it  is  heart-rending.  The  soldiers 
justly  complain  that,  having  conquered  opulent  Italy  at  the  cost 
of  their  life-blood,  they  might,  without  enjoying  comforts,  at 
least  find  the  help  and  attention  which  their  situation  demands. 
Bread  and  rice  are  the  only  passable  foods,  but  the  meat  is  hard. 

2i8  NOTES 

I  beg  that  the  general-in-chief  will  immediately  give  attention  to 
his  companions  in  glory,  who  wish  for  restored  health  only  that 
they  may  gather  fresh  laurels."  Thus  Bonaparte  had  his  Bloem- 
fontein,  and  perhaps  his  Burdett-Coutts. 

On  October  1 2th  he  tells  the  Directory  that  Mantua  will 
not  fall  till  February — the  exact  date  of  its  capitulation.  One  is 
tempted  to  wonder  if  Napoleon  was  human  enough  to  have 
inserted  one  little  paragraph  of  his  despatch  of  October  I2th 
from  Milan  with  one  eye  on  its  perusal  by  his  wife,  as  it  contains 
a  veiled  sneer  at  Hoche's  exploits  :  "  Send  me  rather  generals  of 
brigade  than  generals  of  division.  All  that  comes  to  us  from 
La  Vendee  is  unaccustomed  to  war  on  a  large  scale  ;  we  have 
the  same  reproach  against  the  troops,  but  they  are  well-hardened." 
On  the  same  day  he  shows  them  that  all  the  marvels  of  his 
six  months'  campaign  have  cost  the  French  Government  only 
.£440,000  (eleven  million  francs).  He  pleads,  however,  for  special 
auditors  to  have  charge  of  the  accounts.  Napoleon  had  not  only 
made  war  support  war,  but  had  sent  twenty  million  francs  requi- 
sitioned in  Italy  to  the  Republic.  On  October  I2th  he  leaves 
Milan  for  Modena,  where  he  remains  from  the  I4th  to  the  i8th, 
is  at  Bologna  on  the  igth,  and  Ferrara  from  the  igth  to  the 
22nd,  reaching  Verona  on  the  24th. 

Jomini  has  well  pointed  out  that  Napoleon's  conception  of 
making  two  or  three  large  Italian  republics  in  place  of  many 
small  ones  minimised  the  power  of  the  Pope,  and  also  that  of 
Austria,  by  abolishing  its  feudal  rigours. 

By  this  time  Bonaparte  is  heartily  sick  of  the  war.  On 
October  2nd  he  writes  direct  to  the  Emperor  of  Germany  : 
"  Europe  wants  peace.  This  disastrous  war  has  lasted  too  long  ;  " 
and  on  the  i6th  to  Marshal  Wurmser  :  "The  siege  of  Mantua, 
sir,  is  more  disastrous  than  two  campaigns."  His  weariness  is 
tempered  with  policy,  as  Alvinzi  was  en  route,  and  the  French 
reinforcements  had  not  arrived,  not  even  the  10,000  promised  in 

No.  13. 

" Corsica  is  ours" — At  St.  Helena  he  told  his  generals,  " The 
King  of  England  wore  the  Corsican  crown  only  two  years. 

NOTES  219 

This  whim  cost  the  British  treasury  five  millions  sterling.  John 
Bull's  riches  could  not  have  been  worse  employed."  He  writes 
to  the  Directory  on  the  same  day  :  "  The  expulsion  of  the 
English  from  the  Mediterranean  has  considerable  influence  on 
the  success  of  our  military  operations  in  Italy.  We  can  exact 
more  onerous  conditions  from  Naples,  which  will  have  the 
greatest  moral  effect  on  the  minds  of  the  Italians,  assures  our 
communications,  and  makes  Naples  tremble  as  far  as  Sicily."  On 
October  25th  he  writes:  "Wurmser  is  at  his  last  gasp;  he  is 
short  of  wine,  meat,  and  forage  ;  he  is  eating  his  horses,  and  has 
15,000  sick.  In  fifty  days  Mantua  will  either  be  taken  or 

No.  14. 

Verona. — Bonaparte  had  made  a  long  stay  at  Verona,  to 
November  4th,  waiting  reinforcements  which  never  came.  On 
November  5th  he  writes  to  the  Directory  :  "  All  the  troops  of 
the  Directory  arrive  post-haste  at  an  alarming  rate,  and  we — we 
are  left  to  ourselves.  Fine  promises  and  a  few  driblets  of  men 
are  all  we  have  received;"  and  on  November  I3th  he  writes 
again  :  "  Perchance  we  are  on  the  eve  of  losing  Italy.  None  of 
the  expected  reinforcements  have  arrived.  ...  I  am  doing  my 
duty,  the  officers  and  men  are  doing  theirs  ;  my  heart  is  breaking, 
but  my  conscience  is  at  rest.  Help — send  me  help  !  .  .  .  I 
despair  of  preventing  the  relief  of  Mantua,  which  in  a  week 
would  have  been  ours.  The  wounded  are  the  pick  of  the  army  ; 
all  our  superior  officers,  all  our  picked  generals  are  hors  de  combat ; 
those  who  have  come  to  me  are  so  incompetent,  and  they  have 
not  the  soldiers'  confidence.  The  army  of  Italy,  reduced  to  a 
handful  of  men,  is  exhausted.  The  heroes  of  Lodi,  Millesimo, 
Castiglione,  and  Bassano  have  died  for  their  country,  or  are  in 
hospital  ; 1  to  the  corps  remain  only  their  reputation  and  their 
glory.  Joubert,  Lannes,  Lanusse,  Victor,  Murat,  Chabot, 
Dupuy,  Rampon,  Pijon,  Menard,  Chabran,  and  St.  Hilaire  are 
wounded.  ...  In  a  few  days  we  shall  make  a  last  effort.  Had  I 
received  the  83rd,  3500  strong,  and  of  good  repute  in  the  army, 

1  With  fevers  caught  in  the  rice-swamps  of  Lombardy. 

220  NOTES 

I  would  have  answered  for  everything.  Perhaps  in  a  few  days 
40,000  will  not  suffice."  The  reason  for  this  unwonted  pes- 
simism was  the  state  of  his  troops.  His  brother  Louis  reported 
that  Vaubois'  men  had  no  shoes  and  were  almost  naked,  in  the 
midst  of  snow  and  mountains  ;  that  desertions  were  taking  place 
of  soldiers  with  bare  and  bleeding  feet,  who  told  the  enemy  the 
plans  and  conditions  of  their  army.  Finally  Vaubois  bungles, 
through  not  knowing  the  ground,  and  is  put  under  the  orders  of 
Massena,  while  two  of  his  half-brigades  are  severely  censured  by 
Napoleon  in  person  for  their  cowardice. 

No.  15. 

"  Once  more  I  breathe  freely." — Thrice  had  Napoleon  been 
foiled,  as  much  by  the  weather  and  his  shoeless  soldiers  as  by 
numbers  (40,000  Austrians  to  his  28,000),  and  his  position  was 
well-nigh  hopeless  on  November  I4th.  He  trusts  Verona  to 
3000  men,  and  the  blockade  of  Mantua  to  Kilmaine,  and  the 
defence  of  Rivoli  to  Vaubois — the  weakest  link  in  the  chain — and 
determines  to  manoeuvre  by  the  Lower  Adige  upon  the  Austrian 
communications.  He  gets  forty-eight  hours'  start,  and  wins 
Arcola  ;  in  1814  he  deserved  equal  success,  but  bad  luck  and 
treachery  turned  the  scale.  The  battle  of  Arcola  lasted  seventy- 
two  hours,  and  for  forty-eight  hours  was  in  favour  of  the 
Austrians.  Pending  the  arrival  of  the  promised  reinforcements, 
the  battle  was  bought  too  dear,  and  weakened  Bonaparte  more 
than  the  Austrians,  who  received  new  troops  almost  daily.  He 
replaced  Vaubois  by  Joubert. 

No.  1 8. 

"  The  2()th." — But  he  is  at  Milan  from  November  27th  to 
December  i6th.  Most  people  know,  from  some  print  or  other,  the 
picture  by  Gros  of  Bonaparte,  flag  in  hand,  leading  his  men  across 
the  murderous  bridge  of  Arcola.  It  was  during  this  visit  to  Milan 
that  his  portrait  was  taken,  and  Lavalette  has  preserved  for  us  the 
domestic  rather  than  the  dignified  manner  of  the  sitting  accorded. 
He  refused  to  give  a  fixed  time,  and  the  artist  was  in  despair, 

NOTES  221 

until  Josephine  came  to  his  aid  by  taking  her  husband  on  her 
knees  every  morning  after  breakfast,  and  keeping  him  there  a 
short  time.  Lavalette  assisted  at  three  of  these  sittings — ap- 
parently to  remove  the  bashful  embarrassment  of  the  young 
painter.  St.  Amand  suggests  that  Gros  taking  the  portrait  of 
Bonaparte  at  Milan,  just  after  Arcola,  would,  especially  under 
such  novel  conditions,  prove  a  fitting  theme  for  our  artists  to-day  ! 
From  December  i6th  to  2ist  Bonaparte  is  at  Verona,  whence  he 
returns  to  Milan.  There  is  perhaps  a  veiled  innuendo  in  Barras' 
letter  of  December  3<Dth.  Clarke  had  advised  the  Directory  that 
Alvinzi  was  planning  an  attack,  which  Barras  mentions,  but 
adds  :  "  Your  return  to  Milan  shows  that  you  consider  another 
attack  in  favour  of  Wurmser  unlikely,  or,  at  least,  not  imminent." 
He  is  at  Milan  till  January  yth,  whence  he  goes  to  Bologna,  the 
city  which,  he  says,  "  of  all  the  Italian  cities  has  constantly  shown 
the  greatest  energy  and  the  most  considerable  share  of  real  infor- 

No.  20. 

General  Brune. — This  incident  fixes  the  date  of  this  letter  to 
be  23  Nivose  (January  12),  and  not  23  Messidor  (July  il),  as 
hitherto  published  in  the  French  editions  of  this  letter.  On 
January  12,  1797,  he  wrote  General  Clarke  from  Verona  (No. 
1375  of  the  Correspondence]  almost  an  exact  duplicate  of  this 
letter — a  very  rare  coincidence  in  the  epistles  of  Napoleon. 
"  Scarcely  set  out  from  Roverbella,  I  learnt  that  the  enemy  had 
appeared  at  Verona.  Massena  made  his  dispositions,  which  have 
been  very  successful ;  we  have  made  600  prisoners,  and  we  have 
taken  three  pieces  of  cannon.  General  Brune  has  had  seven 
bullets  in  his  clothes,  without  having  been  touched  by  one  of 
them  ;  this  is  what  it  is  to  be  lucky.  We  have  had  only  ten 
men  killed,  and  a  hundred  wounded."  Bonaparte  had  left 
Bologna  on  January  10,  reaching  Verona  via  Roverbella  on 
the  i 2th. 

No.  21. 

February  yd. — u  /  wrote  you  this  morning." — This  and  probably 
other  letters  describing  Rivoli,  La  Favorite,  and  the  imminent 

222  NOTES 

fall  of  Mantua,  are  missing.  In  summing  up  the  campaign 
Thiers  declares  that  in  ten  months  55,000  French  (all  told,  in- 
cluding reinforcements)  had  beaten  more  than  200,000  Austrians, 
taken  80,000  of  them  prisoners,  killed  and  wounded  20,000. 
They  had  fought  twelve  pitched  battles,  and  sixty  actions.  These 
figures  are  probably  as  much  above  the  mark  as  those  of  Napoleon's 
detractors  are  below  it. 

One  does  not  know  which  to  admire  most,  Bonaparte's 
absence  from  Marshal  Wurmser's  humiliation,  or  his  abstention 
from  entering  Rome  as  a  conqueror.  The  first  was  the  act  of  a 
perfect  gentleman,  worthy  of  the  best  traditions  of  chivalry,  the 
second  was  the  very  quintessence  of  far-seeing  sagacity,  not 
"  baulking  the  end  half-won,  for  an  instant  dole  of  praise."  As 
he  told  Mdme.  de  Remusat  at  Passeriano,  "  I  conquered  the  Pope 
better  by  not  going  to  Rome  than  if  I  had  burnt  his  capital." 
Scott  has  compared  his  treatment  of  Wurmser  to  that  of  the 
Black  Prince  with  his  royal  prisoner,  King  John  of  France. 
Wurmser  was  an  Alsatian  on  the  list  of  emigres,  and  Bonaparte 
gave  the  Marshal  his  life  by  sending  him  back  to  Austria,  a  fact 
which  Wurmser  requited  by  warning  Bonaparte  of  a  conspiracy 
to  poison  him l  in  Romagna,  which  Napoleon  thinks  would  other- 
wise have  been  successful. 

No.  24. 

"Perhaps  I  shall  make  peace  with  the  Pope? — On  February 
1 2th  the  Pope  had  written  to  "his  dear  son,  General  Bonaparte," 
to  depute  plenipotentiaries  for  a  peace,  and  ends  by  assuring  him 
"of  our  highest  esteem,"  and  concluding  with  the  paternal 
apostolic  benediction.  Meanwhile  Napoleon,  instead  of  sacking 
Faenza,  has  just  invoked  the  monks  and  priests  to  follow  the 
precepts  of  the  Gospel. 

No.  25. 

"  The  unlimited  power  you  hold  over  me." — There  seems  no 
question  that  during  the  Italian  campaigns  he  was  absolutely 
faithful  to  Josephine,  although  there  was  scarcely  a  beauty  in 

1  With  aqua  tofana,  says  Marmont, 

NOTES  223 

Milan  who  did  not  aspire  to  please  him  and  to  conquer  him.  In 
his  fidelity  there  was,  says  St.  Amand,  much  love  and  a  little 
calculation.  As  Napoleon  has  said  himself,  his  position  was 
delicate  in  the  extreme  ;  he  commanded  old  generals  ;  every  one 
of  his  movements  was  jealously  watched  ;  his  circumspection  was 
extreme.  His  fortune  lay  in  his  wisdom.  He  would  have  to 
forget  himself  for  one  hour,  and  how  many  of  his  victories 
depended  upon  no  more  !  The  celebrated  singer,  La  Grassini, 
who  had  all  Italy  at  her  feet,  cared  only  for  the  young  general 
who  would  not  at  that  time  vouchsafe  her  a  glance. 



Elected  to  the  joint  consulate  by  the  events  of  the  i8th 
Brumaire  (November  9),  1799,  Napoleon  spent  the  first  Christ- 
mas Day  after  his  return  from  Egypt  in  writing  personal  letters 
to  the  King  of  England  and  Emperor  of  Austria,  with  a  view  to 
peace.  He  asks  King  George  how  it  is  that  the  two  most 
enlightened  nations  of  Europe  do  not  realise  that  peace  is  the 
chief  need  as  well  as  the  chief  glory  .  .  .  and  concludes  by 
asserting  that  the  fate  of  all  civilised  nations  is  bound  up  in  the 
conclusion  of  a  war  "  which  embraces  the  entire  world."  His 
efforts  fail  in  both  cases.  On  December  ijth  he  makes  the 
Moniteur  the  sole  official  journal.  On  February  jth,  1800,  he 
orders  ten  days'  military  mourning  for  the  death  of  Washington 
— that  "  great  man  who,  like  the  French,  had  fought  for  equality 
and  liberty."  On  April  22nd  he  urges  Moreau  to  begin  his 
campaign  with  the  army  ot  the  Rhine,  an  order  reiterated  on 
April  24th  through  Carnot,  again  made  Minister  of  War.  A 
diversion  to  save  the  army  of  Italy  was  now  imperative.  On 
May  5th  he  congratulated  Moreau  on  the  battle  of  Stockach, 
but  informs  him  that  Massena's  position  is  critical,  shut  up  in 
Genoa,  and  with  food  only  till  May  25th.  He  advises  Massena 
the  same  day  that  he  leaves  Paris  that  night  to  join  the  Army  of 

224  NOTES 

Reserve,  that  the  cherished  child  of  victory  must  hold  out  as 
long  as  possible,  at  least  until  May  3Oth.  At  Geneva  he  met 
M.  Necker.  On  May  I4th  he  writes  General  Mortier,  com- 
mandant of  Paris,  to  keep  that  city  quiet,  as  he  will  have  still  to 
be  away  a  few  days  longer,  which  he  trusts  "will  not  be  in- 
different to  M.  de  Melas." 

No.  3. 

This  letter  was  written  from  Ivrea,  May  29th,  1800.  On 
the  3Oth  Napoleon  is  at  Vercelli,  on  June  ist  at  Novara,  and  on 
June  2nd  in  Milan.  Eugene  served  under  Murat  at  the  passage 
of  the  Ticino,  May  3ist. 

M.'s ;  probably  "  Maman,"  i.e.  his  mother. 

Cherries. — This  fruit  had  already  tender  associations.  Las 
Cases  tells  us  that  when  Napoleon  was  only  sixteen  he  met  at 
Valence  Mademoiselle  du  Colombier,  who  was  not  insensible  to 
his  merits.  It  was  the  first  love  of  both.  ..."  We  were  the 
most  innocent  creatures  imaginable,"  the  Emperor  used  to  say ; 
"we  contrived  little  meetings  together.  I  well  remember  one 
which  took  place  on  a  midsummer  morning,  just  as  daylight 
began  to  dawn.  It  will  scarcely  be  believed  that  all  our  happi- 
ness consisted  in  eating  cherries  together"  (vol.  i.  81,  1836). 

No.  4. 

Milan. — He  arrived  here  on  June  2nd,  and  met  with  a  great 
reception.  In  his  bulletin  of  June  5th  we  find  him  assisting  at 
an  improvised  concert.  It  ends,  somewhat  quaintly  for  a  bulletin, 
as  follows  :  "  Italian  music  has  a  charm  ever  new.  The  celebrated 
singers,  Billington,1  La  Grassini,  and  Marchesi  are  expected  at 
Milan.  They  say  they  are  about  to  start  for  Paris  to  give 
concerts  there."  According  to  M.  Frederic  Masson,  this  Paris 
visit  masked  ulterior  motives,  and  was  arranged  at  a  dejeuner  on  the 
same  day,  where  La  Grassini,  Napoleon,  and  Berthier  breakfasted 
together.  Henceforward  to  Marengo  Napoleon  spends  every 

1  On  reaching  London  a  few  months  later  Mistress  Billington  was  engaged 
simultaneously  by  Drury  Lane  and  Covent  Garden,  and  during  the  following  year 
harvested  £10,000  from  these  two  engagements. 

NOTES  225 

spare  day  listening  to  the  marvellous  songstress,  and  as  at  Eylau, 
seven  years  later,  runs  great  risks  by  admitting  Venus  into  the 
camp  of  Mars.  At  St.  Helena  he  declares  that  from  June  3rd  to 
8th  he  was  busy  "  receiving  deputations,  and  showing  himself  to 
people  assembled  from  all  parts  of  Lombardy  to  see  their  libe- 
rator." The  Austrians  had  declared  that  he  had  died  in  Egypt. 
The  date  of  No.  4  should  probably  be  June  9th,  on  which  day 
the  rain  was  very  heavy.  He  reached  Stradella  the  next  day. 


No.  i. 

The  date  is  doubtless  27  Messidor  (July  16),  and  the  fete 
alluded  to  that  of  July  14.  The  following  day  Napoleon  signed 
the  Concordat  with  the  Pope,  which  paved  the  way  for  the 
restoration  of  the  Roman  Catholic  religion  in  France  (Sep- 
tember n). 

The  blister. —  On  July  7  he  quaintly  writes  Talleyrand: 
"They  have  put  a  second  blister  on  my  arm,  which  prevented 
me  giving  audience  yesterday.  Time  of  sickness  is  an  opportune 
moment  for  coming  to  terms  with  the  priests." 

Some  plants. — No  trait  in  Josephine's  character  is  more  charac- 
teristic than  her  love  of  flowers — not  the  selfish  love  of  a  mere 
collector,1  but  the  bountiful  joy  of  one  who  wishes  to  share  her 
treasures.  Malmaison  had  become  the  "  veritable  Jardin  des 
Plantes"  of  the  epoch,2  far  better  than  its  Paris  namesake  in 
those  days.  The  splendid  hothouses,  constructed  by  M.  Thibaut, 
had  been  modelled  on  those  of  Kew,  and  enabled  Josephine  to 
collect  exotics  from  every  clime,  and  especially  from  her  beloved 
Martinique.  No  jewel  was  so  precious  to  her  as  a  rare  and 
beautiful  flower.  The  Minister  of  Marine  never  forgot  to 

1  She  was,  however,  no  mere  amateur,  and  knew,  says  Mile.  d'Avrillon,  the 
names  of  all  her  plants,  the  family  to  which  they  belonged,  their  native  soil,  and 
special  properties. 

-  Rueil,  le  chateau  de  Richelieu  et  la  Malmaison,  by  Jacquin  and  Duesberg, 
p.  130  ;  in  Aubenas'y^/A/'wf,  vol.  i. 


226  NOTES 

instruct  the  deep-sea  captains  to  bring  back  floral  tributes  from 
the  far-off  tropics.  These  often  fell,  together  with  the  ships, 
into  the  hands  of  the  British  sea-dogs,  but  the  Prince  Regent 
always  had  them  sent  on  from  London,  and  thus  rendered,  says 
Aubenas,  "  the  gallant  homage  of  a  courtly  enemy  to  the  charm- 
ing tastes  and  to  the  popularity  already  acquired  by  this  universally 
beloved  woman."  Her  curator,  M.  Aime  Bonpland,  was  an 
accomplished  naturalist,  who  had  been  with  Humboldt  in 
America,  and  brought  thence  6000  new  plants.  On  his  return 
in  1804  he  was  nominated  by  Josephine  manager  of  the  gardens 
of  Malmaison  and  Navarre. 

In  the  splendid  work,  Le  Jardin  de  la  Malmaison^  in  three 
volumes,  are  plates,  with  descriptions  of  184  plants,  mostly  new, 
collected  there  from  Egypt,  Arabia,  the  United  States,  the 
Antilles,  Mexico,  Madeira,  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  Mauritius, 
the  East  Indies,  New  Caledonia,  Australia,  and  China.  To 
Josephine  we  owe  the  Camellia,  and  the  Catalpa,  from  the  flora 
of  Peru,  whilst  her  maiden  name  (La  Pagerie)  was  perpetuated 
by  Messrs.  Pavon  and  Ruiz  in  the  Lapageria. 

If  the  weather  is  as  bad. — As  we  shall  see  later,  Bourrienne 
was  invaluable  to  Josephine's  court  for  his  histrionic  powers,  and 
he  seems  to  have  been  a  prime  favourite.  On  the  present 
occasion  he  received  the  following  "  Account  of  the  Journey  to 
Plombieres.  To  the  Inhabitants  of  Malmaison," — probably  the 
work  of  Count  Rapp,  touched  up  by  Hortense  (Bourrienne's 
Napoleon,  vol.  ii.  85.  Bentley,  1836)  : — 

"  The  whole  party  left  Malmaison  in  tears,  which  brought 
on  such  dreadful  headaches  that  all  the  amiable  company  were 
quite  overcome  by  the  idea  of  the  journey.  Madame  Bonaparte, 
mere,  supported  the  fatigues  of  this  memorable  day  with  the 
greatest  courage  ;  but  Madame  Bonaparte,  consulesse,  did  not 
show  any.  The  two  young  ladies  who  sat  in  the  dormeuse, 
Mademoiselle  Hortense  and  Madame  Lavalette,  were  rival 
candidates  for  a  bottle  of  Eau  de  Cologne  ;  and  every  now  and 
then  the  amiable  M.  Rapp  made  the  carriage  stop  for  the 
comfort  of  his  poor  little  sick  heart,  which  overflowed  with  bile  ; 
in  fact,  he  was  obliged  to  take  to  bed  on  arriving  at  Epernay, 
while  the  rest  of  the  amiable  party  tried  to  drown  their  sorrows 

NOTES  227 

in  champagne.  The  second  day  was  more  fortunate  on  the 
score  of  health  and  spirits,  but  provisions  were  wanting,  and  great 
were  the  sufferings  of  the  stomach.  The  travellers  lived  on  in 
the  hope  of  a  good  supper  at  Toul,  but  despair  was  at  its  height 
when  on  arriving  there  they  found  only  a  wretched  inn,  and 
nothing  in  it.  We  saw  some  odd-looking  folks  there,  which 
indemnified  us  a  little  for  spinach  dressed  with  lamp-oil,  and  red 
asparagus  fried  with  curdled  milk.  Who  would  not  have  been 
amused  to  see  the  Malmaison  gourmands  seated  at  a  table  so 
shockingly  served  ! 

"  In  no  record  of  history  is  there  to  be  found  a  day  passed  in 
distress  so  dreadful  as  that  on  which  we  arrived  at  Plombieres. 
On  departing  from  Toul  we  intended  to  breakfast  at  Nancy,  for 
every  stomach  had  been  empty  for  two  days,  but  the  civil  and 
military  authorities  came  out  to  meet  us,  and  prevented  us  from 
executing  our  plan.  We  continued  our  route,  wasting  away,  so 
that  you  might  see  us  growing  thinner  every  moment.  To 
complete  our  misfortune,  the  dormeuse,  which  seemed  to  have 
taken  a  fancy  to  embark  on  the  Moselle  for  Metz,  barely  escaped 
an  overturn.  But  at  Plombieres  we  have  been  well  compensated 
for  this  unlucky  journey,  for  on  our  arrival  we  were  received 
with  all  kinds  of  rejoicings.  The  town  was  illuminated,  the 
cannon  fired,  and  the  faces  of  handsome  women  at  all  the  windows 
gave  us  reason  to  hope  that  we  shall  bear  our  absence  from 
Malmaison  with  the  less  regret. 

"  With  the  exception  of  some  anecdotes,  which  we  reserve 
for  chit-chat  on  our  return,  you  have  here  a  correct  account  of 
our  journey,  which  we,  the  undersigned,  hereby  certify. 


"  The  company  ask  pardon  for  the  blots." 

"21  Messidor  (July  10). 

"  It  is  requested  that  the  person  who  receives  this  journal  will 
show  it  to  all  who  take  an  interest  in  the  fair  travellers," 

228  NOTES 

At  this  time  Hortense  was  madly  in  love  with  Napoleon's 
favourite  general,  Duroc,  who,  however,  loved  his  master  more, 
and  preferred  not  to  interfere  with  his  projects,  especially  as  a 
marriage  with  Hortense  would  mean  separation  from  Napoleon. 
Hortense  and  Bourrienne  were  both  excellent  billiard  players,  and 
the  latter  used  this  opportunity  to  carry  letters  from  Hortense  to 
her  lukewarm  lover. 

Afalmaisoriy  without  you,  is  toe  dreary. — Although  Madame  la 
Grassini  had  been  specially  summoned  to  sing  at  the  Fete  de  la 
Concorde  the  day  before. 

No.  2. 

This  is  the  third  pilgrimage  Josephine  has  made,  under  the 
doctor's  orders,  to  Plombieres ;  but  the  longed-for  heir  will  have 
to  be  sought  for  elsewhere,  by  fair  means  or  foul.  Lucien,  who 
as  Spanish  Ambassador  had  vainly  spent  the  previous  year  in 
arranging  the  divorce  and  remarriage  of  Napoleon  to  a  daughter 
of  the  King  of  Spain,  suggests  adultery  at  Plombieres,  or  a 
"  warming-pan  conspiracy,"  as  the  last  alternatives.1  Josephine 
complains  to  Napoleon  of  his  brother's  "poisonous"  sugges- 
tions, and  Lucien  is  again  disgraced.  In  a  few  months  an 
heir  is  found  in  Hortense's  first-born,  Napoleon  Charles,  born 
October  10. 

The  fat  Eugene  had  come  partly  to  be  near  his  sister  in  her 
mother's  absence,  and  partly  to  receive  his  colonelcy.  Josephine 
is  wretched  to  be  absent,  and  writes  to  Hortense  (June  1 6) : — "  I 
am  utterly  wretched,  my  dear  Hortense,  to  be  separated  from 
you,  and  my  mind  is  as  sick  as  my  body.  I  feel  that  I  was  not 
born,  my  dear  child,  for  so  much  grandeur.  .  .  .  By  now 
Eugene  should  be  with  you  ;  that  thought  consoles  me."  Aubenas 
has  found  in  the  Tascher  archives  a  charming  letter  from 

1  Lucien  declares  that  Napoleon  said  to  his  wife,  in  his  presence  and  that  of 
Joseph,  "  Imit?te  Livia,  and  you  will  find  me  Augustus." — (Jung,  vol.  ii.  206.) 
Lucien  evidently  suspects  an  occult  sinister  allusion  here,  but  Napoleon  is  only 
alluding  to  the  succession  devolving  on  the  first  child  of  their  joint  families. 
Lucien  refused  Hortense,  but  Louis  was  more  amenable  to  his  brother's  wishes. 
On  her  triumphal  entry  into  Muhlberg  (November  1805),  the  Empress  reads  on 
a  column  a  hundred  feet  high — "  Josephinae,  Galliarum  Augustae." 

NOTES  229 

Josephine  to  her  mother  in  Martinique,  announcing  how  soon 
she  may  hope  to  find  herself  a  great-grandmother. 

No.  3. 

Tour  letter  has  come.  —  Possibly  the  one  to  Hortense  quoted 
above,  as  Josephine  was  not  fond  of  writing  many  letters. 

Injured  whilst  shooting  a  boar.  —  Constant  was  not  aware  of 
this  occurrence,  and  was  therefore  somewhat  incredulous  of  Las 
Cases  (vol.  i.  289).  The  account  in  the  "  Memorial  of  St. 
Helena  "  is  as  follows  :  —  "  Another  time,  while  hunting  the 
wild  boar  at  Marly,  all  his  suite  were  put  to  flight  ;  it  was  like 
the  rout  of  an  army.  The  Emperor,  with  Soult  and  Berthier,1 
maintained  their  ground  against  three  enormous  boars.  *  We 
killed  all  three,  but  I  received  a  hurt  from  my  adversary,  and 
nearly  lost  this  finger,'  said  the  Emperor,  pointing  to  the  third 
finger  of  his  left  hand,  which  indeed  bore  the  mark  of  a  severe 
wound.  c  But  the  most  laughable  circumstance  of  all  was  to  see 
the  multitude  of  men,  surrounded  by  their  dogs,  screening  them- 
selves behind  the  three  heroes,  and  calling  out  lustily  "  Save  the 
Emperor  !  2  save  the  Emperor  !  "  while  not  one  advanced  to  my 
assistance'"  (vol.  ii.  202.  Colburn,  1836). 

"  The  Barber  of  Seville."  —  This  was  their  best  piece,  and 
spectators  (except  Lucien)  agree  that  in  it  the  little  theatre  at 
Malmaison  and  its  actors  were  unsurpassed  in  Paris.  Bourrienne 
as  Bartholo,  Hortense  as  Rosina,  carried  off  the  palm.  According 
to  the  Duchesse  d'Abrantes,  Wednesday  was  the  usual  day  of 
representation,  when  the  First  Consul  was  wont  to  ask  forty 
persons  to  dinner,  and  a  hundred  and  fifty  for  the  evening.  As 
the  Duchess  had  reason  to  know,  Bonaparte  was  the  severest  of 
critics.  "Lauriston  made  a  noble  lover,"  says  the  Duchess  — 
"  rather  heavy  ""  being  Bourrienne's  more  professional  comment. 
Eugene,  says  Meneval,  excelled  in  footman's  parts.*  Michot, 
from  the  Theatre  Francais,  was  stage  manager  ;  and  Bonaparte 

1  Made  Grand  Huntsman  in 

1  An  anachronism  ;  he  was  at  this  time  First  Consul. 

*  An  euphuistic  way  of  saying  he  could  not  learn  longer  ones.  In  war  time 
Napoleon  had  to  insist  on  Eugene  keeping  his  letters  with  him  and  constantly 
re-reading  them. 

230  NOTES 

provided  what  Constant  has  called  "the  Malmaison  Troupe," 
with  their  dresses  and  a  collection  of  dramas.  He  was  always 
spurring  them  on  to  more  ambitious  flights,  and  by  complimenting 
Bourrienne  on  his  prodigious  memory,  would  stimulate  him  to 
learn  the  longest  parts.  Lucien,  who  refused  to  act,  declares 
that  Bonaparte  quoted  the  saying  of  Louis  XVI.  concerning 
Marie  Antoinette  and  her  company,  that  the  performances  "  were 
royally  badly  played."  Junot,  however,  even  in  these  days 
played  the  part  of  a  drunkard  only  too  well  (Jung,  vol.  ii.  256). 

No.  4. 

The  Sevres  Manufactory. — After  his  visit,  he  wrote  Duroc  : 
"  This  morning  I  gave,  in  the  form  of  gratuity,  a  week's  wages 
to  the  workmen  of  the  Sevres  manufactory.  Have  the  amount 
given  to  the  director.  It  should  not  exceed  a  thousand  ecus." 

No.  5. 

Your  lover  ^  who  is  tired  of  being  alone. — So  much  so  that  he  got 
up  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  to  read  his  letters  in  a  young 
bride's  bed-chamber.  The  story  is  brightly  told  by  the  lady  in 
question,  Madame  d'Abrantes  (vol.  ii.  ch.  19).  A  few  days  before 
the  Marly  hunt,  mentioned  in  No.  3,  the  young  wife  of  seven- 
teen, whom  Bonaparte  had  known  from  infancy,  and  whose 
mother  (Madame  Permon)  he  had  wished  to  marry,  found  the 
First  Consul  seated  by  her  bedside  with  a  thick  packet  of  letters, 
which  he  was  carefully  opening  and  making  marginal  notes  upon. 
At  six  he  went  off  singing,  pinching  the  lady's  foot  through  the 
bed-clothes  as  he  went.  The  next  day  the  same  thing  happened, 
and  the  third  day  she  locked  herself  in,  and  prevented  her  maid 
from  finding  the  key.  In  vain — the  unwelcome  visitor  fetched  a 
master-key.  As  a  last  resource,  she  wheedled  her  husband, 
General  Junot,  into  breaking  orders  and  spending  the  night  with 
her  ;  and  the  next  day  (June  22)  Bonaparte  came  in  to  proclaim 
the  hunting  morning,  but  by  her  side  found  his  old  comrade  of 
Toulon,  fast  asleep.  The  latter  dreamily  but  good-humouredly 
asked,  "  Why,  General,  what  are  you  doing  in  a  lady's  chamber 

NOTES  231 

at  this  hour  ? "  and  the  former  replied,  "  I  came  to  awake 
Madame  Junot  for  the  chase,  but  I  find  her  provided  with  an 
alarum  still  earlier  than  myself.  I  might  scold,  for  you  are 
contraband  here,  M.  Junot."  He  then  withdrew,  after  offering 
Junot  a  horse  for  the  hunt.  The  husband  jumped  up,  exclaim- 
ing, "  Faith  !  that  is  an  amiable  man  !  What  goodness !  Instead 
of  scolding,  instead  of  sending  me  sneaking  back  to  my  duty  in 
Paris!  Confess,  my  Laura,  that  he  is  not  only  an  admirable 
being,  but  above  the  sphere  of  human  nature."  Laura,  however, 
was  still  dubious.  Later  in  the  day  she  was  taken  to  task  by  the 
First  Consul,  who  was  astounded  when  she  told  him  that  his 
action  might  compromise  her.  "  I  shall  never  forget,"  she  says, 
"  Napoleon's  expression  of  countenance  at  this  moment ;  it  dis- 
played a  rapid  succession  of  emotions,  none  of  them  evil." 
Josephine  heard  of  the  affair,  and  was  jealous  for  some  little  time 
to  come. 

General  Ney. — Bonaparte  had  instructed  Josephine  to  find 
him  a  nice  wife,  and  she  had  chosen  Mile.  Aglae-Louise  Augui£, 
the  intimate  friend  and  schoolfellow  of  Hortense,  and  daughter 
of  a  former  Receveur-General  des  Finances.  To  the  latter  Ney 
goes  fortified  with  a  charming  letter  from  Josephine,  dated  May 
30 — the  month  which  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  has  erroneously 
given  for  that  of  the  marriage,  which  seems  to  have  taken  place 
at  the  end  of  July  (Biographie  Universelle^  Michaud,  vol.  xxx.). 
Napoleon  (who  stood  godfather  to  all  the  children  of  his  generals) 
and  Hortense  were  sponsors  for  the  firstborn  of  this  union, 
Napoleon  Joseph,  born  May  8,  1803.  The  Duchess  d'Abrantes 
describes  her  first  meeting  with  Madame  Ney  at  the  Boulogne 
fete  of  August  15,  1802.  Her  simplicity  and  timidity  "were  the 
more  attractive  inasmuch  as  they  formed  a  contrast  to  most  of  the 
ladies  by  whom  she  was  surrounded  at  the  court  of  France.  .  .  . 
The  softness  and  benevolence  of  Madame  Ney's  smile,  together 
with  the  intelligent  expression  of  her  large  dark  eyes,  rendered 
her  a  very  beautiful  woman,  and  her  lively  manners  and  accom- 
plishments enhanced  her  personal  graces"  (vol.  iii.  31).  The 
brave  way  in  which  she  bore  her  husband's  execution  won  the 
admiration  of  Napoleon,  who  at  St.  Helena  coupled  her  with 
Mdme.  de  Lavalette  and  Mdme.  Labedoyere. 

23  2  NOTES 


No.  i. 

Madame. — Napoleon  became  Emperor  on  May  i8th,  and 
this  was  the  first  letter  to  his  wife  since  Imperial  etiquette  had 
become  de  rigueur,  and  the  first  letter  to  Josephine  signed  Napoleon. 
Meneval  gives  a  somewhat  amusing  description  of  the  fine  grada- 
tions of  instructions  he  received  on  this  head  from  his  master. 
This  would  seem  to  be  a  reason  for  this  uncommon  form  of 
salutation  ;  but,  per  contra,  Las  Cases  (vol.  i.  276)  mentions  some 
so-called  letters  beginning  Madame  et  chere  tpousey  which  Napoleon 
declares  to  be  spurious. 

Pont  de  Briquet,  a  little  village  about  a  mile  from  Boulogne. 
On  his  first  visit  to  the  latter  he  was  met  by  a  deputation  of 
farmers,  of  whom  one  read  out  the  following  address  :  "  General, 
here  we  are,  twenty  farmers,  and  we  offer  you  a  score  of  big, 
sturdy  lads,  who  are,  and  always  shall  be,  at  your  service.  Take 
them  along  with  you,  General ;  they  will  help  you  to  give 
England  a  good  thrashing.  As  for  ourselves,  we  have  another 
duty  to  fulfil  :  with  our  arms  we  will  till  the  ground,  so  that 
bread  be  not  wanting  to  the  brave  fellows  who  are  destined  to 
destroy  the  English."  Napoleon  thanked  the  honest  yeomen, 
and  determined  to  make  the  only  habitable  dwelling  there  his 
headquarters.  The  place  is  called  from  the  foundations  of  bricks 
found  there — the  remains  of  one  of  Caesar's  camps. 

The  wind  having  considerably  freshened. —  Constant  tells  a  good 
story  of  the  Emperor's  obstinacy,  but  also  of  his  bravery,  a  few 
days  later.  Napoleon  had  ordered  a  review  of  his  ships,  which 
Admiral  Bruix  had  ignored,  seeing  a  storm  imminent.  Napoleon 
sends  off  Bruix  to  Holland  in  disgrace,  and  orders  the  review  to 
take  place  ;  but  when,  amid  the  wild  storm,  he  sees  "  more  than 
twenty  gunboats  run  aground,"  and  no  succour  vouchsafed  to  the 
drowning  men,  he  springs  into  the  nearest  lifeboat,  crying,  "  We 
must  save  them  somehow."  A  wave  breaks  over  the  boat ;  he 
is  drenched  and  nearly  carried  overboard,  losing  the  hat  he  had 
worn  at  Marengo.  Such  pluck  begets  enthusiasm  ;  but,  in  spite 

NOTES  233 

of  all  they  could  do,  two  hundred  lives  were  lost.  This  is 
Constant's  version ;  probably  his  loss  is  exaggerated.  The 
Emperor,  writing  Talleyrand  on  August  ist,  speaks  only  of  three 
or  four  ships  lost,  and  "  une  quinzaine  d'hommes." 

No.  2. 

The  waters. — Mile.  d'Avrillon  describes  them  and  their  effect 
— the  sulphur  baths  giving  erysipelas  to  people  in  poor  health. 
Corvisart  had  accompanied  the  Empress,  to  superintend  their 
effect,  which  was  as  usual  nil. 

All  the  vexations. — Constant  (vol.  i.  230,  &c.,  1896)  is  of 
use  to  explain  what  these  were — having  obtained  possession  of  a 
diary  of  the  tour  by  one  of  Josephine's  ladies-in-waiting,  which 
had  fallen  into  Napoleon's  hands.  In  the  first  place,  the  roads 
(where  there  were  any1)  were  frightful,  especially  in  the  Ardennes 
forest,  and  the  diary  for  August  ist  concludes  by  stating  "that 
some  of  the  carriages  were  so  battered  that  they  had  to  be  bound 
together  with  ropes.  One  ought  not  to  expect  women  to  travel 
about  like  a  lot  of  dragoons."  The  writer  of  the  diary,  however, 
preferred  to  stay  in  the  carriage,  and  let  Josephine  and  the  rest  get 
wet  feet,  thinking  the  risk  she  ran  the  least.  Another  vexation 
to  Josephine  was  the  published  report  of  her  gift  to  the  Mayoress 
of  Rheims  of  a  malachite  medallion  set  in  brilliants,  and  of  her 
saying  as  she  did  so,  "  It  is  the  colour  of  Hope."  Although  she 
had  really  used  this  expression,  it  was  the  last  thing  she  would 
like  to  see  in  print,  taking  into  consideration  the  reason  for  her 
yearly  peregrinations  to  Plombieres,  and  now  to  Aix,  and  their 
invariable  inefficiency.  Under  the  date  August  I4th,  the  writer 
of  the  diary  gives  a  severe  criticism  of  Josephine.  "  She  is 
exactly  like  a  ten-year-old  child — good-natured,  frivolous,  im- 
pressionable ;  in  tears  at  one  moment,  and  comforted  the  next. 
.  .  .  She  has  just  wit  enough  not  to  be  an  utter  idiot.  Igno- 
rant— as  are  most  Creoles — she  has  learned  nothing,  or  next 
to  nothing,  except  by  conversation  ;  but,  having  passed  her  life 
in  good  society,  she  has  got  good  manners,  grace,  and  a  mastery 

1  The  Emperor  had  himself  planned  the  Itinerary,  and  had  mistaken  a  pro- 
jected road  for  a  completed  one,  between  Rethel  and  Marche. 

234  NOTES 

of  that  sort  of  jargon  which,  in  society,  sometimes  passes  for  wit. 
Social  events  constitute  the  canvas  which  she  embroiders,  which 
she  arranges,  and  which  give  her  a  subject  for  conversation.  She 
is  witty  for  quite  a  whole  quarter  of  an  hour  every  day.  .  .  .  Her 
diffidence  is  charming  .  .  .  her  temper  very  sweet  and  even  ;  it  is 
impossible  not  to  be  fond  of  her.  I  fear  that  .  .  .  this  need  of 
unbosoming,  of  communicating  all  her  thoughts  and  impressions, 
of  telling  all  that  passes  between  herself  and  the  Emperor,  keeps 
the  latter  from  taking  her  into  his  confidence.  .  .  .  She  told  me 
this  morning  that,  during  all  the  years  she  had  spent  with  him, 
never  once  had  she  seen  him  let  himself  go." 

Eugene  has  started  for  Blois,  where  he  became  the  head  of  the 
electoral  college  of  Loir  et  Cher,  having  just  been  made  Colonel- 
General  of  the  Chasseurs  by  Napoleon.  The  Beauharnais  family 
were  originally  natives  of  Blois. 

No.  3. 

Aix-la-Chapette. — In  this,  the  first  Imperial  pilgrimage  to  take 
the  waters,  great  preparations  had  been  made,  forty-seven  horses 
bought  at  an  average  cost  of  £60  apiece  ;  and  eight  carriages, 
which  are  not  dear  at  £1000  for  the  lot,  with  ^400  additional 
for  harness  and  fittings. 

At  Aix  they  had  fox-hunting  and  hare-coursing  so  called,  but 
probably  the  final  tragedy  was  consummated  with  a  gun.  Lord 
Rosebery  reminds  us  that  at  St.  Helena  the  Emperor  actually 
shot  a  cow  !  They  explored  coal  mines,  and  examined  all  the 
local  manufactories,  including  the  relics  of  Charlemagne — of 
which  great  warrior  and  statesman  Josephine  refused  an  arm, 
as  having  a  still  more  puissant  one  ever  at  hand  for  her  pro- 

When  tidings  come  that  the  Emperor  will  arrive  on  September 
2,  and  prolong  their  stay  from  Paris,  there  is  general  lamentation 
among  Josephine's  womenkind,  especially  on  the  part  of  that 
perennial  wet  blanket  and  busybody,  Madame  de  Laroche- 
foucauld,  who  will  make  herself  a  still  greater  nuisance  at  May- 
ence  two  years  later. 

NOTES  235 

No.  4. 

During  the  past  week. — As  a  matter  of  fact  he  only  reached 
Ostend  on  April  I2th  from  Boulogne,  having  left  Dunkirk  on 
the  nth. 

The  day  after  to-morrow. — This  fete  was  the  distribution  of 
the  Legion  of  Honour  at  Boulogne  and  a  review  of  80,000  men. 
The  decorations  were  enshrined  in  the  helmet  of  Bertrand  du 
Guesclin,  which  in  its  turn  was  supported  on  the  shield  of  the 
Chevalier  Bayard. 

Hortense  arrived  at  Boulogne,  with  her  son,  and  the  Prince 
and  Princess  Murat,  a  few  days  later,  and  saw  the  Emperor. 
Josephine  received  a  letter  from  Hortense  soon  after  Napoleon 
joined  her  (September  2nd),  to  which  she  replied  on  September 
8th.  "  The  Emperor  has  read  your  letter  ;  he  has  been  rather 
vexed  not  to  hear  from  you  occasionally.  He  would  not  doubt 
your  kind  heart  if  he  knew  it  as  well  as  I,  but  appearances  are 
against  you.  Since  he  can  think  you  are  neglecting  him,  lose  no 
time  in  repairing  the  wrongs  which  are  not  real,"  for  "  Bonaparte 
loves  you  like  his  own  child,  which  adds  much  to  my  affection 
for  him." 

/  am  very  well  satisfied  .  .  .  with  the  flotillas. — The  descent 
upon  England  was  to  have  taken  place  in  September,  when  the 
death  of  Admiral  Latouche-Treville  at  Toulon,  August  igth, 
altered  all  Napoleon's  plans.  Just  about  this  time  also  Fulton 
submitted  his  steamship  invention  to  Bonaparte.  The  latter, 
however,  had  recently  been  heavily  mulcted  in  other  valueless 
discoveries,  and  refers  Fulton  to  the  savants  of  the  Institute,  who 
report  it  chimerical  and  impracticable.  The  fate  of  England 
probably  lay  in  the  balance  at  this  moment,  more  than  in  1588 
or  1798. 

Napoleon  and  Josephine  leave  Aix  for  Cologne  on  September 
12,  and  it  is  now  the  ladies'  turn  to  institute  a  hunt — the  "real 
chamois  hunt "  ;  for  each  country  inn  swarms  with  this  pestilence 
that  walketh  in  darkness,  and  which,  alas !  is  no  respecter  of 

236  NOTES 

No.  5. 

Two  points  are  noteworthy  in  this  letter — (i)  that  like  No.  I 
of  this  series  (see  note  thereto)  it  commences  Madame  and  dear 
Wife ;  and  (2)  it  is  signed  Bonaparte  and  not  Napoleon,  which 
somewhat  militates  against  its  authenticity. 

ArraSy  August  2<)th. — Early  on  this  day  he  had  been  at  St. 
Cloud.  On  the  3Oth  he  writes  Cambaceres  from  Arras  that  he 
is  "satisfied  with  the  spirit  of  this  department."  On  the  same 
day  he  writes  thence  to  the  King  of  Prussia  and  Fouch£.  To 
his  Minister  of  Police  he  writes  :  "  That  detestable  journal,  Le 
Citoyen  fran^ais,  seems  only  to  wish  to  wallow  in  blood.  For 
eight  days  running  we  have  been  entertained  with  nothing  but 
the  Saint  Bartholomew.  Who  on  earth  is  the  editor  (redacteur] 
of  this  paper  ?  With  what  gusto  this  wretch  relishes  the  crimes 
and  misfortunes  of  our  fathers  !  My  intention  is  that  you 
should  put  a  stop  to  it.  Have  the  editor  (directeur)  of  this  paper 
changed,  or  suppress  it."  On  Friday  he  is  at  Mons  (writing  in- 
teresting letters  respecting  the  removal  of  church  ruins),  and 
reaches  his  wife  on  the  Sunday  (September  2nd)  as  his  letter 

/  am  rather  impatient  to  see  you. — The  past  few  months  had 
been  an  anxious  time  for  Josephine.  Talleyrand  (who,  having 
insulted  her  in  1799,  thought  her  his  enemy)  was  scheming  for 
her  divorce,  and  wished  Napoleon  to  marry  the  Princess  Wil- 
helmina  of  Baden,  and  thus  cement  an  alliance  with  Bavaria  and 
Russia  (Constant,  vol.  i.  240).  The  Bonaparte  family  were  very 
anxious  that  Josephine  should  not  be  crowned.  Napoleon  had 
too  great  a  contempt  for  the  weaknesses  of  average  human  nature 
to  expect  much  honesty  from  Talleyrand.  But  he  was  not  as 
yet  case-hardened  to  ingratitude,  and  was  always  highly  sensitive 
to  caricature  and  hostile  criticism.  Talleyrand  had  been  the 
main  cause  of  the  death  of  the  Due  d'Enghien,  and  was  now 
trying  to  show  that  he  had  wished  to  prevent  it ;  but  possibly 
the  crowning  offence  was  contained  in  a  lady's  diary,  that  fell 
into  the  emperor's  hands,  where  Talleyrand  is  said  to  have  called 
his  master  "  a  regular  little  Nero "  in  his  system  of  espionage. 
The  diary  in  question  is  in  Constant's  "  Memoirs,"  vol.  i.,  and 

NOTES  237 

this  letter  helps  to  fix  the  error  in  the  dates,  probably  caused  by 
confusion  between  the  Revolutionary  and  Gregorian  Calendars. 

No.  6. 

T. — This  may  be  Talleyrand,  whom  Mdme.  de  Remusat  in  a 
letter  to  her  husband  (September  2ist)  at  Aix,  hinted  to  be  on 
bad  terms  with  the  Emperor — a  fact  confirmed  and  explained  by 
Mdneval.  It  may  also  have  been  Tallien,  who  returned  to 
France  in  1802,  where  he  had  been  divorced  from  his  unfaithful 

B. — Doubtlessly  Bourrienne,  who  was  in  disgrace  with 
Napoleon,  and  who  was  always  trying  to  impose  on  Josephine's 
good  nature.  No  sooner  had  Napoleon  left  for  Boulogne  on  July 
1 4th  than  his  former  secretary  inflicts  himself  on  the  wife  at 

Napoleon  joins  Josephine  at  St.  Cloud  on  or  before  October 
1 3th,  where  preparations  are  already  being  made  for  the  Corona- 
tion by  the  Pope — the  first  ceremony  of  the  kind  for  eight  cen- 


No.  i. 

To  Josephine. — She  was  at  Plombieres  from  August  2  to  Sep- 
tember 10,  but  no  letter  is  available  for  the  period,  neither  to 
Hortense  nor  from  Napoleon. 

Strasburg. — She  is  in  the  former  Episcopal  Palace,  at  the  foot 
of  the  cathedral. 

Stuttgard. — He  is  driven  over  from  Ludwigsburg  on  October 
4th,  and  hears  the  German  opera  of  "  Don  Juan." 

/  am  well  placed. — On  the  same  day  Napoleon  writes  his 
brother  Joseph  that  he  has  already  won  two  great  victories — 
(i)  by  having  no  sick  or  deserters,  but  many  new  conscripts; 
and  (2)  because  the  Badenese  army  and  those  of  Bavaria  and 
Wurtemberg  had  joined  him,  and  all  Germany  well  disposed. 

238  NOTES 

No.  2. 

Louisburg. — Ludwigsburg. 

In  a  few  days. — To  Talleyrand  he  wrote  from  Strasburg  on 
September  27  :  "Within  a  fortnight  we  shall  see  several  things." 

A  new  bride. — This  letter,  in  the  collection  of  his  Correspond- 
ence ordered  by  Napoleon  III.,  concludes  at  this  point. 

E/ectress. — The  Princess  Charlotte- Auguste-Mathilde  (1766- 
1828),  daughter  of  George  III.,  our  Princess  Royal,  who  married 
Frederick  I.  Napoleon  says  she  is  "  not  well  treated  by  the 
Elector,  to  whom,  nevertheless,  she  seems  much  attached " 
(Brotonne,  No.  in).  She  was  equally  pleased  with  Napoleon, 
and  wrote  home  how  astonished  she  was  to  find  him  so  polite 
and  agreeable  a  person. 

No.  3. 

/  have  assisted  at  a  marriage. — The  bride  was  the  Princess  of 
Saxe-Hildburghhausen,  who  was  marrying  the  second  son  of  the 

No.  5. 

Written  at  Augsburg.  On  October  I5th  he  reaches  the 
abbey  of  Elchingen,  which  is  situated  on  a  height,  from  whence 
a  wide  view  is  obtained,  and  establishes  his  headquarters  there. 

No.  6. 

Spent  the  whole  of  to-day  indoors. — This  is  also  mentioned  in  his 
Seventh  Bulletin  (dated  the  same  day),  which  adds,  "But  repose 
is  not  compatible  with  the  direction  of  this  immense  army." 

Vicenza. —  Massena  did  not,  however,  reach  this  place  till 
November  3rd.  The  French  editions  have  Vienna,  but  Vicenza 
is  evidently  meant. 

No.  7. 

He  is  still  at  Elchingen,  but  at  Augsburg  the  next  day.     On 
the  2ist  he   issues  a  decree  to   his  army  that  Vend^miaire,1  of 
1  The  first  month  of  the  Republican  calendar. 

NOTES  239 

which  this  was  the  last  day  but  one,  should  be  counted  as  a 
campaign  for  pensions  and  military  services. 

Elchingen. — Meneval  speaks  of  this  village  "rising  in  an 
amphitheatre  above  the  Danube,  surrounded  by  walled  gardens, 
and  houses  rising  one  above  the  other."  From  it  Napoleon  saw 
the  city  of  Ulm  below,  commanded  by  his  cannon.  Marshal 
Ney  won  his  title  of  Duke  of  Elchingen  by  capturing  it  on 
October  I4th,  and  fully  deserved  it.  The  Emperor  used  to 
leave  the  abbey  every  morning  to  go  to  the  camp  before  Ulm, 
where  he  used  to  spend  the  day,  and  sometimes  the  night.  The 
rain  was  so  heavy  that,  until  a  plank  was  found,  Napoleon  sat  in 
a  tent  with  his  feet  in  water  (Savary,  vol.  ii.  196). 

Such  a  catastrophe. — At  Ulm  General  Mack,  with  eight  field- 
marshals,  seven  lieutenant-generals,  and  33,000  men  surrender. 
Napoleon  had  despised  Mack  even  in  1800,  when  he  told  Bour- 
rienne  at  Malmaison,  "  Mack  is  a  man  of  the  lowest  mediocrity  I 
ever  saw  in  my  life  ;  he  is  full  of  self-sufficiency  and  conceit,  and 
believes  himself  equal  to  anything.  He  has  no  talent.  I  should 
like  to  see  him  some  day  opposed  to  one  of  our  good  generals ; 
we  should  then  see  fine  work.  He  is  a  boaster,  and  that  is  all. 
He  is  really  one  of  the  most  silly  men  existing,  and  besides  all 
that,  he  is  unlucky "  (vol.  i.  304).  Napoleon  stipulated  for 
Mack's  life  in  one  of  the  articles  of  the  Treaty  of  Presburg. 

No.  9. 

Munich. — Napoleon  arrived  here  on  October  24th. 

Lemarois. — A  trusty  aide-de-camp,  who  had  witnessed  Napo- 
leon's civil  marriage  in  March  1796,  at  10  P.M. 

/  was  grieved. — They  had  no  news  from  October  I2th  to 
2ist  in  Paris,  where  they  learnt  daily  that  Strasburg  was  in  the 
same  predicament.  Mdme.  de  Remusat,  at  Paris,  was  equally 
anxious,  and  such  women,  in  the  Emperor's  absence,  tended  by 
their  presence  or  even  by  their  correspondence  to  increase  the 
alarms  of  Josephine. 

Amuse  yourself. — M.  Masson  (Josephine,  Imperatrice  et  Reine,  p. 
424)  has  an  interesting  note  of  how  she  used  to  attend  lodge  at 

24o  NOTES 

the  Orient  in  Strasburg,  to  preside  at  a  "  loge  d'adoption  sous  la 
direction  de  Madame  de  Dietrich,  grand  maitresse  titulaire." 

Talleyrand  has  come. — He  was  urgently  needed  to  help  in  the 
correspondence  with  the  King  of  Prussia  (concerning  the  French 
violation  of  his  Anspach  territory),  with  whom  Napoleon's 
relations  were  becoming  more  strained. 

No.  10. 

We  are  always  in  forests. — Baron  Lejeune,  with  his  artist's 
eye,  describes  his  impressions  of  the  Amstetten  forest  as  he 
travelled  through  it  with  Murat  the  following  morning  (Novem- 
ber 4th).  "Those  of  us  who  came  from  the  south  of  Europe 
had  never  before  realised  how  beautiful  Nature  can  be  in  the 
winter.  In  this  particular  instance  everything  was  robed  in  the 
most  gleaming  attire  ;  the  silvery  rime  softening  the  rich  colours 
of  the  decaying  oak  leaves,  and  the  sombre  vegetation  of  the 
pines.  The  frozen  drapery,  combined  with  the  mist,  in  which 
everything  was  more  or  less  enveloped,  gave  a  soft,  mysterious 
charm  to  the  surrounding  objects,  producing  a  most  beautiful 
picture.  Lit  up  by  the  sunshine,  thousands  of  long  icicles,  such 
as  those  which  sometimes  droop  from  our  fountains  and  water- 
wheels,  hung  like  shining  lustres  from  the  trees.  Never  did  ball- 
room shine  with  so  many  diamonds  ;  the  long  branches  of  the 
oaks,  pines,  and  other  forest  trees  were  weighed  down  by  the 
masses  of  hoar-frost,  while  the  snow  converted  their  summits 
into  rounded  roofs,  forming  beneath  them  grottoes  resembling 
those  of  the  Pyrenean  mountains,  with  their  shining  .  .alactites 
and  graceful  columns  "  (vol.  i.  24). 

My  enemies. — Later  in  the  day  Napoleon  writes  from  Lam- 
bach  to  the  Emperor  of  Austria  a  pacific  letter,  which  contains 
the  paragraph,  u  My  ambition  is  wholly  concentrated  on  the  re- 
establishment  of  my  commerce  and  of  my  marine,  and  England 
grievously  opposes  itself  to  both." 

No.  ii. 

Written  from  Lintz,  the  capital  of  Upper  Austria,  where 
Napoleon  was  on  the  4th. 


No.  12. 

Napoleon  took  up  his  abode  at  the  palace  of  Schoenbrunn  on 
the  1 4th,  and  proves  his  "  two-o^clock-in-the-morning  courage  " 
by  passing  through  Vienna  at  that  time  the  following  morning. 

No.  13. 

They  owe  eveything  to  you. — Aubenas  quotes  this,  and  remarks 
(vol.  ii.  326) :  "  No  one  had  pride  in  France  more  than  Napo- 
leon, stronger  even  than  his  conviction  of  her  superiority  in  the 
presence  of  other  contemporary  sovereigns  and  courts.  He 
wishes  that  in  Germany,  where  she  will  meet  families  with  all 
the  pride  and  sometimes  all  the  haughtiness  of  their  ancestry, 
Josephine  will  not  forget  that  she  is  Empress  of  the  French, 
superior  to  those  who  are  about  to  receive  her,  and  who  owe  full 
respect  and  homage  to  her." 

No.  14. 

Austerlitz. — Never  was  a  victory  more  needful ;  but  never 
was  the  Emperor  more  confident.  Savary  says  that  it  would 
take  a  volume  to  contain  all  that  emanated  from  his  mind  during 
that  twenty-four  hours  (December  1-2).  Nor  was  it  confined 
to  military  considerations.  General  Segur  describes  how  he  spent 
his  evening  meal  with  his  marshals,  discussing  with  Junot  the 
last  new  tragedy  (Les  Templiers,  by  Raynouard),  and  from  it  to 
Racine,  Corneille,  and  the  fatalism  of  our  ancestors. 

December  2nd  was  a  veritable  Black  Monday  for  the  Coalition 
in  general,  and  for  Russia  in  particular,  where  Monday  is  always 
looked  upon  as  an  unlucky  day.  Their  forebodings  increased 
when,  on  the  eve  of  the  battle,  the  Emperor  Alexander  was 
thrown  from  his  horse  (Czartoriski,  vol.  ii.  106). 

No.  17. 

A  long  time  since  I  had  news  of  you. — Josephine  was  always  a 
bad  correspondent,  but  at  this  juncture  was  reading  that  stilted 
but  sensational  romance — "  Caleb  Williams  ; "  or  hearing  the 



"Achilles"  of  Paer,  or  the  "Romeo  and  Juliet "  of  Zingarelli  in  the 
intervals  of  her  imperial  progress  through  Germany.  M.  Masson, 
not  often  too  indulgent  to  Josephine,  thinks  her  conduct  excusable 
at  this  period — paying  and  receiving  visits,  dressing  and  redressing, 
always  in  gala  costume,  and  without  a  moment's  solitude. 

No.  19. 

/  await  events. — A  phrase  usually  attributed  to  Talleyrand  in 
1815.  However,  the  Treaty  of  Presburg  was  soon  signed  (De- 
cember 2nd),  and  the  same  day  Napoleon  met  the  Archduke 
Charles  at  Stamersdorf,  a  meeting  arranged  from  mutual  esteem. 
Napoleon  had  an  unswerving  admiration  for  this  past  and  future 
foe,  and  said  to  Madame  d'Abrantes,  "  That  man  has  a  soul,  a 
golden  heart." *  Napoleon,  however,  did  not  wish  to  discuss 
politics,  and  only  arranged  for  an  interview  of  two  hours,  "  one 
of  which,"  he  wrote  Talleyrand,  "  will  be  employed  in  dining, 
the  other  in  talking  war  and  in  mutual  protestations." 

/,  for  my  party  am  sufficiently  busy. — No  part  of  Napoleon's 
career  is  more  wonderful  than  the  way  in  which  he  conducts  the 
affairs  of  France  and  of  Europe  from  a  hostile  capital.  This  was 
his  first  experience  of  the  kind,  and  perhaps  the  easiest,  although 
Prussian  diplomacy  had  needed  very  delicate  and  astute  handling. 
But  when  Napoleon  determined,  without  even  consulting  his  wife, 
to  cement  political  alliances  by  matrimonial  ones  with  his  and  her 
relatives,  he  was  treading  on  somewhat  new  and  difficult  ground. 
First  and  foremost,  he  wanted  a  princess  for  his  ideal  young  man, 
Josephine's  son  Eugene,  and  he  preferred  Auguste,  the  daughter 
of  the  King  of  Bavaria,  to  the  offered  Austrian  Archduchess.  But 
the  young  Hereditary  Prince  of  Baden  was  in  love  and  accepted 
by  his  beautiful  cousin  Auguste  ;  so,  to  compensate  him  for  his 
loss,  the  handsome  and  vivacious  Stephanie  Beauharnais,  fresh 
from  Madame  Campan's  finishing  touches,  was  sent  for.  For 
his  brother  Jerome  a  bride  is  found  by  Napoleon  in  the  daughter 
of  the  King  of  Wurtemberg.  Baden,  Bavaria,  and  Wurtemberg 
were  too  much  indebted  to  France  for  the  spoils  they  were  get- 
ting from  Austria  to  object,  provided  the  ladies  and  their  mammas 

1  Memoirs,  vol.  ii.  165. 

NOTES  243 

were  agreeable  ;  but  the  conqueror  of  Austerlitz  found  this  part 
the  most  difficult,  and  had  to  be  so  attentive  to  the  Queen  of 
Bavaria  that  Josephine  was  jealous.  However,  all  the  matches 
came  off,  and  still  more  remarkable,  all  turned  out  happily,  a  fact 
which  certainly  redounds  to  Napoleon's  credit  as  a  match-maker. 
On  December  3ist,  at  1.45  A.M.,  he  entered  Munich  by 
torchlight  and  under  a  triumphal  arch.  His  chamberlain,  M.  de 
Thiard,  assured  him  that  if  he  left  Munich  the  marriage  with 
Eugene  would  fall  through,  and  he  agrees  to  stay,  although  he 
declared  that  his  absence,  which  accentuated  the  Bank  crisis,  is 
costing  him  1,500,000  francs  a  day.  The  marriage  took  place 
on  January  I4th,  four  days  after  Eugene  arrived  at  Munich  and 
three  days  after  that  young  Bayard  had  been  bereft  of  his  cherished 
moustache.  Henceforth  the  bridegroom  is  called  "  Mon  fils  "  in 
Napoleon's  correspondence,  and  in  the  contract  of  marriage 
Napoleon-Eugene  de  France.  The  Emperor  and  Empress 
reached  the  Tuileries  on  January  2yth.  The  marriage  of 
Stephanie  was  even  more  difficult  to  manage,  for,  as  St.  Amand 
points  out,  the  Prince  of  Baden  had  for  brothers-in-law  the 
Emperor  of  Russia,  the  King  of  Sweden,  and  the  King  of  Bavaria 
— two  of  whom  at  least  were  friends  of  England.  Josephine 
had  once  an  uncle-in-law,  the  Count  Beauharnais,  whose  wife 
Fanny  was  a  well-known  literary  character  of  the  time,  but  ot 
whom  the  poet  Lebrun  made  the  epigram — 

"  Elle  fait  son  visage,  et  ne  fait  pas  ses  vers." 

Stephanie  was  the  grand-daughter  of  this  couple,  and  as  Grand- 
Duchess  of  Baden  was  beloved  and  respected,  and  lived  on  until 


No.  i. 

Napoleon  left  St.  Cloud  with  Josephine  on  September  25th, 
and  had  reached  Mayence  on  the  a8th,  where  his  Foot  Guard  were 
awaiting  him.  He  left  Mayence  on  October  ist,  and  reached 

244  NOTES 

Wurzburg  the  next  day,  whence  this  letter  was  written,  just 
before  starting  for  Bamberg.  Josephine  was  installed  in  the 
Teutonic  palace  at  Mayence. 

Princess  of  Baden,  Stephanie  Beauharnais.  (For  her  marriage, 
see  note,  end  of  Series  F.) 

Hortense  was  by  no  means  happy  with  her  husband  at  the 
best  of  times,  and  she  cordially  hated  Holland.  She  was  said  to 
be  very  frightened  of  Napoleon,  but  (like  most  people)  could 
easily  influence  her  mother.  Napoleon's  letter  to  her  of  this 
date  (October  5th)  is  certainly  not  a  severe  one  : — "I  have  re- 
ceived yours  of  September  I4th.  I  am  sending  to  the  Chief 
Justice  in  order  to  accord  pardon  to  the  individual  in  whom  you 
are  interested.  Your  news  always  gives  me  pleasure.  I  trust 
you  will  keep  well,  and  never  doubt  my  great  friendship  for 

The  Grand  Duke^  i.e.  of  Wurzburg.  The  castle  where 
Napoleon  was  staying  seemed  to  him  sufficiently  strong  to  be 
armed  and  provisioned,  and  he  made  a  great  depot  in  the  city. 
"  Volumes,"  says  Meneval,  "  would  not  suffice  to  describe  the 
multitude  of  his  military  and  administrative  measures  here,  and 
the  precautions  which  he  took  against  even  the  most  improbable 
hazards  of  war." 

Florence. — Probably  September  1796,  when  Napoleon  was 
hard  pressed,  and  Josephine  had  to  fetch  a  compass  from  Verona 
to  regain  Milan,  and  thus  evade  Wurmser's  troops. 

No.  2. 

Bamberg. — Arriving  at  Bamberg  on  the  6th,  Napoleon  issued 
a  proclamation  to  his  army  which  concluded — "  Let  the  Prussian 
army  experience  the  same  fate  that  it  experienced  fourteen  years 
ago.  Let  it  learn  that,  if  it  is  easy  to  acquire  increase  of  territory 
and  power  by  means  of  the  friendship  of  the  great  people,  their 
enmity,  which  can  be  provoked  only  by  the  abandonment  of  all 
spirit  of  wisdom  and  sense,  is  more  terrible  than  the  tempests  of 
the  ocean." 

Eugene. — Napoleon  wrote  him  on  the  5th,  and  twice  on  the 

NOTES  245 

yth,  on  which  date  we  have  eighteen  letters  in  the  Correspon- 

Her  husband. — The  Hereditary  Grand  Duke  of  Baden,  to 
whom  Napoleon  had  written  from  Mayence  on  September  3Oth, 
accepting  his  services,  and  fixing  the  rendezvous  at  Bamberg  for 
October  4th  or  5th. 

On  this  day  Napoleon  invaded  Prussian  territory  by  entering 
Bayreuth,  having  preceded  by  one  day  the  date  of  their  ulti- 
matum— a  rhapsody  of  twenty  pages,  which  Napoleon  in  his 
First  Bulletin  compares  to  "one  of  those  which  the  English 
Cabinet  pay  their  literary  men  £500  per  annum  to  write."  It  is 
in  this  Bulletin  where  he  describes  the  Queen  of  Prussia  (dressed 
as  an  Amazon,  in  the  uniform  of  her  regiment  of  dragoons,  and 
writing  twenty  letters  a  day)  to  be  like  Armida  in  her  frenzy, 
setting  fire  to  her  own  palace. 

No.  3. 

By  this  time  the  Prussian  army  is  already  in  a  tight  corner, 
with  its  back  on  the  Rhine,  which,  as  Napoleon  says  in  his  Third 
Bulletin  written  on  this  day,  is  "  assez  bizarre,  from  which  very 
important  events  should  ensue."  On  the  previous  day  he  con- 
cludes a  letter  to  Talleyrand — "  One  cannot  conceive  how  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick,  to  whom  one  allows  some  talent,  can  direct 
the  operations  of  this  army  in  so  ridiculous  a  manner." 

Erfurt. — Here  endless  discussions,  but,  as  Napoleon  says  in 
his  bulletin  of  this  day — "  Consternation  is  at  Erfurt,  .  .  .  but 
while  they  deliberate,  the  French  army  is  marching.  .  .  .  Still 
the  wishes  of  the  King  of  Prussia  have  been  executed  ;  he  wished 
that  by  October  8th  the  French  army  should  have  evacuated  the 
territory  of  the  Confederation  which  has  been  evacuated,  but  in 
place  of  repassing  the  Rhine,  it  has  passed  the  Saal." 

If  she  wants  to  see  a  battle. — Queen  Louise,  great-grandmother 
of  the  present  Emperor  William,  and  in  1806  aged  thirty.  St. 
Amand  says  that  "  when  she  rode  on  horseback  before  her  troops, 
with  her  helmet  of  polished  steel,  shaded  by  a  plume,  her  gleaming 
golden  cuirass,  her  tunic  of  cloth  of  silver,  her  red  buskins  with 
golden  spurs,"  she  resembled,  as  the  bulletin  said,  one  of  the 

246  NOTES 

heroines  of  Tasso.     She  hated  France,  and  especially  Napoleon, 
as  the  child  of  the  French  Revolution. 

No.  4. 

/  nearly  captured  him  and  the  Queen. — They  escaped  only  by 
an  hour,  Napoleon  writes  Berthier.  Blucher  aided  their  escape 
by  telling  a  French  General  about  an  imaginary  armistice,  which 
the  latter  was  severely  reprimanded  by  Napoleon  for  believing. 

No  battle  was  more  beautifully  worked  out  than  the  battle  of 
Jena — Davoust  performing  specially  well  his  move  in  the  combi- 
nations by  which  the  Prussian  army  was  hopelessly  entangled,  as 
Mack  at  Ulm  a  year  before.  Bernadotte  alone,  and  as  usual, 
gave  cause  for  dissatisfaction.  He  had  a  personal  hatred  for  his 
chief,  caused  by  the  knowledge  that  his  wife  (Desiree  Clary)  had 
never  ceased  to  regret  that  she  had  missed  her  opportunity  of 
being  the  wife  of  Napoleon.  Bernadotte,  therefore,  was  loth 
to  give  initial  impetus  to  the  victories  of  the  French  Emperor, 
though,  when  success  was  no  longer  doubtful,  he  would  prove 
that  it  was  not  want  of  capacity  but  want  of  will  that  had  kept 
him  back.  He  was  the  Talleyrand  of  the  camp,  and  had  an 
equal  aptitude  for  fishing  in  troubled  waters. 

/  have  bivouacked. — Whether  the  issue  of  a  battle  was  decisive, 
or,  as  at  Eylau,  only  partially  so,  Napoleon  never  shunned  the 
disagreeable  part  of  battle — the  tending  of  the  wounded  and  the 
burial  of  the  dead.  Savary  tells  us  that  at  Jena,  as  at  Austerlitz, 
the  Emperor  rode  round  the  field  of  battle,  alighting  from  his 
horse  with  a  little  brandy  flask  (constantly  refilled),  putting  his 
hand  to  each  unconscious  soldier's  breast,  and  when  he  found 
unexpected  life,  giving  way  to  a  joy  "impossible  to  describe" 
(vol.  ii.  184).  M£neval  also  speaks  of  his  performing  this 
"  pious  duty,  in  the  fulfilment  of  which  nothing  was  allowed  to 
stand  in  his  way." 

No.  5. 

Fatigues,  bivouacs  .  .  .  have  made  me  fat. — The  Austerlitz 
campaign  had  the  same  effect.  See  a  remarkable  letter  to  Count 
Miot  de  Melito  on  January  30th,  1806  :  "The  campaign  I  have 

NOTES  247 

just  terminated,  the  movement,  the  excitement  have  made  me 
stout.  I  believe  that  if  all  the  kings  of  Europe  were  to  coalesce 
against  me  I  should  have  a  ridiculous  paunch."  And  it  was  so  ! 

The  great  M.  Napoleon,  aged  four,  and  the  younger,  aged  two, 
are  with  Hortense  and  their  grandmother  at  Mayence,  where  a 
Court  had  assembled,  including  most  of  the  wives  of  Napoleon's 
generals,  burning  for  news.  A  look-out  had  been  placed  by  the 
Empress  some  two  miles  on  the  main-road  beyond  Mayence, 
whence  sight  of  a  courier  was  signalled  in  advance. 

No.  7. 

Potsdam. — As  a  reward  for  Auerstadt,  Napoleon  orders 
Davoust  and  his  famous  Third  Corps  to  be  the  first  to  enter 
Berlin  the  following  day. 

No.  8. 

Written  from  Berlin,  where  he  is  from  October  28th  to 
November  25th. 

You  do  nothing  but  cry. — Josephine  spent  her  evenings  gauging 
futurity  with  a  card-pack,  and  although  it  announced  Jena  and 
Auerstadt  before  the  messenger,  it  may  possibly,  thinks  M. 
Masson,  have  been  less  propitious  for  the  future — and  behind  all 
was  the  sinister  portion  of  the  spae-wife's  prophecy  still  un- 

No.  QA. 

Madame  Tallien  had  been  in  her  time,  especially  in  the  years 
1795-99,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  witty  women  in  France. 
Madame  d'Abrantes  calls  her  the  Venus  of  the  Capitol ;  and 
Lucien  Bonaparte  speaks  of  the  court  of  the  voluptuous  Director, 
Barras,  where  the  beautiful  Tallien  was  the  veritable  Calypso. 
The  people,  however,  could  not  forget  her  second  husband, 
Tallien,  from  whom  she  was  divorced  in  1802  (having  had  three 
children  born  while  he  was  in  Egypt,  1798-1802);  and  whilst 
they  called  Josephine  "  Notre  Dame  des  Victoires,"  they  called 
Madame  Tallien  "  Notre  Dame  de  Septembre," 

248  NOTES 

The  latter  was,  however,  celebrated  both  for  her  beauty  and 
her  intrigues;1  and  when,  in  1799,  Bonaparte  seized  supreme 
power  the  fair  lady'2  invaded  Barras  in  his  bath  to  inform  him  of 
it ;  but  found  her  indolent  Ulysses  only  capable  of  ejaculating, 
"  What  can  be  done  ?  that  man  has  taken  us  all  in  !  "  Napoleon 
probably  remembered  this,  and  may  refer  to  her  rather  than  to 
the  Queen  of  Prussia  in  the  next  letter,  where  he  makes  severe 
strictures  on  intriguing  women.  Moreover,  Napoleon  in  his 
early  campaigns  had  played  a  ridiculous  part  in  some  of  Gillray's 
most  indecent  cartoons,  where  Mmes.  Tallien  and  Josephine  took 
with  Barras  the  leading  roles  ;  and  as  Madame  Tallien  was  not 
considered  respectable  in  1796,  she  was  hardly  a  fit  friend  for  the 
Empress  of  the  French  ten  years  later.  In  the  interval  this  lady, 
divorced  a  second  time,  had  married  the  Prince  de  Chimay 
(Caraman).  Napoleon  knew  also  that  she  had  been  the  mistress 
of  Ouvrard,  the  banker,  who  in  his  Spanish  speculations  a  few 
months  earlier  had  involved  the  Bank  of  France  to  the  tune  of 
four  millions  sterling,  and  forced  Napoleon  to  make  a  premature 
peace  after  Austerlitz.  The  Emperor  had  returned  at  white 
heat  to  Paris,  and  wished  he  could  build  a  gallows  for  Ouvrard 
high  enough  for  him  to  be  on  view  throughout  France.  Madame 
Tallien's  own  father,  M.  de  Cabarrus,  was  a  French  banker  in 
Spain,  and  probably  in  close  relation  with  Ouvrard. 

No.  10. 

Written  from  Berlin. 

The  bad  things  I  say  about  women. — Napoleon  looked  upon 
this  as  a  woman's  war,  and  his  temper  occasionally  gets  the 
mastery  of  him.  No  war  had  ever  been  so  distasteful  to  him  or 
so  personal.  Prussia,  whose  alliance  he  had  been  courting  for 
nearly  ten  years,  was  now  worthless  to  him,  and  all  because  of 
petticoat  government  at  Berlin.  In  the  Fifteenth  Bulletin  (dated 

1  Bouillet,  Dictionnaire  Universelle,  &c. 

2  "The   Queen   of  that   Court    was   the   fair    Madame   Tallien.       All   that 
imagination  can  conceive  will  scarcely  approach  the  reality ;  beautiful  after  the 
antique  fashion,   she  had  at  once   grace  and  dignity ;  without  being  endowed 
with  a  superior  wit,  she  possessed  the  art  of  making  the  best  of  it,  and  won 
people's  hearts  by  her  great  kindness." — Memoirs  of  Marmont,  vol.  i.5  p.  887. 

NOTES  249 

Wittenburg,  October  23rd)  he  states  that  the  Queen  had  accused 
her  husband  of  cowardice  in  order  to  bring  about  the  war.  But  it 
is  doubtless  the  Sixteenth  Bulletin  (dated  Potsdam,  October  25th) 
to  which  Josephine  refers,  and  which  refers  to  the  oath  of  alliance 
of  the  Emperor  Alexander  and  the  King  of  Prussia  in  the  death 
chamber  of  Frederick  the  Great.  "  It  is  from  this  moment  that 
the  Queen  quitted  the  care  of  her  domestic  concerns  and  the 
serious  occupations  of  the  toilet  in  order  to  meddle  with  the 
affairs  of  State."  He  refers  to  a  Berlin  caricature  of  the  scene 
which  was  at  the  time  in  all  the  shops,  "  exciting  even  the 
laughter  of  clodhoppers."  The  handsome  Emperor  of  Russia 
was  portrayed,  by  his  side  the  Queen,  and  on  his  other  side  the 
King  of  Prussia  with  his  hand  raised  above  the  tomb  of  the  Great 
Frederick  ;  the  Queen  herself,  draped  in  a  shawl  nearly  as  the 
London  engravings  represent  Lady  Hamilton,  pressing  her  hand 
on  her  heart,  and  apparently  gazing  upon  the  Emperor  of  Russia." 
In  the  Eighteenth  Bulletin  (October  26th)  it  is  said  the  Prussian 
people  did  not  want  war,  that  a  handful  of  women  and  young 
officers  had  alone  made  this  "  tapage,"  and  that  the  Queen,  "  for- 
merly a  timid  and  modest  woman  looking  after  her  domestic 
concerns,"  had  become  turbulent  and  warlike,  and  had  "con- 
ducted the  monarchy  within  a  few  days  to  the  brink  of  the 

As  the  Queen  of  Prussia  was  a  beautiful  woman,  she  has  had 
nearly  as  many  partisans  as  Mary  Stuart  or  Marie  Antoinette, 
but  with  far  less  cause.  Napoleon,  who  was  the  incarnation  of 
practical  common  sense,  saw  in  her  the  first  cause  of  the  war,  and 
considered  that  so  far  as  verbal  flagellation  could  punish  her,  she 
should  have  it.  He  had  neither  time  nor  sympathy  for  the 
"  Please  you,  do  not  hurt  us  "  attitude  of  a  bellicose  new  woman, 
who,  as  Imogen  or  Ida,  have  played  with  edged  tools  from  the 
time  of  Shakespeare  to  that  of  Sullivan. 

As  an  antidote,  however,  to  his  severe  words  against  women 
he  put,  perhaps  somewhat  ostentatiously,  the  Princess  d'Hatzfeld 
episode  in  his  Twenty-second  Bulletin  (Berlin,  October  29th).  A 
year  later  (November  26th,  1807),  when  his  Old  Guard  return  to 
Paris  and  free  performances  are  given  at  all  the  theatres,  there  is 
the  "  Triumph  of  Trajan  "  at  the  Opera,  where  Trajan,  burning 

2  5o  NOTES 

with  his  own  hand  the  papers  enclosing  the  secrets  of  a  conspi- 
racy, is  a  somewhat  skilful  allusion  to  the  present  episode. 

No.  n. 

Magdeburg  had  surrendered  on  November  8th,  with  20  gene- 
rals, 800  officers  and  22,000  men,  800  pieces  of  cannon,  and 
immense  stores. 

Lubeck. — This  capitulation  was  that  of  Blucher,  who  had 
escaped  after  Jena  through  a  rather  dishonourable  ruse.  It  had 
taken  three  army  corps  to  hem  him  in. 

No.  13. 

Written  from  Berlin,  but  not  included  in  the  Correspondence. 

Madame  L ,  i.e.  Madame  de  la  Rochefoucauld,  a  third  or 

fourth  cousin  (by  her  first  marriage)  of  Josephine,  and  her  chief 
lady  of  honour.  She  was  an  incorrigible  Royalist,  and  hated 
Napoleon  ;  but  as  she  had  been  useful  at  the  Tuileries  in  estab- 
lishing the  Court,  Napoleon,  as  usual,  could  not  make  up  his  mind 
to  cause  her  dismissal.  In  1806,  however,  she  made  Josephine 
miserable  and  Mayence  unbearable.  She  foretold  that  the  Prus- 
sians would  win  every  battle,  and  even  after  Jena  she  (to  use  an 
expression  of  M.  Masson),  "  continued  her  music  on  the  sly  "  (en 
sourdine}.  See  Letters  19  and  26  of  this  Series. 

No.  17. 

December  2,  the  anniversary  of  Austerlitz  (1805)  and  of 
Napoleon's  coronation  (1804).  He  now  announces  to  his  soldiers 
the  Polish  campaign. 

No.  1 8. 

Not  in  the  Correspondence. 

Jealousy. — If  Josephine's  letters  and  conduct  had  been  a  little 
more  worthy  of  her  position,  she  might  have  saved  herself. 
Madame  Walewski,  who  had  not  yet  appeared  on  the  scene. 

NOTES  251 

No.  19. 

Desir  de  femme  est  un  feu  qui  devore. — The  quotation  is  given 
in  Jung's  "  Memoirs  of  Lucien  "  (vol.  ii.  62).  "  Ce  qu'une 
femme  desire  est  un  feu  qui  consume,  celui  d'une  reine  un  vulcane 
qui  devore." 

No.  23. 

/  am  dependent  on  events. — He  says  the  same  at  St.  Helena. 
"  Throughout  my  whole  reign  I  was  the  keystone  of  an  edifice 
entirely  new,  and  resting  on  the  most  slender  foundations.  Its 
duration  depended  on  the  issue  of  my  battles.  I  was  never,  in 
truth,  master  of  my  own  movements ;  I  was  never  at  my  own 

No.  26. 

The  fair  ones  of  Great  Poland. — If  Berthier  and  other  regular 
correspondents  of  Josephine  were  like  Savary  in  their  enthusiasm, 
no  wonder  the  Mayence  coterie  began  to  stir  up  jealousy.  Here 
is  the  description  of  the  Duke  of  Rovigo  (vol.  ii.  17)  :  "The  stay 
at  Warsaw  had  for  us  something  of  witchery  ;  even  with  regard 
to  amusements  it  was  practically  the  same  life  as  at  Paris  :  the 
Emperor  had  his  concert  twice  a  week,  at  the  end  of  which  he  held 
a  reception,  where  many  of  the  leading  people  met.  A  great 
number  of  ladies  from  the  best  families  were  admired  alike  for  the 
brilliancy  of  their  beauty,  and  for  their  wonderful  amiability.  One 
may  rightly  say  that  the  Polish  ladies  inspired  with  jealousy  the 
charming  women  of  every  other  civilised  clime.  They  united,  for 
the  most  part,  to  the  manners  of  good  society  a  fund  of  informa- 
tion which  is  not  commonly  found  even  among  Frenchwomen, 
and  is  very  far  above  anything  we  see  in  towns,  where  the  custom 
of  meeting  in  public  has  become  a  necessity.  It  seemed  to  us  that 
the  Polish  ladies,  compelled  to  spend  the  greater  part  of  the  year 
in  their  country-houses,  applied  themselves  there  to  reading  as 
well  as  to  the  cultivation  of  their  talents,  and  it  was  thus  that  in 
the  chief  towns,  where  they  went  to  pass  the  winter,  they  ap- 
peared successful  over  all  their  rivals."  St.  Amand  says  :  "  In 
the  intoxication  of  their  enthusiasm  and  admiration,  the  most 
beautiful  among  them — and  Poland  is  the  country  of  beauty — 

25  2  NOTES 

lavished  on  him,  like  sirens,  their  most  seducing  smiles."  .  .  . 
Josephine  was  right  to  be  jealous,  for,  as  the  artist  Baron  Lejeune 
adds,  "  They  were,  moreover,  as  graceful  as  the  Creole  women  so 
often  are." 

A  wretched  barn,  reached  over  still  more  wretched  roads. 
The  Emperor  and  his  horse  had  nearly  been  lost  in  the  mud,  and 
Marshal  Duroc  had  a  shoulder  put  out  by  his  carriage  being  upset. 

Such  things  become  common  property. — So  was  another  event, 
much  to  Josephine's  chagrin.  On  this  date  Napoleon  heard  of  a 
son  (L£on)  born  to  him  by  Eleanore,  a  former  schoolfellow  of 
Madame  Murat.  M.  Masson  thinks  this  event  epoch-making  in 
the  life  of  Napoleon.  "  Henceforth  the  charm  is  broken,  and  the 
Emperor  assured  of  having  an  heir  of  his  own  blood." 

No.  27. 

Warsaw^  January  3. — On  his  way  from  Pultusk  on  January  I, 
he  had  received  a  Polish  ovation  at  Bronie,  where  he  first  met 
Madame  Walewski.  The  whole  story  is  well  told  by  M.  Masson 
in  Napoleon  et  les  Femmes ;  but  here  we  must  content  ourselves 
with  the  mere  facts,  and  first,  for  the  sake  of  comparison,  cite  his 
love-letters  to  the  lady  in  question  : — (i.)  "  I  have  seen  only  you, 
I  have  admired  only  you,  I  desire  only  you.  A  very  prompt 
answer  to  calm  the  impatient  ardour  of  N."  (2.)  u  Have  I  dis- 
pleased you  ?  I  have  still  the  right  to  hope  the  contrary.  Have 
I  been  mistaken  ?  Your  eagerness  diminishes,  while  mine  aug- 
ments. You  take  away  my  rest  !  Oh,  give  a  little  joy,  a  little 
happiness  to  a  poor  heart  all  ready  to  worship  you.  Is  it  so 
difficult  to  get  a  reply  ?  You  owe  me  one. — N."  (3.)  "There 
are  moments  when  too  high  rank  is  a  burden,  and  that  is  what  I 
feel.  How  can  I  satisfy  the  needs  of  a  heart  hopelessly  in  love, 
which  would  fling  itself  at  your  feet,  and  which  finds  itself  stopped 
by  the  weight  of  lofty  considerations  paralysing  the  most  lively 
desires  ?  Oh,  if  you  would  !  Only  you  could  remove  the 
obstacles  that  lie  between  us.  My  friend  Duroc  will  clear  the 
way.  Oh,  come  !  come  !  All  your  wishes  shall  be  gratified. 
Your  native  land  will  be  dearer  to  me  when  you  have  had  pity 
on  my  poor  heart. — N."  (4.)  "  Marie,  my  sweet  Marie  !  My 

NOTES  253 

first  thought  is  for  you,  my  first  desire  to  see  you  again.  You 
will  come  again,  will  you  not  ?  You  promised  me  to  do  so.  If 
not,  the  eagle  will  fly  to  you.  I  shall  see  you  at  dinner,  a  friend 
tells  me.  Deign,  then,  to  accept  this  bouquet ;  let  it  become  a 
mysterious  link  which  shall  establish  between  us  a  secret  union  in 
the  midst  of  the  crowd  surrounding  us.  Exposed  to  the  glances 
of  the  crowd,  we  shall  still  understand  each  other.  When  my 
hand  presses  my  heart,  you  will  know  that  it  is  full  of  thoughts 
of  you  ;  and  in  answer  you  will  press  closer  your  bouquet.  Love 
me,  my  bonny  Marie,  and  never  let  your  hand  leave  your  bou- 
quet.— N."  In  this  letter,  in  which  he  has  substituted  tu  for 
vow,  there  is  more  passion  than  we  have  seen  since  1796.  The 
fair  lady  now  leaves  her  decrepit  old  husband,  nearly  fifty  years 
her  senior,  and  takes  up  her  abode  in  Finckenstein  Castle,  for 
nearly  two  months  of  the  interval  between  Eylau  and  Friedland. 
"  In  order,"  says  Pasquier,  "  that  nothing  should  be  lacking  to 
characterise  the  calm  state  of  his  mind  and  the  security  of  his 
position,  it  was  soon  known  that  he  had  seen  fit  to  enjoy  a 
pleasurable  relaxation  by  calling  to  him  a  Polish  gentlewoman  of 
excellent  birth,  with  whom  he  had  contracted  a  liaison  while 
passing  through  Warsaw,  and  who,  as  a  consequence  of  this 
journey,  had  the  honour  of  bearing  him  a  son."  Repudiated  by 
her  husband,  she  came  to  Paris,  where  she  was  very  kindly  treated 
by  Josephine,  who,  having  once  seen  her,  found  in  her  no  rival, 
but  an  enthusiastic  patriot,  "sacrificed  to  Plutus,"  as  Napoleon 
told  Lucien  at  Mantua  a  few  months  later,  adding  that  "  her  soul 
was  as  beautiful  as  her  face." 

No.  28. 

Be  cheerful — gal. — This  adjective  is  a  favourite  one  in  letters 
to  his  wife,  and  dates  from  1796. 

No.  29. 

Roads  unsafe  and  detestable. — The  French  troops  used  to  say 
that  the  four  following  words  constituted  the  whole  language  of 
the  Poles  :  Kleba  ?  Niema.  Vota  ?  Sara.  ("  Some  bread  ? 
There  is  none.  Some  water  ?  We  will  go  and  fetch  it.'1) 

254  NOTES 

Napoleon  one  day  passed  by  a  column  of  infantry  suffering  the 
greatest  privations  on  account  of  the  mud,  which  prevented  the 
arrival  of  provisions.  "  Papa,  kleba  ? "  exclaimed  a  soldier. 
"  Niema,"  replied  the  Emperor.  The  whole  column  burst  into 
a  fit  of  laughter  ;  they  asked  for  nothing  more.  Baron  Lejeune, 
Constant,  and  Meneval  have  variants  of  the  same  story. 

No.  35. 

Written  from  Warsaw,  and  omitted  from  the  Correspondence. 

I  hope  that  you  are  at  Paris. — Madame  Junot  hints  that  her 
husband,  as  Governor  of  Paris,  was  being  sounded  by  Bonaparte's 
sister,  Murat's  wife  (with  whom  Junot  was  in  love),  if  he  would 
make  Murat  Napoleon's  successor,  in  lieu  of  Eugene,  if  the 
Emperor  were  killed.  If  Napoleon  had  an  inkling  of  this,  he 
would  wish  Josephine  to  be  on  the  spot. 

T. — Is  probably  Tallien,  who  had  misconducted  himself  in 
Egypt.  Madame  Junot  met  him  at  Madrid,  but  she  and  others 
had  not  forgotten  the  September  massacres.  "  The  wretch  !  how 
did  he  drag  on  his  loathsome  existence  ?  "  she  exclaims. 

No.  36. 

Paris. — Josephine  arrived  here  January  3ist;  Queen  Hortense 
going  to  the  Hague  and  the  Princess  Stephanie  to  Mannheim. 

No.  38. 

Probably  written  from  Arensdorf,  on  the  eve  of  the  battle  of 
Eylau  (February  9th),  on  which  day  a  great  ball  took  place  in 
Paris,  given  by  the  Minister  of  Marine. 

No.  39. 

Eylau. — The  battle  of  Preussich-Eylau  was  splendidly  fought 
on  both  sides,  but  the  Russian  general,  Beningsen,  had  all  the  luck. 
(i)  His  Cossacks  capture  Napoleon's  letter  to  Bernadotte,  which 
enables  him  to  escape  all  Napoleon's  plans,  which  otherwise  would 
have  destroyed  half  the  Russian  army.  (2)  A  snowstorm  in 
the  middle  of  the  day  in  the  faces  of  the  French  ruins  Augereau's 

NOTES  255 

corps  and  saves  the  Russians  from  a  total  rout.  (3)  The  arrival 
of  a  Prussian  army  corps,  under  General  Lestocq,  robbed  Davoust 
of  his  glorious  victory  on  the  right,  and  much  of  the  ground 
gained — including  the  village  of  Kuschnitten.  (4)  The  night 
came  on  just  in  time  to  save  the  rest  of  the  Russian  army,  and 
to  prevent  Ney  taking  any  decisive  part  in  the  battle.  Berna- 
dotte,  as  usual,  failed  to  march  to  the  sound  of  the  guns,  but,  as 
Napoleon's  orders  to  do  so  were  captured  by  Cossacks,  he  might 
have  had  an  excuse  rather  better  than  usual,  had  not  General 
Hautpoult,1  in  touch  both  with  him  and  Napoleon,  advised  him 
of  his  own  orders  and  an  imminent  battle.  Under  such  circum- 
stances, no  general  save  the  Prince  of  Ponte-Corvo,  says  Bignon, 
would  have  remained  inactive,  "  but  it  was  the  destiny  of  this 
marshal  to  have  a  role  apart  in  all  the  great  battles  fought  by  the 
Emperor.  His  conduct  was  at  least  strange  at  Jena,  it  will  not 
be  less  so,  in  1809,  at  Wagram."  The  forces,  according  to 
Matthieu  Dumas  (Precis  des  Evenements  Militaires,  volume  1 8), 
were  approximately  65,000  French  against  80,000  allies2 — the 
latter  in  a  strong  chosen  position.  Napoleon  saved  1500,  the 
wreckage  of  Augereau's 3  corps,  that  went  astray  in  the  blizzard 
(costing  the  French  more  than  half  their  loss  in  the  two  days' 
fight),  by  a  charge  of  his  Horse  Guard,  but  his  Foot  Guard  never 
fired  a  shot.  The  allies  lost  5000  to  6000  dead  and  20,000 
wounded.  Napoleon  told  Montholon  that  his  loss  at  Eylau  was 
18,000,  which  probably  included  2000  dead,  and  15,000  to 
16,000  wounded  and  prisoners.  As  the  French  remained  masters 
of  the  field  of  battle,  the  slightly  wounded  were  evidently  not 
counted  by  Napoleon,  who  in  his  bulletin  gives  1900  dead  and 
5700  wounded.  The  list  of  wounded  inmates  of  the  hospital  a 
month  later,  March  8th,  totalled  only  4600,  which  astonished 
Napoleon,  who  sent  back  for  a  recount.  On  receipt  of  this  he 

1  This  brave  general  was  mortally  wounded  in  the  cavalry  charge  which  saved 
the  battle,  and  the  friends  of  Bernadotte  assert  that  the  message  was  never  given 
— an  assertion  more  credible  if  the  future  king's  record  had  been  better  on  other 

2  Alison  says  75,000  allies,  85,000  French,  but  admits  allies  had  100  more 

3  Augereau,  says  Meneval,  went  out  of  his  mind  during  this  battle,  and  had  to 
be  sent  back  to  France. 

256  NOTES 

wrote  Daru  (March  15):  "  From  your  advices  to  hand,  I  see  we 
are  not  far  out  of  count.  There  were  at  the  battle  of  Eylau 
4000  or  5000  wounded,  and  1000  in  the  combats  preceding  the 

No.  40. 

Corbineau. — Mile.  d'Avrillon  (vol.  ii.  101)  tells  how,  in  haste 
to  join  his  regiment  at  Paris,  Corbineau  had  asked  for  a  seat  in 
her  carriage  from  St.  Cloud.  She  was  delighted,  as  he  was  a 
charming  man,  "  with  no  side  on  like  Lauriston  and  Lemarois." 
He  had  just  been  made  general,  and  said,  "  Either  I  will  get 
killed  or  deserve  the  favour  which  the  Emperor  has  granted  me. 
M'selle,  you  shall  hear  me  spoken  of;  if  I  am  not  killed  I  will 
perform  some  startling  deed." 

Dahlmann. — General  Nicholas  Dahlmann,  commanding  the 
chasseurs  of  the  guard,  was  killed  in  the  charge  on  the  Russian 
infantry  which  saved  the  battle.  On  April  22nd  Napoleon  wrote 
Vice-Admiral  Decres  to  have  three  frigates  put  on  the  stocks 
to  be  called  Dahlmann,  Corbineau,  and  Hautpoul,  and  in  each 
captain's  cabin  a  marble  inscription  recounting  their  brave  deeds. 

No.  41. 

Young  Tascher. — The  third  of  Josephine's  cousins-germain 
of  that  name.  He  was  afterwards  aide-de-camp  of  Prince 
Eugene,  and  later  major-domo  of  the  Empress  Eugenie. 

No.  42. 

After  this  letter  St.  Amand  declares  that  Napoleon's  letters 
to  his  wife  become  "  cold,  short,  banal,  absolutely  insignifi- 
cant." "They  consisted  of  a  few  remarks  about  the  rain 
or  the  fine  weather,  and  always  the  same  refrain — the  invitation 
to  be  cheerful  .  .  .  Napoleon,  occupied  elsewhere,  wrote  no 
longer  to  his  legitimate  wife,  but  as  a  duty,  as  paying  a  debt  of 
conscience."  He  was  occupied,  indeed,  but  barely  as  the  author 
supposes.  It  is  Bingham  (vol.  ii.  281)  who  reminds  us  that  in 
the  first  three  months  of  1807  we  have  1715  letters  and  despatches 

NOTES  257 

preserved  of  his  work  during  that  period,  while  he  often  rode  forty 
leagues  a  day,  and  had  instructed  his  librarian  to  send  him  by 
each  morning's  courier  two  or  three  new  books  from  Paris. 
Aubenas  is  more  just  than  St.  Amand.  "  If  his  style  is  no  longer 
that  of  the  First  Consul,  still  less  of  the  General  of  Italy,  he  was 
solicitous,  punctilious,  attentive,  affectionate  even  although  laconic, 
in  that  correspondence  (with  Josephine)  which,  in  the  midst  of 
his  much  greater  preoccupations,  seems  for  him  as  much  a  plea- 
sure as  a  duty." 

No.  43. 

/  am  still  at  Eylau. — It  took  Napoleon  and  his  army  eight 
days  to  bury  the  dead  and  remove  the  wounded.  Lejeune  says, 
"  His  whole  time  was  given  up  now  to  seeing  that  the  wounded 
received  proper  care,  and  he  insisted  on  the  Russians  being  as 
well  treated  as  the  French "  (vol.  i.  48).  The  Emperor  wrote 
Daru  that  if  more  surgeons  had  been  on  the  spot  he  could  have 
saved  at  least  200  lives  ;  although,  to  look  at  the  surgical  instru- 
ments used  on  these  fields,  and  now  preserved  in  the  museum  of 
Les  Invalides,  it  is  wonderful  that  the  men  survived  operations 
with  such  ghastly  implements  of  torture.  A  few  days  later 
Napoleon  tells  Daru  on  no  account  to  begrudge  money  for 
medicines,  and  especially  for  quinine. 

This  country  is  covered  with  dead  and  wounded. — "  Napoleon," 
says  Dumas  (vol.  i.  18,  41),  "having  given  order  that  the  succour 
to  the  wounded  on  both  sides  might  be  multiplied,  rode  over  the 
field  of  battle,  which  all  eye-witnesses  agree  to  have  been  the 
most  horrible  field  of  carnage  which  war  has  ever  offered.  In  a 
space  of  less  than  a  square  league,  the  ground  covered  with  snow, 
and  the  frozen  lakes,  were  heaped  up  with  10,000  dead,  and  3000 
to  4000  dead  horses,  debris  of  artillery,  arms  of  all  kinds,  cannon- 
balls,  and  shells.  Six  thousand  Russians,  expiring  of  their  wounds, 
and  of  hunger  and  thirst,  were  left  abandoned  to  the  generosity 
of  the  conqueror." 

No.  50. 

Osterode. — "A  wretched  village,  where  I  shall  pass  a  con- 
siderable time."  Owing  to  the  messenger  to  Bernadotte  being 


25  8  NOTES 

captured  by  Cossacks,  the  Emperor,  if  not  surprised  at  Eylau  on 
the  second  day,  found  at  least  all  his  own  intentions  anticipated. 
He  could  not  risk  the  same  misfortune  again,  and  at  Osterode  all 
his  army  were  within  easy  hailing  distance,  "  within  two  marches 
at  most "  (Dumas).  Savary  speaks  of  him  there,  "  working, 
eating,  giving  audience,  and  sleeping — all  in  the  same  room," 
alone  keeping  head  against  the  storm  of  his  marshals,  who  wished 
him  to  retire  across  the  Vistula.  He  remained  over  five  weeks 
at  Osterode,  and  more  than  two  months  at  Finckenstein  Castle, 
interesting  himself  in  the  affairs  of  Teheran  and  Monte  Video, 
offering  prizes  for  discoveries  in  electricity  and  medicine,  giving 
advice  as  to  the  most  scientific  modes  of  teaching  history  and 
geography,  while  objecting  to  the  creation  of  poet-laureates  or 
Caesarians  whose  exaggerated  praises  would  be  sure  to  awaken 
the  ridicule  of  the  French  people,  even  if  it  attained  its  object  of 
finding  a  place  of  emolument  for  poets.  Bignon  says  (vol.  vi. 
227)  :  "  From  Osterode  or  from  Finckenstein  he  supervised,  as 
from  Paris  or  St.  Cloud,  the  needs  of  France  ;  he  sought  means 
to  alleviate  the  hindrances  to  commerce,  discussed  the  best  ways 
to  encourage  literature  and  art,  corresponded  with  all  his  ministers, 
and  while  awaiting  the  renewal  of  the  fray,  having  a  war  of 
figures  with  his  Chancellor  of  Exchequer." 

//  is  not  as  good  as  the  great  city. — The  day  before  he  had 
written  his  brother  Joseph  that  neither  his  officers  nor  his  staff 
had  taken  their  clothes  off  for  two  months ;  that  he  had  not 
taken  his  boots  off  for  a  fortnight ;  that  the  wounded  had  to  be 
moved  120  miles  in  sledges,  in  the  open  air  ;  that  bread  was 
unprocurable  ;  that  the  Emperor  had  been  living  for  weeks  upon 
potatoes,  and  the  officers  upon  mere  meat.  "After  having 
destroyed  the  Prussian  monarchy,  we  are  fighting  against  the 
remnant  of  the  Prussians,  against  Russians,  Cossacks,  and  Kal- 
mucks, those  roving  tribes  of  the  north,  who  formerly  invaded 
the  Roman  Empire." 

/  have  ordered  what  you  wish  for  Malmaison. — About  this  time 
he  also  gave  orders  for  what  afterwards  became  the  Bourse  and 
the  Madeleine,  and  gave  hints  for  a  new  journal  (March  yth), 
whose  "criticism  should  be  enlightened,  well-intentioned,  im- 
partial, and  robbed  of  that  noxious  brutality  which  characterises 

NOTES  259 

the  discussions  of  existing  journals,  and  which  is  so  at  variance 
with  the  true  sentiments  of  the  nation." 

No.  54. 

Minerva. — In  a  letter  of  March  yth  Josephine  writes  to 
Hortense  :  "  A  few  days  ago  I  saw  a  frightful  accident  at  the 
Opera.  The  actress  who  represented  Minerva  in  the  ballet  of 
*  Ulysses '  fell  twenty  feet  and  broke  her  arm.  As  she  is  poor, 
and  has  a  family  to  support,  I  have  sent  her  fifty  louis."  This 
was  probably  the  ballet,  "The  Return  of  Ulysses,"  a  subject 
given  by  Napoleon  to  Fouche  as  a  suitable  subject  for  represen- 
tation. In  the  same  letter  Josephine  writes  :  "  All  the  private 
letters  I  have  received  agree  in  saying  that  the  Emperor  was  very 
much  exposed  at  the  battle  of  Eylau.  I  get  news  of  him  very  often, 
sometimes  two  letters  a  day,  but  that  does  not  replace  him." 
This  special  danger  at  Eylau  is  told  by  Las  Cases,  who  heard  it 
from  Bertrand.  Napoleon  was  on  foot,  with  only  a  few  officers 
of  his  staff;  a  column  of  four  to  five  thousand  Russians  came 
almost  in  contact  with  him.  Berthier  instantly  ordered  up  the 
horses.  The  Emperor  gave  him  a  reproachful  look ;  then  sent 
orders  to  a  battalion  of  his  guard  to  advance,  which  was  a  good 
way  behind,  and  standing  still.  As  the  Russians  advanced  he 
repeated  several  times,  "  What  audacity,  what  audacity ! "  At 
the  sight  of  his  Grenadiers  of  the  Guard  the  Russians  stopped 
short.  It  was  high  time  for  them  to  do  so,  as  Bertrand  said. 
The  Emperor  had  never  stirred  ;  all  who  surrounded  him  had 
been  much  alarmed. 

No.  55. 

"  It  is  the  first  and  only  time,"  says  Aubenas,  "  that,  in  these 
two  volumes  of  letters  (Collection  Didot\  Napoleon  says  vous  to 
his  wife.  But  his  vexation  does  not  last  more  than  a  few  lines, 
and  this  short  letter  ends,  '  Tout  a  toi?  Not  content  with  this 
softening,  and  convinced  how  grieved  Josephine  will  be  at  this 
language  of  cold  etiquette,  he  writes  to  her  the  same  day,  at  ten 
o'clock  at  night,  before  going  to  bed,  a  second  letter  in  his  old 

260  NOTES 

style,  which  ends,  4  Milk  et  mille  amities.'' "  It  is  a  later  letter 
(March  25th)  which  ends  as  described,  but  No.  56  is,  neverthe- 
less, a  kind  letter. 

No.  56. 

Dupuis. — Former  principal  of  the  Brienne  Military  School. 
Napoleon,  always  solicitous  for  the  happiness  of  those  whom  he 
had  known  in  his  youth,  had  made  Dupuis  his  own  librarian  at 
Malmaison.  His  brother,  who  died  in  1809,  was  the  learned 

No.  58. 

M.  de   T ,  i.e.   M.   de   Thiard.       In    Lettres    Inedites  de 

Napoleon  I.  (Brotonne),  No.  176,  to  Talleyrand,  March  22nd,  the 
Emperor  writes  :  "  I  have  had  M.  de  Thiard  effaced  from  the  list 
of  officers.  I  have  sent  him  away,  after  having  testified  all  my 
displeasure,  and  told  him  to  stay  on  his  estate.  He  is  a  man 
without  military  honour  and  civic  fidelity.  .  .  .  My  intention  is 
that  he  shall  also  be  struck  off  from  the  number  of  my  chamber- 
lains. I  have  been  poignantly  grieved  at  such  black  ingratitude, 
but  I  think  myself  fortunate  to  have  found  out  such  a  wicked 
man  in  time."  De  Thiard  seems  to  have  been  corresponding 
with  the  enemy  from  Warsaw. 

No.  60. 

Marshal  Bessieres. — His  chateau  of  Grignon,  now  destroyed, 
was  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  Provence.  Madame  de  Sevign£ 
lived  and  was  buried  in  the  town  of  Grignon. 

No.  63. 

This  was  printed  April  24th  in  the  French  editions,  but  April 
1 4th  is  evidently  the  correct  date. 

No.  67. 

"  Sweety  pouting,  and  capricious" — Aubenas  speaks  of  these 
lines  "  in  the  style  of  the  Italian  period,  which  seemed  in  fact  to 
calm  the  fears  of  the  Empress." 

NOTES  261 

No.  68. 

Madame .  His  own  sister,  Madame  Murat,  afterwards 

Queen  of  Naples.  See  note  to  Letter  35  for  her  influence  over 
Junot.  The  latter  was  severely  reprimanded  by  Napoleon  on  his 
return  and  banished  from  Paris.  "  Why,  for  example,  does  the 
Grand  Duchess  occupy  your  boxes  at  the  theatres  ?  Why  does 
she  go  thither  in  your  carriage  ?  Hey  !  M.  Junot !  you  are 
surprised  that  I  am  so  well  acquainted  with  your  affairs  and  those 
of  that  little  fool,  Madame  Murat  ?  "  ("  Memoirs  of  the  Duchess 
d'Abrantes,"  vol.  iii.  328.) 

Measles. — As  the  poor  child  was  ill  four  days,  it  was  probably 
larnygitis  from  which  he  died — an  ailment  hardly  distinguishable 
from  croup,  and  one  of  the  commonest  sequelae  of  measles.  He 
died  on  May  5th. 

The  best  account  is  the  Memoirs  of  Stanislaus  Giraudin. 
They  had  applied  leeches  to  the  child's  chest,  and  had  finally 
recourse  to  some  English  powders  of  unknown  composition,  which 
caused  a  rally,  followed  by  the  final  collapse.  King  Louis  said 
the  child's  death  was  caused  by  the  Dutch  damp  climate,  which 
was  bad  for  his  own  health.  Josephine  hastens  to  join  her 
daughter,  but  breaks  down  at  Lacken,  where  Hortense,  more 
dead  than  alive,  joins  her,  and  returns  to  Paris  with  her. 

No.  69. 

/  trust  I  may  hear  you  have  been  rational  in  your  sorrow. — As  a 
matter  of  fact  he  had  heard  the  opposite,  for  the  following  day 
(May  1 5th)  he  writes  to  his  brother  Jerome  :  "  Napoleon  died  in 
three  days  at  the  Hague  ;  I  know  not  if  the  King  has  advised 
you  of  it.  This  event  gives  me  the  more  pain  insomuch  as  his 
father  and  mother  are  not  rational,  and  are  giving  themselves  up 
to  all  the  transports  of  their  grief."  To  Fouch6  he  writes  three 
days  later  :  "  I  have  been  very  much  afflicted  by  the  misfortune 
which  has  befallen  me.  I  had  hoped  for  a  more  brilliant  destiny 
for  that  poor  child  ; "  and  on  May  2Oth,  "  I  have  felt  the  loss  of 
the  little  Napoleon  very  acutely.  I  would  have  wished  that  his 
father  and  mother  should  have  received  from  their  temperament 

262  NOTES 

as  much  courage  as  I  for  knowing  how  to  bear  all  the  ills  of 
life.  But  they  are  younger,  and  have  reflected  less  on  the  frailty 
of  our  worldly  possessions."  It  is  typical  of  Napoleon  that  the 
only  man  to  whom,  as  far  as  we  know,  he  unbosomed  his  sorrow 
should  be  one  of  his  early  friends,  even  though  that  friend  should 
be  the  false  and  faithless  Fouche,  who  requited  his  confidence 
later  by  vile  and  baseless  allegations  respecting  the  parentage  of 
this  very  child.  In  one  respect  only  did  Napoleon  resemble 
David  in  his  supposititious  sin,  which  was,  that  when  the  child  was 
dead,  he  had  neither  time  nor  temperament  to  waste  in  futile 
regrets.  As  he  said  on  another  occasion,  if  his  wife  had  died 
during  the  Austerlitz  Campaign  it  would  not  have  delayed  his 
operations  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  But  he  considers  practical  succour 
to  the  living  as  the  most  fitting  memorial  to  the  dead,  and  writes 
on  June  4th  to  De  Champagny  :  "  Twenty  years  ago  a  malady 
called  croup  showed  itself  in  the  north  of  Europe.  Some  years 
ago  it  spread  into  France.  I  require  you  to  offer  a  prize  of  £500 
(12,000  francs),  to  be  given  to  the  doctor  who  writes  the  best 
essay  on  this  malady  and  its  mode  of  treatment."  Commenting 
on  this  letter  Bignon  (vol.  vi.  p.  262)  adds,  "  It  is,  however,  for- 
tunate when,  on  the  eve  of  battles,  warlike  princes  are  pondering 
over  ways  of  preserving  the  population  of  their  states." 

No.  71. 

May  2Oth. — On  this  date  he  writes  Hortense  :  "  My  daughter, 
all  the  news  I  get  from  the  Hague  tells  me  that  you  are  not 
rational.  However  legitimate  your  .grief,  it  must  have  limits  : 
never  impair  your  health  ;  seek  distractions,  and  know  that  life 
is  strewn  with  so  many  rocks,  and  may  be  the  source  of  so  many 
miseries,  that  death  is  not  the  greatest  of  all. — Your  affectionate 
father,  NAPOLEON." 

No.  74. 

/  am  vexed  with  Hortense. — The  same  day  he  encloses  with 
this  a  letter  to  Hortense.  "  My  daughter,  you  have  not  written 
me  a  line  during  your  great  and  righteous  grief.  You  have 
forgotten  everything,  as  if  you  had  nothing  more  to  lose.  They 

NOTES  263 

say  you  care  no  longer  for  any  one,  that  you  are  callous  about 
everything  ;  I  note  the  truth  of  it  by  your  silence.  This  is  not 
well,  Hortense,  it  is  not  what  you  promised  me.  Your  son  was 
everything  for  you.  Are  your  mother  and  myself  nothing  ? 
Had  I  been  at  Malmaison  I  should  have  shared  your  grief,  but  I 
should  have  wished  you  at  the  same  time  to  turn  to  your  best 
friends.  Good-bye,  my  daughter,  be  cheerful ;  it  is  necessary  to 
be  resigned  ;  keep  well,  in  order  to  fulfil  all  your  duties.  My 
wife  is  utterly  miserable  about  your  condition  ;  do  not  increase 
her  sorrow. — Your  affectionate  father,  NAPOLEON." 

Hortense  had  been  on  such  bad  terms  with  her  husband  for 
several  months  past  that  Napoleon  evidently  thinks  it  wiser  not 
to  allude  to  him,  although  he  had  written  Louis  a  very  strong 
letter  on  his  treatment  of  his  wife  two  months  earlier  (see  letter 
12,294  of  the  Correspondence,  April  4th).  There  is,  however,  a 
temporary  reunion  between  husband  and  wife  in  their  common 

No.  78. 

Fried/and. — On  this  day  he  wrote  a  further  letter  to  the 
Queen  of  Holland  (No.  12,761  of  the  Correspondence):  "My 
daughter,  I  have  your  letter  dated  Orleans.  Your  grief  pains  me, 
but  I  should  like  you  to  possess  more  courage ;  to  live  is  to 
suffer,  and  the  true  man  is  always  fighting  for  mastery  over  him- 
self. I  do  not  like  to  see  you  unjust  towards  the  little  Napoleon 
Louis,  and  towards  all  your  friends.  Your  mother  and  I  had 
hoped  to  be  more  to  you  than  we  are."  She  had  been  sent  to 
take  the  waters  of  Cauterets,  and  had  left  her  child  Napoleon 
Louis  (who  died  at  Forli,  1831)  with  Josephine,  who  writes 
to  her  daughter  (June  nth) :  "He  amuses  me  much  ;  he  is  so 
gentle.  I  find  he  has  all  the  ways  of  that  poor  child  that  we 
mourn."  And  a  few  days  later  :  "  There  remains  to  you  a 
husband,  an  interesting  child,  and  a  mother  whose  love  you 
know."  Josephine  had  with  women  the  same  tact  that  her 
husband  had  with  men,  but  the  Bonaparte  family,  with  all  its 
good  qualities,  strained  the  tact  and  tempers  of  both  to  the 

264  NOTES 

No.  79. 

Tilsit. — Referring  to  Napoleon  and  Alexander  at  Tilsit, 
Michaud  says  :  "  Both  full  of  wiles  and  devices,  they  affected 
nevertheless  the  most  perfect  sentiments  of  generosity,  which  at 
the  bottom  they  scarcely  dreamed  of  practising.  Reunited,  they 
were  the  masters  of  the  world,  but  such  a  union  seemed  impos- 
sible ;  they  would  rather  share  it  among  themselves.  Allies  and 
rivals,  friends  and  enemies,  all  were  sacrificed  ;  henceforth  there 
were  to  be  only  two  powers,  that  of  the  East  and  that  of  the 
West.  Bonaparte  at  this  time  actually  ruled  from  the  Niemen 
to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  from  the  North  Sea  to  the  base  of  the 
Italian  Peninsula." 


No.  i. 

Milan. — Magnificent  public  works  were  set  on  foot  by 
Napoleon  at  Milan,  and  the  Cathedral  daily  adorned  with 
fresh  marvels  of  sculpture.  Arriving  here  on  the  morning  of 
the  22nd,  Napoleon  goes  first  to  hear  the  Te  Deum  at  the 
Cathedral,  then  to  see  Eugene's  wife  at  the  Monza  Palace  ;  in 
the  evening  to  the  La  Scala  Theatre,  and  finishes  the  day  (to 
use  an  Irishism)  by  working  most  of  the  night. 

Mont  Cents. — "The  roads  of  the  Simplon  and  Mont  Cenis 
were  kept  in  the  finest  order,  and  daily  attracted  fresh  crowds  of 
strangers  to  the  Italian  plains."  So  says  Alison,  but  on  the 
present  occasion  Napoleon  was  overtaken  by  a  storm  which  put 
his  life  in  danger.  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  reach  a  cave  in 
which  he  took  refuge.  This  cave  appeared  to  him,  as  he  after- 
wards said,  "  a  cave  of  diamonds  "  (Meneval). 

Eugene. — The  writer  in  Biog.  Univ.  (art.  Josephine)  says  : 
"  During  a  journey  that  Napoleon  made  in  Italy  (November 
1807)  he  wished,  while  loading  Eugene  with  favours,  to  prepare 
his  mind  for  his  mother's  divorce.  The  Decree  of  Milan,  by 
which,  in  default  of  male  and  legitimate  children1  of  the  direct 

1  The  Decree  itself  says  "  nos  enfants  et  descendants  males,  legitimes  et 

NOTES  265 

line,  he  adopted  Eugene  for  his  son  and  his  successor  to  the 
throne  of  Italy,  gave  to  those  who  knew  how  to  read  the  secret 
thoughts  of  the  Emperor  in  his  patent  acts  the  proof  that  he  had 
excluded  him  from  all  inheritance  in  the  Imperial  Crown  of 
France,  and  that  he  dreamed  seriously  of  a  new  alliance  himself." 

No.  2. 

Venice. — The  Venetians  gave  Napoleon  a  wonderful  ovation 
— many  nobles  spending  a  year's  income  on  the  f§tes.  "  Innum- 
erable gondolas  glittering  with  a  thousand  colours  and  resounding 
with  the  harmony  of  instruments,  escorted  the  barges  which  bore, 
together  with  the  master  of  the  world,  the  Viceroy  and  the 
Vice-Queen  of  Italy,  the  King  and  Queen  of  Bavaria,  the 
Princess  of  Lucca,  the  King  of  Naples  (Joseph,  who  stayed  six 
days  with  his  brother),  the  Grand  Duke  of  Berg,  the  Prince  of 
Neufchatel,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  generals  of  the  old  army 
of  Italy"  (Thiers).  While  at  Venice  Napoleon  was  in  easy 
touch  with  the  Porte,  of  which  he  doubtless  made  full  use,  while, 
per  contra^  he  was  expected  to  give  Greece  her  independence. 

November  ^oth. — Leaving  Milan,  Napoleon  came  straight 
through  Brescia  to  Verona,  where  he  supped  with  the  King  and 
Queen  of  Bavaria.  The  next  morning  he  started  for  Vicenza 
through  avenues  of  vine-encircled  poplars  and  broad  yellow 
wheat-fields  which  "lay  all  golden  in  the  sunlight  and  the 
breeze "  (Constant).  The  Emperor  went  to  the  theatre  at 
Vicenza,  and  left  again  at  2  A.M.  Spending  the  night  at  Stra, 
he  met  the  Venetian  authorities  early  the  next  morning  at 

No.  3. 

Udine. — He  is  here  on  the  I2th,  and  then  hastens  to  meet 
his  brother  Lucien  at  Mantua — the  main  but  secret  object  of  his 
journey  to  Italy.  It  is  most  difficult  to  gauge  the  details — was  it 
a  political  or  a  conjugal  question  that  made  the  interview  a 
failure  ?  Madame  D'Abrantes,  voicing  the  rumours  of  the  day, 
thinks  the  former  ;  Lucien,  writing  Memoirs  for  his  wife  and  chil- 
dren, declares  it  to  be  the  latter.  Napoleon  was  prepared  to  legalise 

266  NOTES 

the  children  of  his  first  wife,  and  marry  the  eldest  to  Prince 
Ferdinand,  the  heir  to  the  Spanish  crown  ;  but  Lucien  considers 
the  Bourbons  to  be  enemies  of  France  and  of  the  Bonapartes. 
These  Memoirs  of  Lucien  are  not  perhaps  very  trustworthy, 
especially  where  his  prejudices  overlap  his  memory  or  his  judg- 
ment, but  always  instructive  and  very  readable.  When  the 
account  of  this  interview  was  written  (early  in  1812),  Lucien 
was  an  English  prisoner,  furious  that  his  brother  has  just  refused 
to  exchange  him  for  "some  English  Lords."  Speaking  of 
Josephine,  the  Emperor  tells  him  that  in  spite  of  her  reputation 
for  good-nature,  she  is  more  malicious  than  generally  supposed, 
although  for  her  husband  "  she  has  no  nails "  ;  but  he  adds  that 
rumours  of  impending  divorce  have  made  life  between  them  very 
constrained.  "  Only  imagine,"  continued  the  Emperor,  "  that 
wife  of  mine  weeps  every  time  she  has  indigestion,  because  she 
says  she  thinks  herself  poisoned  by  those  who  wish  me  to  marry 
some  one  else.  It  is  perfectly  hateful."  He  said  that  Joseph 
also  thought  of  a  divorce,  as  his  wife  gave  him  only  daughters, 
and  that  the  three  brothers  might  be  remarried  on  the  same  day. 
The  Emperor  regretted  not  having  taken  the  Princess  Augusta, 
daughter  of  his  "  best  friend,  the  King  of  Bavaria,"  for  himself, 
instead  of  for  Eugene,  who  did  not  know  how  to  appreciate  her 
and  was  unfaithful.  He  was  convinced  that  Russia  by  invading 
India  would  overthrow  England,  and  that  his  own  soldiers  were 
ready  to  follow  him  to  the  antipodes.  He  ends  by  offering 
Lucien  his  choice  of  thrones — Naples,  Italy,  "the  brightest  jewel 
of  my  Imperial  crown,"  or  Spain l  (Madame  D'Abrantes  adds 
Prussia),  if  he  will  give  way  about  Madame  Jouberthon  and  her 
children.  "Tout  pour  Lucien  divorce,  rien  pour  Lucien  sans 
divorce."  When  Napoleon  finds  his  brother  obdurate  he  makes 
Eugene  Prince  of  Venice,  and  his  eldest  daughter  Princess  of 
Bologna,  with  a  large  appanage.  Lucien  is  in  fresh  disgrace 
within  less  than  three  months  of  the  Mantuan  interview,  for  on 
March  n,  1808,  Napoleon  writes  brother  Joseph,  "Lucien  is 
misconducting  himself  at  Rome  .  .  .  and  is  more  Roman  than 

1  On  October  llth  Prince  Ferdinand  had  written  Napoleon  for  "  the  honour 
of  allying  himself  to  a  Princess  of  his  august  family  "  ;  and  Lucien's  eldest  daughter 
was  Napoleon's  only  choice. 

NOTES  267 

the  Pope  himself.  His  conduct  has  been  scandalous ;  he  is  my 
open  enemy,  and  that  of  France.  ...  I  will  not  permit  a 
Frenchman,  and  one  of  my  own  brothers,  to  be  the  first  to 
conspire  and  act  against  me,  with  a  rabble  of  priests." 

/  may  soon  be  in  Paris. — After  leaving  Milan  he  visits  the 
fortifications  at  Alessandria,  and  is  met  by  a  torchlight  procession 
at  Marengo.  Letters  for  two  days  (December  27-28th)  are 
dated  Turin,  although  Constant  says  he  did  not  stop  there. 
Crossing  Mont  Cenis  on  December  3Oth  he  reaches  the  Tuileries 
on  the  evening  of  New  Year's  Day  (1808). 


No.  i. 

Bayonne  is  half-way  between  Paris  and  Madrid,  nearly  600 
miles  from  each.  Napoleon  arrived  here  April  I5th,  and  left 
July  2ist,  returning  with  Josephine  via  Pau,  Tarbes,  Auch, 
Montauban,  Agen,  Bordeaux,  Rochefort,  Nantes.  Everywhere 
he  received  a  hearty  welcome,  even,  and  especially,  in  La 
Vendee.  He  arrives  at  Paris  August  I4th,  hearing  on  August  3rd 
at  Bordeaux  of  (what  he  calls)  the  "  horrible  catastrophe "  of 
General  Dupont  at  Baylen. 

No.  2. 

A  country-house. — The  Chateau  of  Marrac.  Marbot  had  stayed 
there  in  1803  with  Augereau.  Bausset  informs  us  that  this 
chateau  had  been  built  either  for  the  Infanta  Marie  Victoire 
engaged  to  Louis  XV.,  or  for  the  Dowager  Queen  of  Charles  II., 
"the  bewitched,"  when  she  was  packed  off  from  Madrid  to 
Bayonne  (see  Hume's  Spain,  1479-1788). 

Everything  is  still  most  primitive. — Nevertheless  he  enjoyed  the 
parnperruque  which  was  danced  before  the  chateau  by  seven  men 
and  ten  maidens,  gaily  dressed — the  women  armed  with  tam- 
bourines and  the  men  with  castanets.  Saint-Amand  speaks  of 
thirteen  performers  (seven  men  and  six  maidens)  chosen  from 

268  NOTES 

the  leading  families  of  the  town,  to  render  what  for  time  im- 
memorial had  been  considered  fit  homage  for  the  most  illustrious 

No.  3. 

Prince  of  the  Asturias. — The  Emperor  had  received  him  at  the 
chateau  of  Marrac,  paid  him  all  the  honours  due  to  royalty,  while 
evading  the  word  "  Majesty,"  and  insisting  the  same  day  on  his 
giving  up  all  claim  to  the  Crown  of  Spain.  Constant  says  he 
was  heavy  of  gait,  and  rarely  spoke. 

The  Queen. — A  woman  of  violent  passions.  The  Prince  of 
the  Asturias  had  designs  on  his  mother's  life,  while  the  Queen 
openly  begged  Napoleon  to  put  the  Prince  to  death.  On  May  gth 
Napoleon  writes  Talleyrand  to  prepare  to  take  charge  of  Ferdi- 
nand at  Valencay,  adding  that  if  the  latter  were  "to  become 
attached  to  some  pretty  woman,  whom  we  are  sure  of,  it  would 
be  no  disadvantage."  A  new  experience  for  a  Montmorency 
to  become  the  keeper  of  a  Bourbon,  rather  than  his  Constable. 
Pasquier,  with  his  usual  Malvolian  decorum,  gives  fuller  details. 
Napoleon,  he  says,  "enumerates  with  care  (to  Talleyrand)  all 
the  precautions  that  are  to  be  taken  to  prevent  his  escape,  and 
even  goes  so  far  as  to  busy  himself  with  the  distractions  which 
may  be  permitted  him.  And,  be  it  noted,  the  principal  one 
thrown  in  his  way  was  given  him  by  a  young  person  who  lived 
at  the  time  under  M.  De  Talleyrand's  roof.  This  liaison,  of 
which  Ferdinand  soon  became  distrustful,  did  not  last  as  long 
as  it  was  desired  to." 

No.  4. 

A  son  has  been  born. — By  a  plebiscite  of  the  year  XII.  (1804-5), 
the  children  of  Louis  and  Hortense  were  to  be  the  heirs  of 
Napoleon,  and  in  conformity  with  this  the  child  born  on  April  aoth 
at  1 7  Rue  Lafitte  (now  the  residence  of  the  Turkish  Ambassador), 
was  inscribed  on  the  register  of  the  Civil  List  destined  for  princes 
of  the  blood.  His  two  elder  brothers  had  not  been  so  honoured, 
but  in  due  course  the  King  of  Rome  was  entered  thereon.  Had 
Louis  accepted  the  Crown  of  Spain  which  Napoleon  had  in  vain 

NOTES  269 

offered  to  him,  and  of  which  Hortense  would  have  made  an  ideal 
Queen,  the  chances  are  that  Napoleon  would  never  have  divorced 
Josephine.  St.  Amand  shows  at  length  that  the  future 
Napoleon  III.  is  truly  the  child  of  Louis,  and  neither  of  Admiral 
Verhuell  nor  of  the  Duke  Decazes.  Louis  and  Hortense  in  the 
present  case  are  sufficiently  agreed  to  insist  that  the  father's  name 
be  preserved  by  the  child,  who  is  called  Charles  Louis  Napoleon, 
and  not  Charles  Napoleon,  which  was  the  Emperor's  first  choice. 
In  either  case  the  name  of  the  croup-stricken  firstborn  had 
been  preserved.  On  April  23rd  Josephine  had  already  two 
letters  from  Cambac£res  respecting  mother  and  child,  and  on  this 
day  the  Empress  writes  her  daughter  :  "  I  know  that  Napoleon 
is  consoled  for  not  having  a  sister." 

Arrive  on  the  2Jth. — Josephine,  always  wishful  to  humour  her 
husband's  love  of  punctuality,  duly  arrived  on  the  day  fixed,  and 
took  up  her  abode  with  her  husband  in  the  chateau  of  Marrac. 
Ferdinand  wrote  to  his  uncle  in  Madrid  to  beware  of  the  cursed 
Frenchmen,  telling  him  also  that  Josephine  had  been  badly  re- 
ceived at  Bayonne.  The  letter  was  intercepted,  and  Napoleon 
wrote  Murat  that  the  writer  was  a  liar,  a  fool,  and  a  hypocrite. 
The  Emperor,  in  fact,  never  trusted  the  Prince  henceforward. 
Bausset,  who  translated  the  letter,  tells  how  the  Emperor  could 
scarcely  believe  that  the  Prince  would  use  so  strong  an  adjective, 
but  was  convinced  on  seeing  the  word  ma/dittos,  which  he 
remarked  was  almost  the  Italian — maledetto. 


Leaving  St.  Cloud  September  22nd,  Napoleon  is  at  Metz 
on  the  23rd,  at  Kaiserlautern  on  the  24th,  where  he  sends  a 
message  to  the  Empress  in  a  letter  to  Cambace'res,  and  on  the 
2yth  is  at  Erfurt  On  the  28th  the  Emperors  of  France  and 
Russia  sign  a  Convention  of  Alliance.  Napoleon  leaves  Erfurt 
October  I4th  (the  anniversary  of  Jena),  travels  incognito,  and 
arrives  St.  Cloud  October  i8th. 

270  NOTES 

No.   i. 

/  have  rather  a  cold. — Napoleon  had  insisted  on  going  to  ex- 
plore a  new  road  he  had  ordered  between  Metz  and  Mayence, 
and  which  no  one  had  ventured  to  say  was  not  complete.  The 
road  was  so  bad  that  the  carriage  of  the  maitre  des  requetes, 
who  had  been  summoned  to  account  for  the  faulty  work,  was 
precipitated  a  hundred  feet  down  a  ravine  near  Kaiserlautern. 

/  am  pleased  with  the  Emperor  and  every  one  here. — Which  in- 
cluded what  he  had  promised  Talma  for  his  audience — a  parterre 
of  kings.  Besides  the  two  Emperors,  the  King  of  Prussia  was 
represented  by  his  brother  Prince  William,  Austria  by  General 
Vincent,  and  there  were  also  the  Kings  of  Saxony,  Bavaria, 
Wurtemberg,  Westphalia,  and  Naples,  the  Prince  Primate,  the 
Princes  of  Anhalt,  Coburg,  Saxe-Weimar,  Darmstadt,  Baden, 
and  Nassau.  Talleyrand,  Champagny,  Maret,  Duroc,  Berthier, 
and  Caulaincourt,  with  Generals  Oudinot,  Soult,  and  Lauriston 
accompanied  Napoleon.  Literature  was  represented  by  Goethe, 
Wieland,  Miiller  ;  and  feminine  attractions  by  the  Duchess  of 
Saxe-Weimar  and  the  wily  Princess  of  Tour  and  Taxis,  sister 
of  the  Queen  of  Prussia.  Pasquier  and  others  have  proved  that 
at  Erfurt  Talleyrand  did  far  more  harm  than  good  to  his  master's 
cause,  and  in  fact  intended  to  do  so.  On  his  arrival  he  spent 
his  first  evening  with  the  Princess  of  Tour  and  Taxis,  in  order 
to  meet  the  Emperor  Alexander,  and  said  :  "  Sire  ...  It  is 
for  you  to  save  Europe,  and  the  only  way  of  attaining  this  object 
is  by  resisting  Napoleon.  The  French  people  are  civilised,  their 
Emperor  is  not :  the  sovereign  of  Russia  is  civilised,  his  people 
are  not.  It  is  therefore  for  the  sovereign  of  Russia  to  be  the 
ally  of  the  French  people," — of  whom  Talleyrand  declared 
himself  to  be  the  representative.  By  squaring  Alexander  this 
transcendental  (unfrocked)  Vicar  of  Bray,  "  with  an  oar  in  every 
boat,"  is  once  more  hedging,  or,  to  use  his  own  phrase,  guar- 
anteeing the  future,  and  at  the  same  time  securing  the  daughter 
of  the  Duchess  of  Courland  for  his  nephew,  Edmond  de  Perigord. 
"  The  Arch-apostate "  carried  his  treason  so  far  as  to  advise 
Alexander  of  Napoleon's  ulterior  views,  and  thus  enabled  the  former 
to  forestall  them — no  easy  matter  in  conversations  with  Napoleon 

NOTES  271 

"  lasting  whole  days  "  (see  Letter  No.  3,  this  Series).  Talleyrand 
had  also  a  grievance.  He  had  been  replaced  as  Foreign  Minister 
by  Champagny.  He  had  accepted  the  surrender  of  his  portfolio 
gladly,  as  now,  becoming  Vice-Grand  Elector,  he  ranked  with 
Cambaceres  and  Maret.  But  when  he  found  that  Napoleon, 
who  liked  to  have  credit  for  his  own  diplomacy,  seldom  consulted 
him,  or  allowed  Champagny  to  do  so,  jealousy  and  ill-will  naturally 

No.  2. 

Shooting  over  the  battlefield  of  Jena. — The  presence  of  the 
Emperor  Alexander  on  this  occasion  was  considered  a  great 
affront  to  his  recent  ally,  the  King  of  Prussia,  and  is  severely 
commented  on  by  Von  Moltke  in  one  of  his  Essays.  In  fairness 
to  Alexander,  we  must  remember  that  their  host,  the  Duke  of 
Saxe-Weimar,  had  married  his  sister.  Von  Moltke,  by  the  way, 
speaks  of  hares  forming  the  sport  in  question,  but  Savary  of  a 
second  battle  of  Jena  fought  against  the  partridges.  The  fact 
seems  to  be  that  all  kinds  of  game,  including  stags  and  deer,  were 
driven  by  the  beaters  to  the  royal  sportsmen  in  their  huts,  and 
the  Emperor  Alexander,  albeit  short-sighted,  succeeded  in  killing 
a  stag,  at  eight  feet  distance,  at  the  first  shot. 

The  Weimar  ball. — This  followed  the  Jena  shoot,  and  the 
dancing  lasted  all  night.  The  Russian  courtiers  were  scandalised 
at  their  Emperor  dancing,  but  while  he  was  present  the  dancing 
was  conventional  enough,  consisting  of  promenading  two  and  two 
to  the  strains  of  a  Polish  march.  "  Imperial  Waltz,  imported 
from  the  Rhine,"  was  already  the  rage  in  Germany,  and  Napoleon, 
in  order  to  be  more  worthy  of  his  Austrian  princess,  tried  next 
year  to  master  this  new  science  of  tactics,  but  after  a  trial  with  the 
Princess  Stephanie,  the  lady  declared  that  her  pupil  should  always 
give  lessons,  and  never  receive  them.  He  was  rather  more  success- 
ful at  billiards,  pursued  under  the  same  praiseworthy  incentive. 

A  few  trifling  ailments. — Mainly  a  fearful  nightmare  ;  a  new 
experience,  in  which  he  imagines  his  vitals  torn  out  by  a  bear. 
"  Significant  of  much  ! "  As  when  also  the  Russian  Emperor 
finds  himself  without  a  sword  and  accepts  that  of  Napoleon  as 

272  NOTES 

a  gift :  and  when,  on  the  last  night,  the  latter  orders  his 
comedians  to  play  "  Bajazet," — little  thinking  the  appointed 
Tamerlane  was  by  his  side. 

No.  3. 

/  am  pleased  with  Alexander. — For  the  time  being  Josephine 
had  most  reason  to  be  pleased  with  Alexander,  who  failed  to 
secure  his  sister's  hand  for  Napoleon. 

He  ought  to  be  with  me.  —  He  might  have  been,  had  not 
Napoleon  purposely  evaded  the  Eastern  Question.  On  this  sub- 
ject Savary  writes  (vol.  ii.  297)  : — "  Since  Tilsit,  Napoleon  had 
sounded  the  personal  views  of  his  ambassador  at  Constantinople, 
General  Sebastiani,  as  to  this  proposition  of  the  Emperor  of 
Russia  (i.e.  the  partition  of  Turkey).  This  ambassador  was 
utterly  opposed  to  this  project,  and  in  a  long  report  that  he 
sent  to  the  Emperor  on  his  return  from  Constantinople,  he 
demonstrated  to  him  that  it  was  absolutely  necessary  for 
France  never  to  consent  to  the  dismemberment  of  the  Turkish 
Empire ;  the  Emperor  Napoleon  adopted  his  views."  And 
these  Talleyrand  knew.  The  whirligig  of  time  brings  about 
its  revenges,  and  in  less  than  fifty  years  Lord  Palmerston 
had  to  seek  an  alliance  with  France  and  the  house  of  Napoleon 
in  order  to  maintain  the  fixed  policy  that  sent  Napoleon  I.  to 
Moscow  and  to  St.  Helena.  "  Alexander,  with  justice,"  says 
Alison,  "looked  upon  Constantinople  as  the  back-door  of  his 
empire,  and  was  earnest  that  its  key  should  be  placed  in  his 
hands."  "  Alexander,"  Napoleon  told  O'Meara,  "  wanted  to 
get  Constantinople,  which  I  would  not  allow,  as  it  would 
have  destroyed  the  equilibrium  of  power  in  Europe.  I  reflected 
that  France  would  gain  Egypt,  Syria,  and  the  islands,  which 
would  have  been  nothing  in  comparison  with  what  Russia  would 
have  obtained.  I  considered  that  the  barbarians  of  the  north 
were  already  too  powerful,  and  probably  in  the  course  of  time 
would  overwhelm  all  Europe,  as  I  now  think  they  will.  Austria 
already  trembles  :  Russia  and  Prussia  united,  Austria  falls,  and 
England  cannot  prevent  it." 

NOTES  273 

Erfurt  is  the  meridian  of  Napoleon's  first  thirteen  years 
(1796-1808) — each  more  glorious;  henceforward  (1809-1821) 
ever  faster  he  "  rolls,  darkling,  down  the  torrent  of  his  fate." 


No.  5. 
Written  from  Aranda. 

No.  6. 

Written  from  the  Imperial  Camp  outside  Madrid.  Neither 
Napoleon l  nor  Joseph  entered  the  capital,  but  King  Joseph  took 
up  his  abode  at  the  Prado,  the  castle  of  the  Kings  of  Spain,  two 
miles  away ;  while  the  Emperor  was  generally  at  Chamartin, 
some  five  miles  distant.  He  had  arrived  on  the  heights  surround- 
ing Madrid  on  his  Coronation  Day  (December  2nd),  and  does 
not  fail  to  remind  his  soldiers  and  his  people  of  this  auspicious 
coincidence.  The  bulletin  concludes  with  a  tirade  against 
England,  whose  conduct  is  "  shameful,"  but  her  troops  "  well 
disciplined  and  superb."  It  declares  that  Spain  has  been  treated 
by  them  as  they  have  treated  Holland,  Sardinia,  Austria,  Russia, 
and  Sweden.  "  They  foment  war  everywhere  ;  they  distribute 
weapons  like  poison  ;  but  they  shed  their  blood  only  for  their 
direct  and  personal  interests." 

Parisian  weather  of  the  last  fortnight  in  May. — In  his  bulletin  of 
the  1 3th,  he  says  :  "  Never  has  such  a  month  of  December  been 
known  in  this  country  ;  one  would  think  it  the  beginning  of 
spring."  But  ten  days  later  all  was  changed,  and  the  storm  of 
Guadarrama  undoubtedly  saved  Moore  and  the  English  army. 
"  Was  it  then  decreed,"  groans  Thiers,  "  that  we,  who  were 
always  successful  against  combined  Europe,  should  on  no  single 
occasion  prevail  against  those  implacable  foes  ? " 

1  Napoleon  visited  Madrid  and  its  Palais  Royal  incognito,  and  (like  Vienna) 
by  night  (Bausset). 


274  NOTES 

No.  8. 

Other  letters  of  this  date  are  headed  Madrid. 

Kourakin. — Alexander  Kourakin  was  the  new  Russian  Am- 
bassador at  Paris,  removed  thence  from  Vienna  to  please  Napoleon, 
and  to  replace  Tolstoi,  who,  according  to  Savary,  was  always 
quarrelling  with  French  officers  on  military  points,  but  who  could 
hardly  be  so  narrow-minded  a  novice  on  these  points  as  his  name- 
sake of  to-day.  This  matter  had  been  arranged  at  Erfurt. 

No.  9. 

The  English  appear  to  have  received  reinforcements. — Imagine  a 
Transvaal  with  a  population  of  ten  millions,  and  one  has  a  fair 
idea  of  the  French  difficulties  in  Spain,  even  without  Portugal. 
The  Spaniards  could  not  fight  a  scientific  battle  like  Jena  or 
Friedland,  but  they  were  incomparable  at  guerilla  warfare.  The 
Memoirs  of  Barons  Marbot  and  Lejeune  have  well  demonstrated 
this.  The  latter,  an  accomplished  linguist,  sent  to  locate  Moore's 
army,  found  that  to  pass  as  an  Englishman  the  magic  words 
"  Damn  it,"  won  him  complete  success. 

No.  10. 

Benavente. — Here  they  found  600  horses,  which  had  been 
hamstrung  by  the  English. 

The  English  flee  panic-stricken. — The  next  day  Napoleon  writes 
Fouch6  to  have  songs  written,  and  caricatures  made  of  them, 
which  are  also  to  be  translated  into  German  and  Italian,  and 
circulated  in  Germany  and  Italy. 

The  weather  is  very  bad. — Including  1 8  degrees  of  frost. 
Savary  says  they  had  never  felt  the  cold  so  severe  in  Poland — 
and  that  they  ran  a  risk  of  being  buried  in  the  snow.  The 
Emperor  had  to  march  on  foot  and  was  very  much  tired.  "  On 
these  occasions,"  adds  Savary,  "the  Emperor  was  not  selfish,  as 
people  would  have  us  believe  ...  he  shared  his  supper x  and  his 
fire  with  all  who  accompanied  him  :  he  went  so  far  as  to  make 
1  With  Lejeune  on  one  occasion. 

NOTES  275 

those  eat  whom  he  saw  in  need  of  it."  Napier  gives  other  details  : 
"  Napoleon,  on  December  22nd,  has  50,000  men  at  the  foot  of 
the  Guadarrama.  A  deep  snow  choked  the  passes  of  the  Sierra, 
and  after  twelve  hours'  toil  the  advanced  guards  were  still  on 
the  wrong  side  :  the  general  commanding  reported  the  road  im- 
practicable, but  Napoleon,  dismounting,  placed  himself  at  the 
head  of  the  column,  and  amidst  storms  of  hail  and  driving  snow, 
led  his  soldiers  over  the  mountain."  At  the  passage  of  the  Esla 
Moore  escapes  Napoleon  by  twelve  hours.  Marbot,  as  usual, 
gives  picturesque  details.  Officers  and  men  marched  with  locked 
arms,  the  Emperor  between  Lannes  and  Duroc.  Half-way  up, 
the  marshals  and  generals,  who  wore  jack-boots,  could  go  no 
further.  Napoleon,  however,  got  hoisted  on  to  a  gun,  and 
bestrode  it :  the  marshals  and  generals  did  the  same,  and  in  this 
grotesque  order  they  reached,  after  four  hours'  toil,  the  convent 
at  the  summit. 

Lefebvre. — As  they  neared  Benavente  the  slush  became  fright- 
ful, and  the  artillery  could  not  keep  pace.  General  Lefebvre- 
Desnouette  went  forward,  with  the  horse  regiment  of  the  Guard, 
forded  the  Esla  with  four  squadrons,  was  outnumbered  by  the 
English  (3000  to  300),  but  he  and  sixty  (Lejeune,  who  escaped, 
says  a  hundred)  of  his  chasseurs  were  captured.  He  was  brought 
in  great  triumph  to  Sir  John  Moore.  "That  general,"  says 
Thiers,  "  possessed  the  courtesy  characteristic  of  all  great  nations  ; 
he  received  with  the  greatest  respect  the  brilliant  general  who 
commanded  Napoleon's  light  cavalry,  seated  him  at  his  table,  and 
presented  him  with  a  magnificent  Indian  sabre." 

No.  ii. 

Probably  written  from  Astorga,  where  he  arrived  on  January 
ist,  having  brought  50,000  men  two  hundred  miles  in  ten  days. 

Tour  letters. — These  probably,  and  others  received  by  a  courier, 
decided  him  to  let  Soult  follow  the  English  to  Corunna — especi- 
ally as  he  knew  that  transports  were  awaiting  the  enemy  there. 
He  himself  prepares  to  return,  for  Fouch£  and  Talleyrand  are 
in  league,  the  slim  and  slippery  Metternich  is  ambassador  at  Paris, 
Austria  is  arming,  and  the  whole  political  horizon,  apparently 

276  NOTES 

bright  at  Erfurt,  completely  overcast.  Murat,  balked  of  the 
Crown  of  Spain,  is  now  hoping  for  that  of  France  if  Napoleon 
is  killed  or  assassinated.  It  is  Talleyrand  and  Fouch6  who  have 
decided  on  Murat,  and  on  the  ultimate  overthrow  of  the  Beau- 
harnais.  Unfortunately  for  their  plans  Eugene  is  apprised  by 
Lavalette,  and  an  incriminating  letter  to  Murat  captured  and 
sent  post-haste  to  Napoleon.  This,  says  Pasquier,  undoubtedly 
hastened  the  Emperor's  return.  Ignoring  the  complicity  of 
Fouche,  the  whole  weight  of  his  anger  falls  on  Talleyrand,  who 
loses  the  post  of  High  Chamberlain,  which  he  had  enjoyed  since 
1804.  For  half-an-hour  this  "arch-apostate,"  as  Lord  Rosebery 
calls  him,  receives  a  torrent  of  invectives.  "  You  are  a  thief,  a 
coward,  a  man  without  honour  ;  you  do  not  believe  in  God  ;  you 
have  all  your  life  been  a  traitor  to  your  duties  ;  you  have  deceived 
and  betrayed  everybody  :  nothing  is  sacred  to  you  ;  you  would 
sell  your  own  father.  I  have  loaded  you  down  with  gifts,  and 
there  is  nothing  that  you  would  not  undertake  against  me.  Thus, 
for  the  past  ten  months,  you  have  been  shameless  enough,  because 
you  supposed,  rightly  or  wrongly,  that  my  affairs  in  Spain  were 
going  astray,  to  say  to  all  who  would  listen  to  you  that  you 
always  blamed  my  undertaking  there,  whereas  it  was  yourself 
who  first  put  it  into  my  head,  and  who  persistently  urged  it. 
And  that  man,  that  unfortunate  (he  was  thus  designating  the  Due 
d'Enghien),  by  whom  was  I  advised  of  the  place  of  his  residence  ? 
Who  drove  me  to  deal  cruelly  with  him  ?  What  then  are  you 
aiming  at  ?  What  do  you  wish  for  ?  What  do  you  hope  ?  Do 
you  dare  to  say  ?  You  deserve  that  I  should  smash  you  like  a 
wine-glass.  I  can  do  it,  but  I  despise  you  too  much  to  take  the 
trouble."  This  we  are  assured  by  the  impartial  Pasquier,  who 
heard  it  from  an  ear-witness,  and  second-hand  from  Talleyrand, 
is  an  abstract  of  what  Napoleon  said,  and  to  which  the  ex- 
Bishop  made  no  reply. 

No.  12. 

The  English  are  in  utter  rout. — Still  little  but  dead  men  and 
horses  fell  into  his  hands.  Savary  adds  the  interesting  fact  that 
all  the  (800)  dead  cavalry  horses  had  a  foot  missing,  which  the 

NOTES  277 

English  had  to  show  their  officers  to  prove  that  they  had  not  sold 
their  horses.  Scott,  on  barely  sufficient  evidence  perhaps,  states, 
"  The  very  treasure-chests  of  the  army  were  thrown  away  and 
abandoned.  There  was  never  so  complete  an  example  of  a  disas- 
trous retreat."  The  fact  seems  to  have  been  that  the  soldiership 
was  bad,  but  Moore's  generalship  excellent.  Napier  writes,  "  No 
wild  horde  of  Tartars  ever  fell  with  more  license  upon  their  rich 
effeminate  neighbours  than  did  the  English  troops  upon  the 
Spanish  towns  taken  by  storm."  What  could  be  expected  of 
such  men  in  retreat,  when  even  Lord  Melville  had  just  said  in 
extenuation  of  our  army  that  the  worst  men  make  the  best 
soldiers  ? 

Nos.  13  AND  14. 

Written  at  Valladolid.  Here  he  received  a  deputation  asking 
that  his  brother  may  reside  in  Madrid,  to  which  he  agrees,  and 
awaits  its  arrangement  before  setting  out  for  Paris. 

At  Valladolid  he  met  De  Pradt,  whom  he  mistrusted  ;  but 
who,  like  Talleyrand,  always  amused  him.  In  the  present  case 
the  Abbe  told  him  that  "  the  Spaniards  would  never  thank  him  for 
interfering  in  their  behalf,  and  that  they  were  like  Sganarelle  in 
the  farce,  who  quarrelled  with  a  stranger  for  interfering  with  her 
husband  when  he  was  beating  her  "  (Scott's  "  Napoleon  "). 

He  leaves  Valladolid  January  I7th,  and  is  in  Paris  on  January 
24th.  He  rode  the  first  seventy  miles,  to  Burgos,  in  five  and  a 
half  hours,  stopping  only  to  change  horses.1  Well  might  Savary 
say,  "  Never  had  a  sovereign  ridden  at  such  a  speed." 

Eugene  has  a  daughter. — The  Princess  Eug£nie-Hortense, 
born  December  23rd  at  Milan  ;  married  the  hereditary  Prince  of 
Hohenzollern  Hechingen. 

They  are  foolish  in  Paris — if  not  worse.  Talleyrand,  Fouche, 
and  others  were  forming  what  amounted  to  a  conspiracy,  and 
the  Empress  herself,  wittingly  or  unwittingly,  had  served  as 
their  tool.  For  the  first  time  she  answers  a  deputation  of  the 
Corps  Legislatif,  who  come  to  congratulate  her  on  her  hus- 

1  Biographie  Univcrselle.     Michaud  says  ponies. 

278  NOTES 

band's  victories,  and  says  that  doubtless  his  Majesty  would  be 
very  sensible  of  the  homage  of  an  assembly  which  represents  the 
nation.  Napoleon  sees  in  this  remark  a  germ  of  aggression  on 
behalf  of  his  House  of  Commons,  more  especially  when  empha- 
sised by  125  blackballs  against  a  Government  Bill.  He  takes 
the  effective  but  somewhat  severe  step  of  contradicting  his  wife 
in  the  Monlteur^  or  rather  declaring  that  the  Empress  knew  the 
laws  too  well  not  to  know  that  the  Emperor  was  the  chief 
representative  of  the  People,  then  the  Senate,  and  last  the  Corps 

"  It  would  be  a  wild  and  even  criminal  assertion  to  try  to 
represent  the  nation  before  the  Emperor." 

All  through  the  first  half  of  1809  another  dangerous  plot,  of 
which  the  centre  was  the  Princess  of  Tour  and  Taxis,  had  its 
threads  far  and  wide.  Many  of  Soult's  generals  were  implicated, 
and  in  communication  with  the  English,  preventing  their  com- 
mander getting  news  of  Wellesley's  movements  (Napier).  When 
they  find  Soult  cannot  be  traduced,  they  lend  a  willing  ear  to 
stirring  up  strife  between  the  Emperor  and  Soult,  by  suggesting 
that  the  latter  should  be  made  King  of  Portugal.  Madame 
d'Abrantes,  who  heard  in  1814  that  the  idea  had  found  favour 
with  English  statesmen,  thinks  such  a  step  would  have  seriously 
injured  Napoleon  (vol.  iv.  53). 



The  dangers  surrounding  Napoleon  were  immense.  The 
Austrian  army,  320,000  strong  (with  her  Landwehr,  544,000 
men)  and  800  cannon,  had  never  been  so  great,  never  so  fitted 
for  war.  Prussia  was  already  seething  with  secret  societies,  of 
which  as  yet  the  only  formidable  one  was  the  Tugendbund,  whose 
headquarters  were  Konigsburg,  and  whose  chief  members  were 
Stein,  Stadion,  Blucher,  Jahn.  Perhaps  their  most  sensible 
scheme  was  to  form  a  united  German  empire,  with  the  Archduke 

NOTES  279 

Charles1  as  its  head.  The  Archduke  Ferdinand  invaded  the 
Duchy  of  Warsaw,  and  had  he  taken  Thorn  with  its  park  of  100 
cannon,  Prussia  was  to  join  Austria.  In  Italy  the  Carbonari  and 
Adelphes2  only  waited  for  the  French  troops  to  go  north  to  meet 
the  Austrians  to  spread  revolt  in  Italy.  Of  the  former  the  head 
lodge  was  at  Capua  and  its  constitutions  written  in  English,  since 
England  was  aiding  this  chouanerie  religieuse  as  a  lever  against 
Napoleon.  England  had  an  army  of  40,000  men  ready  to  em- 
bark in  any  direction — to  Holland,  Belgium,  Naples,  or  Biscay, 
while  the  French  troops  in  Portugal  were  being  tampered  with  to 
receive  Moreau  as  their  leader,  and  to  march  with  Spaniards  and 
English  for  the  Pyrenees.  At  Paris  Talleyrand  was  in  partial 
disgrace,  but  he  and  Fouche  were  still  plotting — the  latter,  says 
Pelet,  forwarding  daily  a  copy  of  the  private  bulletin  (prepared 
for  Napoleon's  eye  alone)  to  the  Bourbons.  After  Essling  and 
the  breaking  of  the  Danube  bridge,  he  hesitated  between  seizing 
supreme  power  himself  or  offering  it  to  Bernadotte. 

Up  to  the  last — up  to  March  2Jth — the  Correspondence  proves 
that  Napoleon  had  hoped  that  war  would  be  averted  through  the 
influence  of  Russia.  "  All  initiative,"  he  declared,  "  rested  on  the 
heads  of  the  court  of  Austria."  "  Menaced  on  all  sides  ;  warned 
of  the  intentions  of  his  enemies  by  their  movements  and  by  their 
intercepted  correspondence  ;  seeing  from  that  moment  hostilities 
imminent,  he  wishes  to  prove  to  France  and  Europe  that  all  the 
wrongs  are  on  their  side,  and  awaits  in  his  capital  the  news  of  an 
aggression  that  nothing  justifies,  nothing  warrants.  Vain  pru- 
dence !  Europe  will  accuse  him  of  having  been  the  instigator  on 
every  occasion,  even  in  this."3  On  April  8th  the  Austrians 
violated  Bavarian  territory,  and  during  his  supreme  command  for 

1  This  Archduke  was  the  "international  man"  at  this  juncture.  Louis 
Bonaparte  speaks  of  a  society  at  Saragossa,  of  which  the  object  was  to  make 
the  Archduke  Charles  king  of  Spain. 

3  These  Adelphes  or  Philadelphes  were  the  socialists  or  educated  anarchists  of 
that  day.  They  wished  for  the  itatu  qiM  before  Napoleon  became  supreme  ruler. 
They  had  members  in  his  army,  and  it  seems  quite  probable  that  Bernadotte 
gave  them  passive  support.  General  Oudet  was  their  recognised  head,  and  he 
died  under  suspicious  circumstances  after  Wagram.  The  society  was,  unlike  the 
Carbonari,  anti-Catholic. 

3  Pelet,  vol.  i.  127. 

280  NOTES 

the  next  five  days  Berthier  endangered  the  safety  of  the  French 
empire  in  spite  of  the  most  elaborate  and  lucid  instructions  from 
Napoleon,  which  he  failed  to  comprehend.  "  Never,"  says  Pelet, 
"  was  so  much  written,  never  so  little  done.  Each  of  his  letters 
(Berthier's)  attests  the  great  difference  which  existed  between  his 
own  correspondence  and  that  which  was  dictated  to  him."  An 
ideal  chief  of  staff,  he  utterly  lacked  the  decision  necessary  for 
a  commander-in-chief.  The  arrival  of  Napoleon  changed  in  a 
moment  the  position  of  affairs.  "  The  sudden  apparition  of  the 
Emperor  produced  the  effect  of  the  head  of  Medusa,  and  paralysed 
the  enemy."1  Within  five  days  the  Austrians  were  four  times 
defeated,  and  Ratisbon,  the  passe-partout  of  Southern  Germany 
and  half-way  house  between  Strasburg  and  Vienna,  is  once  more 
in  the  hands  of  France  and  her  allies.  Pelet  considers  these 
operations  as  the  finest  which  have  been  executed  either  in 
ancient  or  modern  times,  at  any  rate  those  of  which  the  projects 
are  authentically  proved.  He  foretells  that  military  men  from 
every  country  of  Europe,  but  specially  young  Frenchmen,  will 
religiously  visit  the  fields  of  the  Laber.  They  will  visit,  with 
Napoleon's  Correspondence  in  their  hands,  "  much  more  precious 
than  every  other  commentary,  the  hills  of  Pfaffenhofen,  the  bridge 
of  Landshut,  and  that  of  Eckmuhl,  the  mill  of  Stangl,  and  the 
woods  of  Roking."  A  few  days  later  the  Archduke  Charles 
writes  a  letter  to  Napoleon,  which  is  a  fair  type  of  those  charm- 
ing yet  stately  manners  which  made  him  at  that  moment  the 
most  popular  man  in  Europe.  "  Sire,"  he  writes,  "  your  Majesty's 
arrival  was  announced  to  me  by  the  thunder  of  artillery,  without 
giving  me  time  to  compliment  you  thereon.  Scarcely  advised  of 
your  presence,  I  was  made  sensible  of  it  by  the  losses  which  you 
have  caused  me.  You  have  taken  many  of  my  men,  Sire  ;  my 
troops  also  have  made  some  thousands  of  prisoners  in  places 
where  you  did  not  direct  the  operations.  I  propose  to  your 
Majesty  to  exchange  them  man  for  man,  grade  for  grade,  and  if 
that  offer  is  agreeable  to  you,  please  let  me  know  your  intentions 
for  the  place  destined  for  the  exchange.  I  feel  flattered,  sire,  in 
fighting  against  the  greatest  captain  of  the  age.  I  should  be 
more  happy  if  destiny  had  chosen  me  to  procure  for  my  country 
1  Pelet,  vol.  i.  282. 

NOTES  281 

the  benefit  of  a  lasting  peace.  Whichsoever  they  be,  the  events 
of  war  or  the  approach  of  peace,  I  beg  your  Majesty  to  believe 
that  my  desires  always  carry  me  to  meet  you,  and  that  I  hold 
myself  equally  honoured  in  finding  the  sword,  or  the  olive  branch, 
in  the  hand  of  your  Majesty." 

No.  i. 

Donauwerth. — On  the  same  day  Napoleon  writes  almost  an 
identical  letter  to  Cambaceres,  adding,  however,  the  news  that 
the  Tyrolese  are  in  full  revolt. 

On  April  2Oth  he  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  the  Wurtem- 
bergers  and  Bavarians  at  Abensburg.  He  made  a  stirring 
speech  (No.  15,099  of  Correspondence),  and  Lejeune  tells  us 
that  the  Prince  Royal  of  Bavaria  translated  into  German  one 
sentence  after  another  as  the  Emperor  spoke,  and  officers  re- 
peated the  translations  throughout  the  ranks. 

On  April  24th  is  issued  from  Ratisbon  his  proclamation  to 
the  army  : — "Soldiers,  you  have  justified  my  expectations.  You 
have  made  up  for  your  number  by  your  bravery.  You  have 
gloriously  marked  the  difference  between  the  soldiers  of  Caesar 
and  the  armed  cohorts  of  Xerxes.  In  a  few  days  we  have 
triumphed  in  the  pitched  battles  of  Thann,  Abensberg,  and 
Eckmuhl,  and  in  the  combats  of  Peising,  Landshut,  and  Ratisbon. 
A  hundred  cannon,  forty  flags,  fifty  thousand  prisoners.  .  .  . 
Before  a  month  we  shall  be  at  Vienna."  It  was  within  three 
weeks  !  He  was  specially  proud  of  Eckmuhl,  and  we  are  pro- 
bably indebted  to  a  remark  of  Pasquier  for  his  chief  but  never 
divulged  reason.  "A  noteworthy  fact  in  connection  with  this 
battle  was  that  the  triumphant  army  was  composed  principally  of 
Bavarians  and  Wurtembergers.  Under  his  direction,  these  allies 
were  as  greatly  to  be  feared  as  the  French  themselves."  At  St. 
Helena  was  written  :  "  The  battle  of  Abensberg,  the  manoeuvres  of 
Landshut,  and  the  battle  of  Eckmuhl  were  the  most  brilliant  and 
the  most  skilful  manoeuvres  of  Napoleon."  Eckmuhl  ended  with 
a  fine  exhibition  of  a  "  white  arm  "  melee  by  moonlight,  in  which 
the  French  proved  the  superiority  of  their  double  cuirasses  over 

282  NOTES 

the  breastplates  of  the  Austrians.  Pelet  gives  this  useful  abstract 
of  the  Campaign  of  Five  Days  : — 

April  igth. — Union  of  the  French  army  whilst  fighting  the 
Archduke,  whose  base  is  already  menaced. 

April  2Oth. — Napoleon,  at  Abensburg  and  on  the  banks  of 
the  Laber,  breaks  the  Austrian  line,  totally  separating  the  centre 
from  the  left,  which  he  causes  to  be  turned  by  Massena. 

April  2.1st. — He  destroys  their  left  wing  at  Landshut,  and 
captures  the  magazines,  artillery,  and  train,  as  well  as  the  com- 
munications of  the  enemy's  grand  army,  fixing  definitely  his  own 
line  of  operations,  which  he  already  directs  on  Vienna. 

April  22nd. — He  descends  the  Laber  to  Eckmiihl,  gives  the  last 
blow  to  the  Archduke's  army,  of  which  the  remnant  takes  refuge 
in  Ratisbon. 

April  2yd. — He  takes  that  strong  place,  and  forces  the  Arch- 
duke to  take  refuge  in  the  mountains  of  Bohemia. 

No.  2. 

May  6th. — On  May  1st  Napoleon  was  still  at  Braunau,  wait- 
ing for  news  from  Davoust.  Travelling  by  night  at  his  usual 
speed  he  reached  Lambach  at  noon  on  May  2nd,  and  Wels  on 
the  3rd.  The  next  morning  he  heard  Massena's  cannon  at 
Ebersberg,  but  reaches  the  field  at  the  fall  of  night — too  late  to 
save  the  heavy  cost  of  Massena's  frontal  attack.  The  French  lost 
at  least  1500  killed  and  wounded  ;  the  Austrians  (under  Hiller) 
the  same  number  killed  and  7000  prisoners.  Pelet  defends 
Massena,  and  quotes  the  bulletin  of  May  4th  (omitted  from  the 
Correspondence) :  "  It  is  one  of  the  finest  feats  of  arms  of  which 
history  can  preserve  the  memory  !  The  traveller  will  stop  and 
say,  '  It  is  here,  it  is  here,  in  these  superb  positions,  that  an  army 
of  35,000  Austrians  was  routed  by  two  French  divisions'  "  (Pelet, 
ii.  225).  Lejeune,  and  most  writers,  blame  Massena,  referring 
to  the  Emperor's  letter  of  May  ist  in  Pelet's  Appendix  (vol.  ii.), 
but  not  in  the  Correspondence. 

Between  April  iyth  and  May  6th  there  is  no  letter  to 
Josephine  preserved,  but  plenty  to  Eugene,  and  all  severe — not 
so  much  for  incapacity  as  for  not  keeping  the  Emperor  advised 

NOTES  283 

of  what  was  really  happening.     On  May  6th  he  had  received  no 
news  for  over  a  week. 

The  ball  that  touched  me — i.e.  at  Ratisbon.  This  was  the  second 
time  Napoleon  had  been  wounded  in  battle — the  first  time  by  an 
English  bayonet  at  Toulon.  On  the  present  occasion  (April 
23rd)  Meneval  seems  to  be  the  best  authority  :  "  Napoleon  was 
seated  on  a  spot  from  which  he  could  see  the  attack  on  the  town 
of  Ratisbon.  He  was  beating  the  ground  with  his  riding-whip,1 
when  a  bullet,  supposed  to  have  been  fired  from  a  Tyrolean 
carbine,  struck  him  on  the  big  toe  (Marbot  says  *  right  ankle,1 
which  is  correct).  The  news  of  his  wound  spread  rapidly  2  from 
file  to  file,  and  he  was  forced  to  mount  on  horseback  to  show 
himself  to  his  troops.  Although  his  boot  had  not  been  cut  the 
contusion  was  a  very  painful  one,"  and  in  the  first  house  he  went 
to  for  a  moment's  rest,  he  fainted.  The  next  day,  however, 
he  saw  the  wounded  and  reviewed  his  troops  as  usual,  and 
Lejeune  has  preserved  a  highly  characteristic  story,  somewhat 
similar  to  an  experience  of  the  Great  Frederick's  :  "  When  he 
had  reached  the  seventh  or  eighth  sergeant  the  Emperor  noticed 
a  handsome  young  fellow  with  fine  but  stern-looking  eyes  and 
of  resolute  and  martial  bearing,  who  made  his  musket  ring  again 
as  he  presented  arms.  *  How  many  wounds  ? '  inquired  the 
Emperor.  *  Thirty,'  replied  the  sergeant.  *  I  am  not  asking  you 
your  age,'  said  the  Emperor  graciously  ;  '  I  am  asking  how  many 
wounds  you  have  received.'  Raising  his  voice,  the  sergeant 
again  replied  with  the  one  word,  *  Thirty.'  Annoyed  at  this 
reply,  the  Emperor  turned  to  the  colonel  and  said,  l  The  man 
does  not  understand  ;  he  thinks  I  am  asking  about  his  age.' 
'  He  understands  well  enough,  sire,'  was  the  reply  ;  l  he  has 
been  wounded  thirty  times.'  '  What ! '  exclaimed  the  Emperor, 
4  you  have  been  wounded  so  often  and  have  not  got  the  cross  ! ' 
The  sergeant  looked  down  at  his  chest,  and  seeing  that  the  strap 
of  his  cartridge-pouch  hid  his  decoration,  he  raised  it  so  as  to 
show  the  cross.  He  said  to  the  Emperor,  with  great  earnestness, 
*  Yes,  I've  got  one  ;  but  I've  merited  a  dozen  ! '  The  Emperor, 
who  was  always  pleased  to  meet  spirited  fellows  such  as  this, 

1  "  Gaily  asking  his  staff  to  breakfast  with  him  "  (Pelet). 

2  Lejeune  says  "  some  hours  afterwards." 

284  NOTES 

pronounced  the  sacramental  words,  '  I  make  you  an  officer  ! ' 
'  That's  right,  Emperor,'  said  the  new  sub-lieutenant  as  he  proudly 
drew  himself  up  ;  '  you  couldn't  have  done  better  ! ' ' 

No.  3. 

Almost  an  exact  duplicate  of  this  letter  goes  on  to  Paris  to 
Cambaceres,  as  also  of  No.  4.  The  moment  the  Emperor  had 
heard  that  the  Archduke  had  left  Budweiss  and  was  going  by  the 
circuitous  route  via  Krems  to  Vienna,  he  left  Enns  (May  yth) 
and  reached  Moelk  the  same  evening.  Seeing  a  camp  of  the 
enemy  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  he  sends  Marbot  with  a 
sergeant  and  six  picked  men  to  kidnap  a  few  Austrians  during 
the  night.  The  foray  is  successful,  and  three  are  brought  before 
Napoleon,  one  weeping  bitterly.  The  Emperor  asked  the  reason, 
and  found  it  was  because  he  had  charge  of  his  master's  girdle, 
and  would  be  thought  to  have  robbed  him.  The  Emperor  had 
him  set  free  and  ferried  across  the  river,  saying,  "  We  must 
honour  and  aid  virtue  wherever  it  shows  itself."  The  next  day  he 
started  for  Saint-Polten  (already  evacuated  by  Hiller).  On  his 
way  he  saw  the  ruins  of  Dirnstein  Castle,  where  Richard  Coeur 
de  Lion  had  been  imprisoned.  The  Emperor's  comments  were 
interesting,  but  are  now  hackneyed,  and  are  in  most  histories  and 
memoirs — the  parent  source  being  Pelet  (vol.  ii.  246). 

No.  4. 

Schoenbrunn,  situated  a  mile  from  Vienna,  across  the  little 
river  of  that  name.  Constant  thus  describes  it :  "Built  in  1754 
by  the  Empress  Marie  Therese,  Schoenbrunn  had  an  admirable 
position  ;  its  architecture,  if  defective  and  irregular,  was  yet  of  a 
majestic,  imposing  type.  To  reach  it  one  has  to  cross  the  bridge 
across  the  little  river  Vienna.  Four  stone  sphinxes  ornament 
this  bridge,  which  is  very  large  and  well  built.  Facing  the  bridge 
there  is  a  handsome  gate  opening  on  to  a  large  courtyard,  spacious 
enough  for  seven  or  eight  thousand  men  to  manoeuvre  in.  The 
courtyard  is  in  the  form  of  a  quadrangle  surrounded  by  covered 
galleries  and  ornamented  with  two  large  basins,  in  which  are 

NOTES  285 

marble  statues.  On  both  sides  of  the  gateway  are  two  huge 
obelisks  of  pink  stone  surmounted  by  gilt  eagles. 

"  In  German,  Schoenbrunn  means  '  fair  spring,1  and  the  name 
is  derived  from  a  fresh  and  sparkling  spring  which  is  situated  in 
the  park.  It  wells  forth  from  a  little  mound  on  which  a  tiny 
grotto  has  been  built,  carved  within  so  as  to  resemble  stalactites. 
Inside  the  grotto  is  a  recumbent  naiad  holding  a  horn,  from 
which  the  water  falls  down  into  a  marble  basin.  In  summer  this 
little  nook  is  deliciously  cool. 

"  The  interior  of  the  palace  merits  nothing  but  praise.  The 
furniture  is  sumptuous,  and  in  taste  both  original  and  dis- 
tinguished. The  Emperor's  bedroom  (the  only  place  in  the 
whole  edifice  where  there  was  a  chimney)  was  upholstered  in 
Chinese  lacquer-wood  of  great  antiquity,  yet  the  painting  and 
gilding  were  still  quite  fresh.  The  study  adjoining  was  decorated 
in  a  like  way.  All  these  apartments,  except  the  bedroom,  were 
heated  in  winter  by  immense  stoves,  which  sadly  spoilt  the  effect 
of  the  other  furniture.  Between  the  study  and  the  bedroom 
there  was  a  strange  apparatus  called  a  *  flying  chair,'  a  sort  of 
mechanical  seat,  which  had  been  constructed  for  the  Empress 
Marie  Th^rese,  and  which  served  to  transport  her  from  one  floor 
to  another,  so  that  she  was  not  obliged  to  go  up  and  down  the 
staircase  like  every  one  else.  The  machine  was  worked  in  the 
same  way  as  at  theatres,  by  cords,  pulleys,  and  a  counter-weight." 
The  Emperor  drank  a  glassful  from  the  beautiful  spring,  Schoen 
Brunn,  every  morning.  Napoleon  found  the  people  of  Vienna 
less  favourable  to  the  French  than  in  1805  ;  and  Count  Rapp 
told  him  "the  people  were  everywhere  tired  of  us  and  of  our 
victories."  "  He  did  not  like  these  sort  of  reflections." 

May  12th. — On  May  I3th  is  dated  the  seventh  bulletin  of  the 
army  of  Germany,  but  none  of  the  Bulletins  2  to  6  are  in  the 
Correspondence.  It  states  that  on  the  loth  he  is  before  Vienna  ; 
the  Archduke  Maximilian  refuses  to  surrender  ;  on  the  nth,  at 
9  P.M.,  the  bombardment  commences,  and  by  daybreak  the  city 
capitulated,  and  the  Archduke  fled.  In  his  proclamation  Napoleon 
blamed  him  and  the  house  of  Austria  for  the  bombardment. 
"While  fleeing  from  the  city,  their  adieux  to  the  inhabitants 
have  been  murder  and  arson  ;  like  Medea,  they  have  with  their 

286  NOTES 

own  hands  slain  their  children."  The  Viennese  had  sworn  to 
emulate  their  ancestors  in  1683,  and  the  heroes  of  Saragossa. 
But  Alison  (than  whom  none  can  do  the  "  big  bow-wow  "  style 
better)  has  a  thoughtful  comment  on  what  really  occurred.  "  All 
history  demonstrates  that  there  is  one  stage  of  civilisation  when 
the  inhabitants  of  a  metropolis  are  capable  of  such  a  sacrifice  in 
defence  of  their  country,  and  only  one  ;  and  that  when  passed, 
it  is  never  recovered.  The  event  has  proved  that  the  Russians, 
in  1812,  were  in  the  state  of  progress  when  such  a  heroic  act  was 
possible,  but  that  the  inhabitants  of  Vienna  and  Paris  had  passed 
it.  Most  certainly  the  citizens  of  London  would  never  have 
buried  themselves  under  the  ruins  of  the  Bank,  the  Treasury,  or 
Leadenhall  Street  before  capitulating  to  Napoleon."  1870  and 
the  siege  of  Paris  modify  this  judgment ;  but  the  Prussian  bom- 
bardment came  only  at  the  last,  and  barely  reached  the  centre 
of  the  city. 

No.  5. 

Ebersdorf. — Written  five  days  after  the  murderous  battle  of 
Essling.  Montgaillard,  whose  temper  and  judgment,  as  Alison 
remarks,  are  not  equal  to  his  talents,  cannot  resist  a  covert  sneer 
(writing  under  the  Bourbons)  at  Napoleon's  generalship  on  this 
occasion,  although  he  adds  a  veneer  by  reminding  us  that  Caesar 
was  defeated  at  Dyrrachium,  Turenne  at  Marienthal,  Eugene  at 
Denain,  Frederick  the  Great  at  Kolin.  The  crossing  of  the  river 
was  one  which  none  but  a  victorious  army,  with  another l  about 
to  join  it,  could  afford  to  risk,  but  which  having  effected,  the 
French  had  to  make  the  best  of.  As  Napoleon  said  in  his  tenth 
bulletin,  "  The  passage  of  a  river  like  the  Danube,  in  front  of  an 
enemy  knowing  perfectly  the  localities,  and  having  the  inhabit- 
ants on  its  side,  is  one  of  the  greatest  operations  of  war  which  it 
is  possible  to  conceive."  The  Danube  hereabouts  is  a  thousand 
yards  broad,  and  thirty  feet  deep.  But  the  rising  of  its  water 
fourteen  feet  in  three  days  was  what  no  one  had  expected.  At 
Ebersdorf  the  first  branch  of  the  Danube  was  500  yards  across 
to  an  islet,  thence  340  yards  across  the  main  current  to  Lobau, 
the  vast  island  three  miles  broad  and  nearly  three  miles  long, 

1  Eugene's. 

NOTES  287 

separated  from  the  farther  bank  by  another  150  yards  of  Danube. 
Bertrand  had  made  excellent  bridges,  but  on  the  22nd  the  main 
one  was  carried  away  by  a  floating  mill. 

Eugene  .  .  .  has  completely  performed  the  task. — At  the  com- 
mencement of  the  campaign  the  Viceroy  was  taken  unprepared. 
The  Archduke  John,  exactly  his  own  age  (twenty-seven),  was 
burning  with  hatred  of  France.  Eugene  had  the  impudence, 
with  far  inferior  forces,  to  attack  him  at  Sacile  on  April  i6th, 
but  was  repulsed  with  a  loss  (including  prisoners)  of  6000  men.  It 
is  now  necessary  to  retire,  and  the  Archduke  follows  him  leisurely, 
almost  within  sight  of  Verona.  By  the  end  of  April  the  news  of 
Eckmuhl  has  reached  both  armies,  and  by  May  ist  the  Austrians 
are  in  full  retreat.  As  usual,  Napoleon  has  already  divined  their 
altered  plan  of  campaign,  and  writes  from  Braunau  on  this  very 
day,  "  I  doubt  not  that  the  enemy  may  have  retired  before  you  ; 
it  is  necessary  to  pursue  him  with  activity,  whilst  coming  to  join 
me  as  soon  as  possible  vid  Carinthia.  The  junction  with  my 
army  will  probably  take  place  beyond  Bruck.  It  is  probable  I 
shall  be  at  Vienna  by  the  loth  to  the  i$th  of  May."  It  is  the 
successful  performance  of  this  task  of  joining  him  and  of  driving 
back  the  enemy  to  which  Napoleon  alludes  in  the  letter.  The 
Viceroy  had  been  reproved  for  fighting  at  Sacile  without  his 
cavalry,  for  his  precipitous  retreat  on  Verona ;  and  only  two  days 
earlier  the  Emperor  had  told  him  that  if  affairs  went  worse  he 
was  to  send  for  the  King  of  Naples  (Murat)  to  take  command. 
"I  am  no  longer  grieved  at  the  blunders  you  have  committed, 
but  because  you  do  not  write  to  me,  and  give  me  no  chance  of 
advising  you,  and  even  of  regulating  my  own  affairs  here  con- 
formably." On  May  8th  Eugene  defeats  the  Austrians  on  the 
Piave,  and  the  Archduke  John  loses  nearly  10,000  men  and  15 
cannon.  Harassed  in  their  retreat,  they  regain  their  own  terri- 
tory on  May  I4th — the  day  after  the  capitulation  of  Vienna. 
Henceforward  Eugene  with  part  of  the  army,  and  Macdonald 
with  the  rest,  force  their  way  past  all  difficulties,  so  that  when  the 
junction  with  the  Grand  Army  occurs  at  Bruck,  Napoleon  sends 
(May  2yth)  the  following  proclamation  :  "Soldiers  of  the  army 
of  Italy,  you  have  gloriously  attained  the  goal  that  I  marked  out 
for  you.  .  .  .  Surprised  by  a  perfidious  enemy  before  your 

288  NOTES 

columns  were  united,  you  had  to  retreat  to  the  Adige.  But 
when  you  received  the  order  to  advance,  you  were  on  the  memor- 
able fields  of  Arcola,  and  there  you  swore  on  the  manes  of  our 
heroes  to  triumph.  You  have  kept  your  word  at  the  battle  of 
the  Piave,  at  the  combats  of  San-Daniel,  Tarvis,  and  Goritz  ; 
you  have  taken  by  assault  the  forts  of  Malborghetto,  of  Prediel, 
and  made  the  enemy's  divisions,  entrenched  in  Prewald  and  Lay- 
bach,  surrender.  You  had  not  then  passed  the  Drave,  and  already 
25,000  prisoners,  60  cannon,  and  10  flags  signalised  your  valour." 
This  is  the  proclamation  alluded  to  in  this  letter  to  Josephine. 

No.  6. 

May  2()th. — The  date  is  wrong  ;  it  should  be  May  i  Qth  or 
24th,  probably  the  latter.  It  sets  at  rest  the  vexed  question  how 
the  Danube  bridge  was  broken,  and  seems  to  confirm  Marbot's 
version  of  a  floating  mill  on  fire,  purposely  sent  down  by  an 
Austrian  officer  of  Jagers,  who  won  the  rare  order  of  Maria 
Theresa  thereby — for  performing  more  than  his  duty.  Bertrand 
gained  his  Emperor's  lifelong  admiration  by  his  expedients  at  this 
time.  Everything  had  to  be  utilised — anchors  for  the  boat  bridges 
were  made  by  filling  fishermen's  baskets  with  bullets  ;  and  a  naval 
contingent  of  1200  bluejackets  from  Antwerp  proved  invaluable. 

No.  7. 

/  have  ordered  the  two  princes  to  re-enter  France. — After  so 
critical  a  battle  as  the  battle  of  Essling  the  Emperor's  first 
thoughts  were  concerning  his  succession — had  he  been  killed  or 
captured.  He  was  therefore  seriously  annoyed  that  the  heir- 
apparent  and  his  younger  brother  had  both  been  taken  out  of  the 
country  without  his  permission.  He  therefore  writes  the  Queen 
of  Holland  on  May  28th  from  Ebersdorf :  "My  daughter,  I  am 
seriously  annoyed  that  you  have  left  France  without  my  per- 
mission, and  especially  that  you  have  taken  my  nephews  out  of 
it.  Since  you  are  at  Baden  stay  there,  but  an  hour  after  re- 
ceiving the  present  letter  send  my  two  nephews  back  to  Strasburg 
to  be  near  the  Empress — they  ought  never  to  go  out  of  France. 

NOTES  289 

It  is  the  first  time  I  have  had  reason  to  be  annoyed  with  you,  but 
you  should  not  dispose  of  my  nephews  without  my  permission, 
you  should  realise  what  a  bad  effect  it  will  have.  Since  the 
waters  at  Baden  are  doing  you  good  you  can  stay  there  a  few 
days,  but,  I  repeat,  lose  not  a  moment  in  sending  my  nephews 
back  to  Strasburg.  If  the  Empress  is  going  to  the  waters  at 
Plombieres  they  may  accompany  her  there,  but  they  must  never 
pass  the  bridge  of  Strasburg. — Your  affectionate  father,  Napoleon." 
This  letter  passed  through  the  hands  of  Josephine  at  Strasburg, 
who  was  so  unhappy  at  not  having  heard  from  her  husband  that 
she  opened  it,  and  writes  to  Hortense  on  June  ist  when  forward- 
ing the  letter :  "  I  advise  you  to  write  to  him  immediately  that 
you  have  anticipated  his  intentions,  and  that  your  children  are 
with  me  :  that  you  have  only  had  them  a  few  days  in  order  to 
see  them,  and  to  give  them  a  change  of  air.  The  page  who  is 
announced  in  Meneval's  letter  has  not  yet  arrived.  I  hope  he 
will  bring  me  a  letter  from  the  Emperor,  and  that  at  least  he 
will  not  be  as  vexed  with  me  for  your  being  at  Baden.  Your 
children  have  arrived  in  excellent  health." 

The  Duke  of  Montebello,  who  died  this  morning. — The  same  day 
he  writes  to  La  Marechale  as  follows  : — 

"  Ma  Cousine^ — The  Marshal  died  this  morning  of  the  wounds 
that  he  received  on  the  field  of  honour.  My  sorrow  equals  yours. 
I  lose  the  most  distinguished  general  in  my  whole  army,  my 
comrade-in-arms  for  sixteen  years,  he  whom  I  looked  upon  as  my 
best  friend.  His  family  and  children  will  always  have  a  special 
claim  on  my  protection.  It  is  to  give  you  this  assurance  that  I 
wished  to  write  you  this  letter,  for  I  feel  that  nothing  can 
alleviate  the  righteous  sorrow  that  you  will  experience."  The 
following  year  he  bestowed  the  highest  honour  on  the  Marechale 
that  she  could  receive. 

Thus  everything  ends. — The  fourteenth  bulletin  says  that  the 
end  was  caused  by  a  pernicious  fever,  and  in  spite  of  Dr.  Franck, 
one  of  the  best  physicians  in  Europe.  "Thus  ends  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  soldiers  France  ever  possessed."1  He  had 
received  thirteen  wounds.  The  death  of  Lannes,  and  the  whole 

1  "What  a  loss  for  France  and  for  me,"  groaned  Napoleon,  as  he  left  his 
dead  friend. 


290  NOTES 

of  the  Essling  period,  is  best  told  by  Marbot.  The  loss  of  Lannes 
was  a  more  serious  one  to  Napoleon  than  the  whole  20,000  men 
lost  in  this  battle.  The  master  himself  has  told  us  that  "  in  war 
men  are  nothing,  a  man  is  everything."  They  could  be  replaced : 
Lannes  never.  Like  Kleber  and  Desaix,  he  stood  on  a  higher 
platform  than  the  older  Marshals — except  Massena,  who  had 
serious  drawbacks,  and  who  was  the  only  one  of  Napoleon's  best 
generals  that  Wellington  met  in  the  Peninsula.  Lannes  had 
always  the  ear  of  the  Emperor,  and  always  told  him  facts,  not 
flattery.  His  life  had  been  specially  crowded  the  last  few  weeks. 
Rebuked  by  Napoleon  for  tardiness  in  supporting  Massena  at 
Ebersberg,  his  life  was  saved  by  Napoleon  himself  when  he  was 
thrown  from  his  horse  into  the  flooded  Danube  ;  and  finally,  on 
the  field  of  Essling,  he  had  under  his  orders  Bessieres,  the  man 
who  had  a  dozen  years  before  prevented  his  engagement  to 
Caroline  Bonaparte  by  tittle-tattling  to  Napoleon. 

No.  9. 

Eugene  won  a  battle. — The  remnant  of  the  Archduke  John's 
army,  together  with  Hungarian  levies,  in  all  31,000  men,  hold 
the  entrenched  camp  and  banks  of  the  Raab.  Eugene  defeats  it, 
with  a  loss  of  6000  men,  of  whom  3700  were  prisoners.  Napoleon, 
in  commemoration  of  the  anniversary  of  Marengo  (and  Fried- 
land)  calls  it  the  little  granddaughter  of  Marengo. 

No.   ii. 

The  curtain  of  the  war's  final  act  was  rung  up  in  the  twenty- 
fourth  bulletin.  "  At  length  there  exists  no  longer  the  Danube 
for  the  French  army  ;  General  Count  Bertrand  has  completed 
works  which  excite  astonishment  and  inspire  admiration.  For 
800  yards  over  the  most  rapid  river  in  the  world  he  has,  in  a 
fortnight,  constructed  a  bridge  of  sixteen  arches  where  three 
carriages  can  pass  abreast." 

Wagram  is,  according  to  Pelet,  the  masterpiece  of  tactical 
battles,  while  the  five  days'  campaign  (Thann  to  Ratisbon)  was 
one  long  strategic  battle.  Nevertheless,  respecting  Wagram,  had 

NOTES  291 

the  Archduke  John,  with  his  40,000  men,  turned  up,  as  the 
Archduke  had  more  right  to  expect  than  Wellington  had  to 
expect  Blucher,  Waterloo  might  have  been  antedated  six  years. 

Lasalle  was  a  prime  favourite  of  Napoleon,  for  his  sure  eye 
and  active  bearing.  His  capture  of  Stettin  with  two  regiments 
of  hussars  was  specially  noteworthy.  Like  Lannes  he  had  a 
strong  premonition  of  his  death.  Marbot  tells  a  story  of  how 
Napoleon  gave  him  200,000  francs  to  get  married  with.  A  week 
later  the  Emperor  asked,  "When  is  the  wedding?"  "As  soon 
as  I  have  got  some  money  to  furnish  with,  sire."  "Why,  I  gave 
you  200,000  francs  to  furnish  with  last  week  !  What  have  you 
done  with  them  ? "  "Paid  my  debts  with  half,  and  lost  the  other 
half  at  cards."  Such  an  admission  would  have  ruined  any  other 
general.  The  Emperor  laughed,  and  merely  giving  a  sharp  tug 
at  Lasalle's  moustache,  ordered  Duroc  to  give  him  another 

/  am  sunburnt^  and,  as  he  writes  Cambaceres  the  same  day, 
tired  out,  having  been  sixty  out  of  the  previous  seventy-two 
hours  in  the  saddle. 

No.  12. 

IVolkendorf. — On  July  8th  he  writes  General  Clarke  :  "  I 
have  the  headquarters  lately  occupied  by  the  craven  Francis  II., 
who  contented  himself  with  watching  the  whole  affair  from  the 
top  of  a  tower,  ten  miles  from  the  scene  of  battle."  On  this 
day  also  he  dictated  his  twenty-fifth  bulletin,  of  which  the  last 
portion  is  so  skilfully  utilised  in  the  last  scene  of  Act  V.  in 
L'Aiglon.  One  concluding  sentence  is  all  that  can  here  be 
quoted  :  "  Such  is  the  recital  of  the  battle  of  Wagram,  a  decisive 
and  ever  illustrious  battle,  where  three  to  four  hundred  thousand 
men,  twelve  to  fifteen  hundred  guns,  fought  for  great  stakes  on 
a  field  of  battle,  studied,  meditated  on,  and  fortified  by  the  enemy 
for  many  months." 

A  surfeit  of  bile. — His  usual  source  of  relief  after  extra  work  or 
worry.  In  this  case  both.  Bernadotte  had  behaved  so  badly  at 
Wagram,  that  Napoleon  sent  him  to  Paris  with  the  stern  rebuke, 
"  A  bungler  like  you  is  no  good  to  me."  But  as  usual  his  anger 
against  an  old  comrade  is  short-lived,  and  he  gives  General  Clarke 

292  NOTES 

permission  to  send  Bernadotte  to  command  at  Antwerp  against 
the  English. 

No.  1 6. 

My  affairs  follow  my  wishes. — In  Austria,  possibly,  but  not 
elsewhere.  Prussia  was  seething  with  conspiracy,  Russia  with 
ill-concealed  hatred,  the  English  had  just  landed  in  Belgium,  and 
Wellesley  had  just  won  Talavera.  Souk  was  apparently  no 
longer  trustworthy,  Bernadotte  a  conceited  boaster,  who  had  to 
be  publicly  snubbed  (see  The  Order  of  the  Day,  August  5th,  No. 
15,614).  Clarke  and  Cambaceres  are  so  slow  that  Napoleon 
writes  them  (August  loth)  "not  to  let  the  English  come  and 
take  you  in  bed."  Fouche  shows  more  energy  than  every  one 
else  put  together,  calls  out  National  Guards,  and  sends  them  off 
to  meet  the  northern  invasion.  The  Minister  of  the  Interior, 
M.  Cretet,  had  just  died,  and  the  Emperor  had  wisely  put 
Fouch6,  the  most  competent  man  available,  into  his  place  for  the 
time  being. 

No.   17. 

August  2ist. — The  list  of  birthday  honours  (August  I5th) 
had  been  a  fairly  long  one,  Berthier  becoming  Prince  of  Wagram, 
Massena  of  Essling,  Davoust  of  Eckmuhl.  Marshals  Oudinot 
and  Macdonald,  Generals  Clarke,  Reynier,  Gaudin  and  Cham- 
pagny,  as  also  M.  Maret,  became  Dukes.  Marmont  had  already, 
says  Savary,  been  made  delirious  with  the  joy  of  possessing  a 

No.   1 8. 

Comedians. — Napoleon  found  relaxation  more  after  his  own  heart 
in  conversing  with  the  savants  of  Germany,  including  the  great 
mechanic  MSelzel,  with  whose  automaton  chess-player  he  played 
a  game.  Constant  gives  a  highly-coloured  picture  of  the  sequel  : 
"  The  automaton  was  seated  before  a  chess-board,  and  the 
Emperor,  taking  a  chair  opposite  the  figure,  said  laughingly, 
4  Now,  my  friend,  we'll  have  a  game.'  The  automaton,  bowing, 
made  signs  for  the  Emperor  to  begin.  After  two  or  three  moves 
the  Emperor  made  a  wrong  one  on  purpose ;  the  automaton 

NOTES  293 

bowed  and  replaced  the  piece  on  the  board.  His  Majesty  cheated 
again,  when  the  automaton  bowed  again,  but  this  time  took  the 
pawn.  *  Quite  right,'  said  his  Majesty,  as  he  promptly  cheated 
for  the  third  time.  The  automaton  then  shook  its  head,  and 
with  one  sweep  of  its  hand  knocked  all  the  chessmen  down." 
Women  .  .  .  not  having  been  presented. — One  woman,  how- 
ever, the  mistress  of  Lord  Paget,  was  quite  willing  to  be  presented 
at  a  late  hour  and  to  murder  him  at  the  same  time — at  least 
so  says  Constant. 

No.  19. 

All  this  is  very  suspicious. — For  perfectly  natural  reasons  Caesar's 
wife  was  now  above  suspicion,  but  Caesar  himself  was  not  so. 
Madame  Walewski  had  been  more  than  a  month  at  Schoenbrunn, 
and  on  May  4th,  1810,  Napoleon  has  a  second  son  born,  who 
fifty  years  later  helped  to  edit  his  father's  Correspondence. 

No.  20. 

Krems. — He  left  here  to  review  Davoust's  corps  on  the  field 
of  Austerlitz.  Afterwards  all  the  generals  dined  with  him,  and 
the  Emperor  said,  "  This  is  the  second  time  I  come  upon  the 
field  of  Austerlitz  ;  shall  I  come  to  it  a  third  time  ?  "  "  Sire," 
replied  one,  "  from  what  we  see  every  day  none  dare  wager  that 
you  will  not ! "  It  was  this  suppressed  hatred  that  probably 
determined  the  Emperor  to  dismantle  the  fortifications  of  Vienna, 
an  act  that  intensified  the  hatred  of  the  Viennese  more  than  his 
allowing  the  poor  people  to  help  themselves  to  wood  for  the 
winter  in  the  imperial  forests  had  mollified  them. 

My  health  has  never  been  better. — His  reason  for  this  remark  is 
found  in  his  letter  to  Cambaceres  of  the  same  date,  "  They  have 
spread  in  Paris  the  rumour  that  I  was  ill,  I  know  not  why  ;  I 
was  never  better."  The  reason  of  the  rumour  was  that  Corvi- 
sart  had  been  sent  for  to  Vienna,  as  there  had  been  an  outbreak 
of  dysentery  among  the  troops.  This  was  kept  a  profound  secret 
from  France,  and  Napoleon  even  allowed  Josephine  to  think  that 
Corvisart  had  attended  him  (see  Letter  22). 

294  NOTES 

No.  23. 

October  i^th. — Two  days  before,  Stabs,  the  young  Tugend- 
bundist  and  an  admirer  of  Joan  of  Arc,  had  attempted  to  assassinate 
Napoleon  on  parade  with  a  carving-knife.  The  Emperor's  letter 
to  Fouche  of  the  I2th  October  gives  the  most  succinct  account : — 

"  A  youth  of  seventeen,  son  of  a  Lutheran  minister  of  Erfurt, 
sought  to  approach  me  on  parade  to-day.  He  was  arrested  by 
the  officers,  and  as  the  little  man's  agitation  had  been  noticed, 
suspicion  was  aroused  ;  he  was  searched,  and  a  dagger  found 
upon  him.  I  had  him  brought  before  me,  and  the  little  wretch, 
who  seemed  to  me  fairly  well  educated,  told  me  that  he  wished 
to  assassinate  me  to  deliver  Austria  from  the  presence  of  the 
French.  I  could  distinguish  in  him  neither  religious  nor  political 
fanaticism.  He  did  not  appear  to  know  exactly  who  or  what 
Brutus  was.  The  fever  of  excitement  he  was  in  prevented  our 
knowing  more.  He  will  be  examined  when  he  has  cooled  down 
and  fasted.  It  is  possible  that  it  will  come  to  nothing.  He  will 
be  arraigned  before  a  military  commission. 

"  I  wished  to  inform  you  of  this  circumstance  in  order  that  it 
may  not  be  made  out  more  important  than  it  appears  to  be.  I 
hope  it  will  not  leak  out ;  if  it  does,  we  shall  have  to  represent 
the  fellow  as  a  madman.  If  it  is  not  spoken  of  at  all,  keep  it  to 
yourself.  The  whole  affair  made  no  disturbance  at  the  parade  ; 
I  myself  saw  nothing  of  it. 

"  P.S. — I  repeat  once  more,  and  you  understand  clearly,  that 
there  is  to  be  no  discussion  of  this  occurrence." 

Count  Rapp  saved  the  Emperor's  life  on  this  occasion,  and 
he,  Savary,  and  Constant,  all  give  detailed  accounts.  Their 
narratives  are  a  remarkable  object-lesson  of  the  carelessness  of  the 
average  contemporary  spectator  in  recording  dates.  Savary  gives 
vaguely  the  end  of  September,  Constant  October  I3th,  and  Count 
Rapp  October  23rd.  In  the  present  case  the  date  of  this  other- 
wise trivial  incident  is  important,  for  careless  historians  assert  that 
it  influenced  Napoleon  in  concluding  peace.  In  any  case  it 
would  have  taken  twenty  such  occurrences  to  affect  Napoleon 
one  hairbreadth,  and  in  the  present  instance  his  letter  of  October 
loth  to  the  Russian  Emperor  proves  that  the  Peace  was  already 
settled — all  but  the  signing. 

NOTES  295 

No.  24. 

Stuttgard. — General  Rapp  describes  this  journey  as  follows  : 
"  Peace  was  ratified.  We  left  Nymphenburg  and  arrived  at 
Stuttgard.  Napoleon  was  received  in  a  style  of  magnificence, 
and  was  lodged  in  the  palace  together  with  his  suite.  The  King 
was  laying  out  a  spacious  garden,  and  men  who  had  been  con- 
demned to  the  galleys  were  employed  to  labour  in  it.  The 
Emperor  asked  the  King  who  the  men  were  who  worked  in 
chains  ;  he  replied  that  they  were  for  the  most  part  rebels  who 
had  been  taken  in  his  new  possessions.  We  set  out  on  the 
following  day.  On  the  way  Napoleon  alluded  to  the  unfortunate 
wretches  whom  he  had  seen  at  Stuttgard.  *  The  King  of  Wiir- 
temberg,'  said  he,  '  is  a  very  harsh  man  ;  but  he  is  very  faithful. 
Of  all  the  sovereigns  in  Europe  he  possesses  the  greatest  share  of 

"  We  stopped  for  an  hour  at  Rastadt,  where  the  Princess  of 
Baden  and  Princess  Stephanie  had  arrived  for  the  purpose  of 
paying  their  respects  to  the  Emperor.  The  Grand  Duke  and 
Duchess  accompanied  him  as  far  as  Strasburg.  On  his  arrival  in 
that  city  he  received  despatches  which  again  excited  his  displea- 
sure against  the  Faubourg  St.  Germain.  We  proceeded  to  Fon- 
tainebleau  ;  no  preparations  had  been  made  for  the  Emperor's 
reception  ;  there  was  not  even  a  guard  on  duty." 

This  was  on  October  26th,  at  10  A.M.  Meneval  asserts  that 
Napoleon's  subsequent  bad  temper  was  feigned.  In  any  case, 
the  meeting — that  moment  so  impatiently  awaited — was  a  very 
bad  quart  cTheure  for  Josephine,  accentuated  doubtless  by  Fouche's 
report  of  bad  conduct  on  the  part  of  the  ladies  of  St.  Germain. 


No.  i. 

According  to  the  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  /.,  No.  16,058, 
the  date  of  this  letter  is  December  ijth.  It  seems,  however, 
possible  that  it  is  the  letter  written  immediately  after  his  arrival 

296  NOTES 

at  Trianon,  referred  to  by  Meneval,  who  was,  in  fact,  responsible 
for  it.  Thiers,  working  from  unpublished  memoirs  of  Hortense 
and  Cambaceres,  gives  a  most  interesting  account  of  the  family 
council,  held  at  9  P.M.  on  Friday,  December  I5th,  at  the  Tuileries. 
Constant  also  describes  the  scene,  but  gives  the  Empress  credit 
for  showing  the  most  self-command  of  those  chiefly  interested. 
The  next  day,  1 1  A.M.,  Count  Lacepede  introduced  the  resolutions 
of  the  family  council  to  the  Senatus-Consultus.1  "  It  is  to-day 
that,  more  than  ever  before,  the  Emperor  has  proved  that  he 
wishes  to  reign  only  to  serve  his  subjects,  and  that  the  Empress 
has  merited  that  posterity  should  associate  her  name  with  that  of 
Napoleon."  He  pointed  out  that  thirteen  of  Napoleon's  prede- 
cessors had  broken  the  bonds  of  matrimony  in  order  to  fulfil 
better  those  of  sovereign,  and  that  among  these  were  the  most 
admired  and  beloved  of  French  monarchs — Charlemagne,  Philip 
Augustus,  Louis  XII.  and  Henry  IV.  This  speech  and  the 
Decrees  (carried  by  76  votes  to  7)  are  found  in  the  Monlteur  of 
December  I7th,  which  Napoleon  considers  sufficiently  authentic 
to  send  to  his  brother  Joseph  as  a  full  account  of  what  occurred, 
and  with  no  further  comment  of  his  own  but  that  it  was  the 
step  which  he  thought  it  his  duty  to  take.  The  Decrees  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Senate  were  : — "(i)  The  marriage  contracted 
between  the  Emperor  Napoleon  and  the  Empress  Josephine  is 
dissolved.  (2)  The  Empress  Josephine  will  retain  the  titles 
and  rank  of  a  crowned  Empress-Queen.2  (3)  Her  jointure  is 
fixed  at  an  annual  revenue  of  £80,000  from  the  public  treasury.3 
(4)  Every  provision  which  may  be  made  by  the  Emperor  in 
favour  of  the  Empress  Josephine,  out  of  the  funds  of  the  Civil 
List,  shall  be  obligatory  on  his  successors."  They  added 
separate  addresses  to  the  Emperor  and  Empress,  and  that  to 
the  latter  seems  worthy  of  quotation  : — "  Your  Imperial  and 

1  By  here  subordinating  himself  to  the  Senate,  the  Emperor  was  preparing  a 
rod  for  his  own  back  hereafter. 

2  This  clause  gives  considerable  trouble  to  Lacepede  and  Regnauld.     They 
cannot  even  find  a  precedent  whether,  if  they  met,  Josephine  or  Marie  Louise 
would  take  precedence  of  the  other. 

3  In  addition  to  this,  Napoleon  gives  her  ,£40,000  a  year  from  his  privy  purse, 
but  keeps  most  of  it  back  for  the  first  two  years  to  pay  her  I2O  creditors.     (For 
interesting  details  see  Masson,  Josephine  Repudiite.) 

NOTES  297 

Royal  Majesty  is  about  to  make  for  France  the  greatest  of  sacri- 
fices ;  history  will  preserve  the  memory  of  it  for  ever.  The 
august  spouse  of  the  greatest  of  monarchs  cannot  be  united  to  his 
immortal  glory  by  more  heroic  devotion.  For  long,  Madame, 
the  French  people  has  revered  your  virtues  ;  it  holds  dear  that 
loving  kindness  which  inspires  your  every  word,  as  it  directs  your 
every  action  ;  it  will  admire  your  sublime  devotion  ;  it  will 
award  for  ever  to  your  Majesty,  Empress  and  Queen,  the  homage 
of  gratitude,  respect,  and  love." 

From  a  letter  of  Eugene's  to  his  wife,  quoted  by  Aubenas, 
it  appears  that  he,  with  his  mother,  arrived  at  Malmaison  on 
Saturday  evening,1  December  i6th,  and  that  it  never  ceased 
raining  all  the  next  day,  which  added  to  the  general  depression, 
in  spite  of,  or  because  of,  Eugene's  bad  puns.  On  the  evening 
of  the  1 6th  Napoleon  was  at  Trianon,  writing  letters,  and  we 
cannot  think  that  if  the  Emperor  had  been  to  Malmaison  on  the 
Sunday,2  Eugene  would  have  included  this  without  comment  in 
the  "  some  visits  "  they  had  received.  The  Emperor,  as  we  see 
from  the  next  letter,  paid  Josephine  a  visit  on  the  Monday. 

No.  2. 

The  date  of  this  is  Tuesday,  December  igth,  while  No.  3  is 
Wednesday  the  2Oth. 

Savary,  always  unpopular  with  the  Court  ladies,  has  now 
nothing  but  kind  words  for  Josephine.  "  She  quitted  the  Court, 
but  the  Court  did  not  quit  her  ;  it  had  always  loved  her,  for  never 
had  any  one  been  so  kind.  .  .  .  She  never  injured  any  one  in  the 
time  of  her  power  ;  she  protected  even  her  enemies " — such  as 
Fouche  at  this  juncture,  and  Lucien  earlier.  "  During  her  stay 
at  Malmaison,  the  highroad  from  Paris  to  this  chateau  was  only 
one  long  procession,  in  spite  of  the  bad  weather  ;  every  one 
considered  it  a  duty  to  present  themselves  at  least  once  a  week." 

1  Which  agrees  with  Madame  d'Avrillon,  who  says  they  left  the  Tuileries  at 
2.30.     Meneval  says  Napoleon  left  for  Trianon  a  few  hours  later.     Savary  writes 
erroneously  that  they  left  the  following  morning. 

2  M.  Masson  seems  to  indicate  a  visit  on  December  i6th,  but  does  not  give 
his  authority  (Josephine  Repudite,  1 14). 

298  NOTES 

Later,  Marie  Louise  became  jealous  of  this,  and  poor  Josephine 
had  to  go  to  the  chateau  of  Navarre,  and  finally  to  leave  France. 

Queen  of  Naples. — For  some  reason  Napoleon  had  not  wanted 
this  sister  at  Paris  this  winter,  and  had  written  her  to  this  effect 
from  Schoenbrunn  on  October  I5th.  "If  you  were  not  so  far 
off,  and  the  season  so  advanced,  I  would  have  asked  Murat  to 
spend  two  months  in  Paris.  But  you  cannot  be  there  before 
December,  which  is  a  horrible  season,  especially  for  a  Nea- 
politan." :  But  sister  Caroline,  "  with  the  head  of  a  Cromwell 
on  the  shoulders  of  a  pretty  woman,"  was  not  easy  to  lead  ;  and 
her  husband  had  in  consequence  to  bear  the  full  weight  of  the 
Emperor's  displeasure.  Murat's  finances  were  in  disorder,  and 
Napoleon  wrote  Champagny  on  December  3Oth  to  tell  Murat 
plainly  that  if  the  borrowed  money  was  not  returned  to  France, 
it  would  be  taken  by  main  force. 2 

The  hunt. — In  pouring  rain,  in  the  forest  of  St.  Germain. 

No.  4. 

Thursday,  December  2ist,  is  the  date. 

The  weather  is  very  damp. — Making  Malmaison  as  unhealthy 
as  its  very  name  warranted,  and  rendering  more  difficult  the  task 
which  Madame  de  Remusat  had  set  herself  of  resting  Josephine 
mentally  by  tiring  her  physically.  This  typical  toady — Napo- 
leon's Eavesdropper  Extraordinary — had  arrived  at  Malmaison  on 
December  i8th.  She  writes  on  the  Friday  (December  22nd), 
beseeching  her  husband  to  advise  the  Emperor  to  moderate  the 
tone  of  his  letters,  especially  this  one  (Thursday,  December  2ist), 
which  had  upset  Josephine  frightfully.  Surely  a  more  harmless 
letter  was  never  penned.  But  it  is  the  Remusat  all  over  ;  she 
lives  in  a  chronic  atmosphere  of  suspicion  that  all  her  letters  are 
read  by  the  Emperor,  and  therefore,  like  Stevenson's  nursery 
rhymes,  they  are  always  written  with  "  one  eye  on  the  grown-up 
person  "  3 — on  the  grown-up  person  par  excellence  of  France  and  the 
century.  The  opening  of  letters  by  the  government  was  doubt- 

1  Correspondence  of  Napoleon  /.,  No.  15,952. 

2  New  Letters  of  Napoleon,  1898. 

3  Canon  Ainger's  comparison. 

NOTES  299 

less  a  blemish,  which,  however,  Napoleon  tried  to  neutralise  by 
entrusting  the  Post  Office  to  his  wife's  relative,  Lavalette,  a  man 
whose  ever-kind  heart  prevented  this  necessary  espionage  de- 
generating into  unnecessary  interference  with  individual  rights. 

No.  5. 

Date  probably  Sunday,  December  24th. 

King  of  Bavaria. — Eugene  had  gone  to  Meaux  to  meet  his 
father-in-law,  who  had  put  off  the  "  dog's  humour"  which  he  had 
shown  since  the  i6th. 

No.  6. 

Josephine  had  gone  by  special  invitation  to  dine  at  the 
little  Trianon  with  Napoleon  on  Christmas  Day,  and  Madame 
d'Avrillon  says  she  had  a  very  happy  day  there.  "  On  her 
return  she  told  me  how  kind  the  Emperor  had  been  to  her,  that 
he  had  kept  her  all  the  evening,  saying  the  kindest  things  to  her." 
Aubenas  says,  "  The  repast  was  eaten  in  silence  and  gloom," 
but  does  not  give  his  authority.  Eugene,  moreover,  confirms 
Madame  d'Avrillon  in  his  letter  to  his  wife  of  December  26th  : 
"  My  dear  Auguste,  the  Emperor  came  on  Sunday  to  see  the 
Empress.  Yesterday  she  went  to  Trianon  to  see  him,  and 
stayed  to  dinner.  The  Emperor  was  very  kind  and  amiable  to 
her,  and  she  seemed  to  be  much  better.  Everything  points  to 
the  Empress  being  more  happy  in  her  new  position,  and  we 
also."  On  this  Christmas  Day  Napoleon  had  his  last  meal 
with  Josephine. 

No.  7. 

Tuileries.  —  His  return  from  Trianon  to  this,  his  official 
residence,  made  the  divorce  more  apparent  to  every  one. 

No.  8. 

A  house  vacant  in  Paris. — This  seems  a  hint  for  Josephine. 
She  wishes  to  come  to  Paris,  to  the  Elysee,  and  to  try  a  little 
diplomacy  of  her  own  in  favour  of  the  Austrian  match,  and  she 

300  NOTES 

sends  secretly  to  Madame  de  Metternich — whose  husband  was 
absent.  Eugene  more  officially  is  approaching  Prince  Schwartzen- 
berg,  the  ambassador.  Josephine,  like  Talleyrand,  wished  to 
heal  the  schism  with  Rome  by  an  Austrian  alliance  ;  while  Cam- 
baceres,  foreseeing  a  war  with  the  power  not  allied  by  marriage, 
would  have  preferred  the  Russian  match. 

No.  9. 

Thursday,  January  4th. 

Hortense. — Louis  had  tried  to  obtain  a  divorce.  Cambaceres 
was  ordered  on  December  22nd  to  summon  a  family  council 
(New  Letters  of  Napoleon  /.,  No.  234)  ;  but  the  wish  of  the 
King  was  refused  (verbally,  says  Louis  in  his  Historical  Docu- 
ments of  Holland)^  whereupon  he  refused  to  agree  to  Josephine's 
divorce,  but  had  to  give  way,  and  was  present  at  what  he  calls 
the  farewell  festival  given  by  the  city  of  Paris  to  the  Empress 
Josephine  on  January  ist.  The  ecclesiastical  divorce  was  pro- 
nounced on  January  I2th. 

No.  10. 
January  5th.     He  duly  visits  Josephine  the  next  day. 

No.  ii. 

January  yth  is  the  date. 

What  charms  your  society  has. — Her  repertoire  of  small  talk  and 
scandal.  He  had  also  lost  in  her  his  Agenda,  his  Journal  of  Paris. 
Still  the  visits  are  growing  rarer.  This  long  kind  letter  was 
doubtless  intended  to  be  specially  so,  for  two  days  later  the  clergy 
of  Paris  pronounced  the  annulment  of  her  marriage.  This  was 
far  worse  than  the  pronouncement  by  the  Senate  in  December, 
as  it  meant  to  her  that  she  and  Napoleon  had  never  been  properly 
married  at  all.  The  Emperor,  who  hated  divorces,  and  especially 
divorcees,  had  found  great  difficulty  in  breaking  down  the  barriers 
he  had  helped  to  build,  for  which  purpose  he  had  to  be  subordi- 
nated to  his  own  Senate,  the  Pope  to  his  own  bishops.  Seven  of 
them  allowed  the  annulment  of  the  marriage  of  1804  on  account 

NOTES  301 

of  (i)  its  secrecy,  (2)  the  insufficiency  of  consent  of  the  contract- 
ing parties,  and  (3)  the  absence  of  the  local  parish  priest  at  the 
ceremony.  The  last  reason  was  merely  a  technical  one  ;  but 
with  respect  to  the  first  two  it  is  only  fair  to  admit  that  Napoleon 
had  undoubtedly,  and  perhaps  for  the  only  time  in  his  life,  been 
completely  "  rushed,"  i.e.  by  the  Pope  and  Josephine.  The  coro- 
nation ceremony  was  waiting,  and  the  Pope,  secretly  solicited  by 
Josephine,  insisted  on  a  religious  marriage  first  and  foremost. 
The  Pope  suffered  forthwith,  but  the  other  bill  of  costs  was 
not  exacted  till  five  years  after  date. 

No.  12. 

Wednesday,  January  I2th. 

King  of  Westphalia. — Madame  Durand  (Napoleon  and  Marie 
Louise]  says  that,  forced  to  abandon  his  wife  (the  beautiful  and 
energetic  Miss  Paterson)  and  child,  Jerome  "  had  vowed  he 
would  never  have  any  relations  with  a  wife  who  had  been  thus 
forced  upon  him."  For  three  years  he  lavished  his  attentions 
upon  almost  all  the  beauties  of  the  Westphalian  court.  The 
queen,  an  eye-witness  of  this  conduct,  bore  it  with  mild  and 
forbearing  dignity ;  she  seemed  to  see  and  hear  nothing ;  in 
short,  her  demeanour  was  perfect.  The  king,  touched  by  her 
goodness,  weary  of  his  conquests,  and  repentant  of  his  behaviour, 
was  only  anxious  for  an  opportunity  of  altering  the  state  of  things. 
Happily  the  propitious  moment  presented  itself.  The  right  wing 
of  the  palace  of  Cassel,  in  which  the  queen's  apartments  were 
situated,  took  fire  ;  alarmed  by  the  screams  of  her  women  the 
queen  awoke  and  sprang  out  of  her  bed,  to  be  caught  in  the  arms 
of  the  king  and  carried  to  a  place  of  safety.  From  that  time 
forth  the  royal  couple  were  united  and  happy. 

No.  13. 

Saturday,  January  I3th. 

Sensible. — This  was  now  possible  after  a  month's  mourning. 
In  the  early  days,  according  to  Madame  Remusat,  her  mind  often 
wandered,  But  Napoleon  himself  encouraged  the  Court  to  visit 

302  NOTES 

her,  and  the  road  to  Malmaison  was  soon  a  crowded  one.  As 
the  days  passed,  however,  life  became  sadly  monotonous.  Read- 
ing palled  on  Josephine,  as  did  whist  and  the  daily  feeding  of  her 
golden  pheasants  and  guinea-fowls.  Remained  "  Patience "  ! 
Was  it  the  "  General "  she  played  or  the  "  Emperor,"  or  did  she 
find  distraction  in  the  "  Demon  "  ? 

No.  14. 

D'Audenarde. — Napoleon's  handsome  equerry,  whom  Mile. 
d'Avrillon  calls  "  un  homme  superbe."  His  mother  was  Josephine's 
favourite  dame  du  palats.  Madame  Lalaing,  Viscountess  d'Aude- 
narde,  nie  Peyrac,  was  one  of  the  old  regime  who  had  been  ruined 
by  the  Revolution. 

No.  1 6. 

Tuesday,  January  23rd. 

On  January  2ist  a  Privy  Council  was  summoned  to  approve 
of  Marie  Louise  as  their  "  choice  of  a  consort,  who  may  give 
an  heir  to  the  throne "  (Thiers).  Cambaceres,  Fouche,  and 
Murat  wished  for  the  Russian  princess  ;  Lebrun,  Cardinal  Fesch, 
and  King  Louis  for  a  Saxon  one  ;  but  Talleyrand,  Champagny, 
Maret,  Berthier,  Fontanes  were  for  Austria. 

No.  17. 
Sunday,  January  28th. 

No.  1 8. 

Josephine  had  heard  she  was  to  be  banished  from  Paris,  and 
so  had  asked  to  come  to  the  Elysee  to  prove  the  truth  or  other- 
wise of  the  rumour. 

L'Elysle. — St.  Amand  gives  the  following  interesting  prtcis : 
"Built  by  the  Count  d'Evreux  in  1718,  it  had  belonged  in  suc- 
cession to  the  Marchioness  de  Pompadour,  to  the  financier 
Beaujon,  a  Croesus  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  to  the  Duchesse 
de  Bourbon.  Having,  under  the  Revolution,  become  national 
property,  it  had  been  hired  by  the  caterers  of  public  entertain- 

NOTES  303 

ments,  who  gave  it  the  name  of  L'Elysde.  In  1803  it  became 
the  property  of  Murat,  who,  becoming  King  of  Naples,  ceded  it 
to  Napoleon  in  1808.  Here  Napoleon  signed  his  second  abdica- 
tion, here  resided  Alexander  I.  in  1815,  and  here  Josephine's 
grandson  effected  the  Coup  cTEtat  (1851).  When  the  Senatus- 
Consultus  fixed  the  revenue  of  Josephine,  Napoleon  not  only 
gave  her  whatever  rights  he  had  in  Malmaison,  viz.,  at  least  90 
per  cent,  of  the  total  cost,  but  the  palace  of  the  Elysee,  its  gardens 
and  dependencies,  with  the  furniture  then  in  use."  The  latter 
residence  was,  however,  for  her  life  only. 

No.  19. 

February  3rd  is  the  date. 

U  Ely  see. — After  the  first  receptions  the  place  is  far  worse 
than  Malmaison.  Schwartzenberg,  Talleyrand,  the  Princess 
Pauline,  Berthier,  even  her  old  friend  Cambaceres  are  giving 
balls,1  while  the  Emperor  goes  nearly  every  night  to  a  theatre. 
The  carriages  pass  by  the  Elysee,  but  do  not  stop.  "  It  is  as  if 
the  palace  were  in  quarantine,  with  the  yellow  flag  floating.1' 

No.  20. 

Bessiere?  country-house. — M.  Masson  says  Grignon,  but  unless 
this  house  is  called  after  the  chateau  of  that  name  in  Provence, 
he  must  be  mistaken. 

No.  21. 

Rambouillet. — He  had  taken  the  Court  with  him,  and  was 
there  from  February  igth  to  the  23rd,  the  date  of  this  letter. 
While  there  he  had  been  in  the  best  of  humours.  On  his  return 
he  finds  it  necessary  to  write  his  future  wife  and  to  her  father — 
and  to  pen  a  legible  letter  to  the  latter  gives  him  far  more  trouble 
than  winning  a  battle  against  the  Austrians,  if  not  assisted  by 
General  Danube. 

Adieu. — Sick   and  weary,  Josephine   returns   to   Malmaison, 

1  See  Baron  Lejeune  for  an  interesting  account  of  a  chess  quadrille  at  a  dance 
given  by  the  Italian  Minister,  Marescalchi, 

3o4  NOTES 

Friday,  March  gth,  and  even  this  is  not  long  to  be  hers,  for  the 
new  Empress  is  almost  already  on  her  way.  The  marriage  at 
Vienna  took  place  on  March  nth,  with  her  uncle  Charles,1  the 
hero  of  Essling,  for  Napoleon's  proxy;  on  the  I3th  she  leaves 
Vienna,  and  on  the  23rd  reaches  Strasbourg.  On  the  2jth  she 
meets  Napoleon  at  Compiegne,  spends  three  days  with  him  in 
the  chateau  there,  and  arrives  at  St.  Cloud  on  April  ist,  where 
the  civil  marriage  is  renewed,  followed  by  the  triumphal  entry 
into  Paris,  and  the  religious  ceremony  on  April  2nd.  This  day 
Josephine  reaches  the  chateau  of  Navarre. 


Navarre,  on  the  site  of  an  old  dwelling  of  Rollo  the  Sea-King, 
was  built  by  Jeanne  of  France,  Queen  of  Navarre,  Countess  of 
Evreux.  At  the  time  of  the  Revolution  it  belonged  to  the 
Dukes  of  Bouillon,  and  was  confiscated.  In  February  1810, 
Napoleon  determined  to  purchase  it,  and  on  March  loth  in- 
structed his  secretary  of  state,  Maret,  to  confer  the  Duchy  of 
Navarre,  purchased  by  letters  patent,  on  Josephine  and  her  heirs 
male.  The  old  square  building  was,  however,  utterly  unfit  to 
be  inhabited  :  not  a  window  would  shut,  there  was  neither 
paper  nor  tapestry,  all  the  wainscoting  was  rotten,  draughts  and 
damp  everywhere,  and  no  heating  apparatus.2  What  solace  to 
know  its  beautiful  situation,  its  capabilities  ?  No  wonder  if  her 
household,  banished  to  such  a  place,  sixty-five  miles  from  the 
"  capital  of  capitals,"  should  rebel,  and  secessions  headed  by  Madame 
Ney  become  for  a  time  general.  Whist  and  piquet  soon  grow 
stale  in  such  a  house  and  with  such  surroundings,  and  even 
trictrac  with  the  old  bishop  of  Evreux  becomes  tedious. 

1  On  this  occasion  Baron  Lejeune  sees  the  Archduke  Charles,  and  remarks  : 
"There  was  nothing  in  his  quiet  face  with  its  grave  and  gentle  expression,  or  in 
his  simple,  modest,  unassuming  manner,  to  denote  the  mighty  man  of  war ;  but 
no  one  who  met  his  eyes  could  doubt  him  to  be  a  genius." 

2  "  This  gloomy  and  forsaken  chateau,"  says  St.  Amand,  "  whose  only  attraction 
was  the  half- forgotten  memory  of  its  vanished  splendours,  was  a  fit  image  of  the 
woman  who  came  to  seek  sanctuary  there." 

NOTES  305 

Eugene  as  usual  brings  sunshine  in  his  path,  and  helps  to  dispel 
the  gloom  caused  by  the  idle  gossip  imported  from  Paris — that 
Josephine  is  not  to  return  to  Malmaison,  and  the  like. 

No.   i. 

This  was  Josephine's  second  letter,  says  D'Avrillon,  the  first 
being  answered  viva  voce  by  Eugene. 

To  Malmaison. — Napoleon  had  promised  Josephine  permission 
to  return  to  Malmaison,  and  would  not  recant :  his  new  wife 
was,  however,  very  jealous  of  Josephine,  and  very  much  hurt  at 
her  presence  at  Malmaison.  Napoleon  managed  to  be  away 
from  Paris  for  six  weeks  after  Josephine's  arrival  at  Malmaison. 

No.   i  A. 

//  is  written  in  a  bad  style. — M.  Masson,  however,  is  loud  in  its 
praises,  and  adds,  "  Voila  done  le  protocol  du  tutoiement "  re- 
established between  them  in  spite  of  the  second  marriage,  and 
their  correspondence  re-established  on  the  old  terms. 

No.  2. 

This  letter  seems  to  have  been  taken  by  Eugene  to  Paris, 
and  thence  forwarded  to  the  Emperor  with  a  letter  from  that 
Prince  in  which  he  enumerates  Josephine's  suggestions  and 
wishes — (i)  that  she  will  not  go  to  Aix-la-Chapelle  if  other  waters 
are  suggested  by  Corvisart ;  (2)  that  after  stopping  a  few  days 
at  Malmaison  she  will  go  in  June  for  three  months  to  the  baths, 
and  afterwards  to  the  south  of  France  ;  visit  Rome,  Florence, 
and  Naples  incognito,  spend  the  winter  at  Milan,  and  return  to 
Malmaison  and  Navarre  in  the  spring  of  1811  ;  (3)  that  in  her 
absence  Navarre  shall  be  made  habitable,  for  which  fresh  funds 
are  required  ;  (4)  that  Josephine  wishes  her  cousins  the  Taschers 
to  marry,  one  a  relative  of  King  Joseph,  the  other  the  Princess 
Amelie  de  la  Leyen,  niece  of  the  Prince  Primate.  To  this 
Napoleon  replies  from  Compiegne,  April  26th,  that  the  De 
Leyen  match  with  Louis  Tascher  may  take  place,1  but  that  he 

1  He  endows  the  husband  with  £4000  a  year,  and  the  title  of  Count  Tascher. 


306  NOTES 

will  not  interest  himself  in  the  other  (Henry)  Tascher,  who  is 
giddy-headed  and  bad-tempered.  "  I  consent  to  whatever  the 
Empress  does,  but  I  will  not  confer  any  mark  of  my  regard  on  a 
person  who  has  behaved  ill  to  me.  I  am  very  glad  that  the 
Empress  likes  Navarre.  I  am  giving  orders  to  have  .£12,000 
which  I  owe  her  for  1810,  and  .£12,000  for  1811  advanced  to 
her.  She  will  then  have  only  the  ^80,000  from  the  public 
treasury  to  come  in.  ...  She  is  free  to  go  to  whatever  spa  she 
cares  for,  and  even  to  return  to  Paris  afterwards."  He  thinks, 
however,  she  would  be  happier  in  new  scenes  which  they  had 
never  visited  together,  as  they  had  Aix-la-Chapelle.  If,  however, 
the  last  are  the  best  she  may  go  to  them,  for  "  what  I  desire  above 
all  is  that  she  may  keep  calm,  and  not  allow  herself  to  be  excited 
by  the  gossip  of  Paris."  This  letter  goes  far  to  soothe  the  poor 
chatelaine  of  Navarre. 

No.  2A. 

Two  letters. — The  other,  now  missing,  may  have  some  refer- 
ence to  the  pictures  to  which  he  refers  in  his  letter  to  Fouche 
the  next  day.  "  Is  it  true  that  engravings  are  being  published 
with  the  title  of  Josephine  Beauharnais  nee  La  Pagerie  ?  If  this  is 
true,  have  the  prints  seized,  and  let  the  engravers  be  punished  " 
(New  Letters,  No.  253). 

No.  3. 

Probably  written  from  Boulogne  about  the  25th.  His 
northern  tour  with  Marie  Louise  had  been  very  similar  to  one 
taken  in  1804,  but  his  entourage  found  the  new  bride  very  cold 
and  callous  compared  to  Josephine.  Leaving  Paris  on  April 
29th  Napoleon's  Correspondence  till  June  is  dated  Laeken  (April 
3Oth) ;  Antwerp  (May  3rd) ;  Bois-le-Duc  ;  Middleburg,  Gand, 
Bruges,  Ostend  (May  2Oth) ;  Lille,  Boulogne,  Dieppe,  Le 
Havre,  Rouen  (May  3ist).  He  takes  the  Empress  in  a  canal 
barge  from  Brussels  to  Malines  and  himself  descends  the 
subterranean  vault  of  the  Escaut-Oise  canal,  between  St. 
Quentin  and  Cambrai.  He  is  at  St.  Cloud  on  June  2nd. 

Josephine  has  felt  his  wanderings  less,  as  she  has  the  future 

NOTES  307 

Emperor,  her  favourite  grandson,  with  her,  the  little  Oui-Oui, 
as  she  calls  him,  and  for  whom  the  damp  spring  weather  of 
Holland  was  dangerous.  She  was  also  at  Malmaison  from  the 
middle  of  May  to  June  i8th.  The  original  collection  of 
Letters  (Didot  Freres,  1833)  heads  the  letter  correctly  to  the 
Empress  Josephine  at  Malmaison^  but  the  Correspondence^  pub- 
lished by  order  of  Napoleon  III.,  gives  it  erroneously,  to  the 
Empress  Josephine,  at  the  Chateau  of  Navarre  (No.  16,537). 

/  will  come  to  see  you. — He  comes  for  two  hours  on  June  I3th, 
and  makes  himself  thoroughly  agreeable.  Poor  Josephine  is 
light-headed  with  joy  all  the  evening  after.  The  meeting  of 
the  two  Empresses  is,  however,  indefinitely  postponed,  and 
Josephine  had  now  no  further  reason  to  delay  her  departure. 
Leaving  her  little  grandson  Louis  behind,  she  travels  under  the 
name  of  the  Countess  d'Arberg,  and  she  is  accompanied  by 
Madame  d'Audenarde  and  Mile,  de  Mackau,  who  left  the 
Princess  Stephanie  to  come  to  Navarre.  M.  Masson  notes  that 
Madame  de  Remusat  needs  the  Aix  waters,  and  will  rejoin 
Josephine  (within  a  week),  under  pretext  of  service,  and  thus 
obtain  her  cure  gratuitously.  They  go  via  Lyons  and  Geneva 
to  Aix-les-Bains.  M.  Masson,  who  has  recently  made  a  careful 
and  complete  study  of  this  period,  describes  the  daily  round. 
"  Josephine,  on  getting  out  of  bed,  takes  conscientiously  her 
baths  and  douches,  then,  as  usual,  lies  down  again  until  de- 
jeuner,  1 1  A.M.,  for  which  the  whole  of  the  little  Court  are 
assembled  at  The  Palace  —  wherever  she  lives,  and  however 
squalid  the  dwelling-place,  her  abode  always  bears  this  name. 
Afterwards  she  and  her  women-folk  ply  their  interminable 
tapestry,  while  the  latest  novel  or  play  (sent  by  Barbier  from 
Paris)  is  read  aloud.  And  so  the  day  passes  till  five,  when  they 
dress  for  dinner  at  six  ;  after  dinner  a  ride.  At  nine  the  Empress's 
friends  assemble  in  her  room,  Mile,  de  Mackau  sings  ;.at  eleven 
every  one  goes  to  bed."  This  programme,  however,  varies  with 
the  weather.  Here  is  St.  Amand's  version  (Dernieres  Annees  de 
I' Imperatrice  Josephine,  p.  237)  :  "A  little  reading  in  the  morning, 
an  airing  (le  promenade]  afterwards,  dinner  at  eight  on  account  of 
the  heat,  games  afterwards,  and  some  little  music  ;  so  passed 

308  NOTES 

No.  4. 

July  8M. — On  July  5th,  driving  along  the  Chambery  road, 
Josephine  met  the  courier  with  a  letter  from  Eugene  describing 
the  terrible  fire  at  Prince  Schwartzenberg's  ball,  where  the 
Princess  de  la  Leyen,  mother  of  young  Taschre's  bride-elect, 
was  burnt.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  Emperor  makes  no 
allusion  to  the  conflagration.  As,  however,  this  is  the  first 
letter  since  the  end  of  May,  others  may  have  been  lost  or 

You  will  have  seen  Eugene — i.e.  on  his  way  to  Milan,  who 
arrived  at  Aix  on  July  loth.  He  had  just  been  made  heir  to 
the  Grand  Duchy  of  Frankfort — a  broad  hint  to  him  and  to 
Europe  that  Italy  would  be  eventually  united  to  France  under 
Napoleon's  dynasty.  This  was  the  nadir  of  the  Beauharnais 
family — Josephine  repudiee,  Hortense  unqueened  and  unwed,1 
and  Eugene's  expectations  dissipated,  and  all  within  a  few 
short  months.  Eugene  had  left  his  wife  ill  at  Geneva,  whither 
Josephine  goes  to  visit  her  the  next  day,  duly  reporting  her 
visit  to  Napoleon  in  her  letter  of  July  I4th  (see  No.  5).  Geneva 
was  always  the  home  of  the  disaffected,  and  so  the  Empress  had 
to  be  specially  tactful,  and  the  De  Remusat  reports :  "  She 
speaks  of  the  Emperor  as  of  a  brother,  of  the  new  Empress 
as  the  one  who  will  give  children  to  France,  and  if  the  rumours 
of  the  latter's  condition  be  correct,  I  am  certain  she  will  be 
delighted  about  it." 

That  unfortunate  daughter  is  coming  to  France — i.e.  to  reside  when 
she  is  not  at  St.  Leu  (given  to  her  by  Napoleon)  or  at  the  waters. 
On  the  present  occasion  she  has  been  at  Plombieres  a  month  or 
more.  On  July  loth  Napoleon  instructs  the  Countess  de 
Boubers  to  bring  the  Grand  Duke  of  Berg  to  Paris,  "whom 
he  awaits  with  impatience  "  (Brotonne,  625). 

No.  5. 

The  conduct  of  the  King  of  Holland  has  worried  me. — This  was 
in  March,  and  by  May  the  crisis  was  still  more  acute  and 

1  "  Une  epouse  sans  epoux,  et  une  reine  sans  royaume  " — St.  Amand. 

NOTES  309 

Napoleon's  patience  exhausted.  On  May  20th  he  writes : 
"  Before  all  things  be  a  Frenchman  and  the  Emperor's  brother, 
and  then  you  may  be  sure  you  are  in  the  path  of  the  true 
interests  of  Holland.  Good  sense  and  policy  are  necessary  to  the 
government  of  states,  not  sour  unhealthy  bile."  And  three  days 
later  :  "  Write  me  no  more  of  your  customary  twaddle  ;  three 
years  now  it  has  been  going  on,  and  every  instant  proves  its 
falsehood  !  This  is  the  last  letter  I  shall  ever  write  you  in  my 

Louis  at  one  time  determined  on  war,  and  rather  than 
surrender  Amsterdam,  to  cut  the  dykes.  The  Emperor  hears 
of  this,  summons  his  brother,  and  practically  imprisons  him  until 
he  countermands  the  defence  of  Amsterdam. 

On  July  ist  Louis  abdicated  and  fled  to  Toeplitz  in 
Bohemia.  Napoleon  is  terribly  grieved  at  the  conduct  of  his 
brother,  who  would  never  realise  that  the  effective  Continental 
blockade  was  Napoleon's  last  sheet-anchor  to  force  peace  upon 

No.  6. 

To  die  in  a  lake — i.e.  the  Lake  of  Bourget,  shut  in  by  the 
Dent  du  Chat,  where  a  white  squall  had  nearly  capsized  the 
sailing  boat.  Josephine  had  been  on  July  26th  to  visit  the 
abbey  Haute-Combe,  place  of  sepulture  of  the  Princes  of  Savoy, 
and  the  storm  had  overtaken  her  on  the  return  voyage. 

No.  8. 

Paris,  this  Friday. — A  very  valuable  note  of  M.  Masson 
(Josephine  Repudiee,  198)  enables  us  to  fix  this  letter  at  its  correct 
date.  He  says :  "  It  has  to  do  with  the  exile  of  Madame  de 

la  T (viz.,  the  Princess  Louis  de  la  Tremoille),  which  takes 

place  on  September  28th,  1810,  and  this  28th  September  is  also 
a  Friday  :  there  is  also  the  question  of  Mile,  de  Mackau  being 
made  a  baroness  "  (and  this  lady  had  not  joined  the  Court  of 

Josephine  till  May  1810)  ;  "lastly,  the  B mentioned  therein 

can  only  be  Barante,  the  Prefect,  whose  dismissal  (from  Geneva) 

3io  NOTES 

almost  coincides  with  this  letter."  It  may  be  added  that  the  La 
Tremoille  family  was  one  of  the  oldest  in  France,  allied  with 
the  Condes,  and  consequently  with  the  Bourbons.  Barante's 
fault  had  been  connivance  at  the  letters  and  conduct  of  Madame 
de  Stael. 

No.  9. 

The  only  suitable  places  .  .  .  are  either  Milan  or  Navarre. — 
Milan  had  been  her  own  suggestion  conveyed  by  Eugene,  but 
Napoleon,  two  months  later,  had  told  her  she  could  spend  the 
winter  in  France,  and  in  spite  of  danger  signals  ("  inspired  by 
diplomacy  rather  than  devotion  "  J)  from  Madame  de  Remusat  (in 
her  fulsome  and  tedious  "  despatch  "  sent  from  Paris  in  September, 
and  probably  inspired  by  the  Emperor  himself)  she  manages  to 
get  to  Navarre,  and  even  to  spend  the  first  fortnight  of 
November  at  Malmaison.  Before  leaving  Switzerland  Josephine 
refuses  to  risk  an  interview  with  Madame  de  Stael.  "In  the 
first  book  she  publishes  she  will  not  fail  to  report  our  con- 
versation, and  heaven  knows  how  many  things  she  will  make 
me  say  that  I  have  never  even  thought  of." 

No.  10. 

In  spite  of  the  heading  Josephine  was  at  Malmaison  on  this 
day,  and  Napoleon  writes  Cambaceres :  "  My  cousin,  the 
Empress  Josephine  not  leaving  for  Navarre  till  Monday  or 
Tuesday,  I  wish  you  to  pay  her  a  visit.  You  will  let  me 
know  on  your  return  how  you  find  her"  (Brotonne,  721).  The 
real  reason  is  to  hasten  her  departure,  and  she  gets  to  Navarre 
November  22nd  (Thursday). 

The  Empress  progresses  satisfactorily. — Napoleon  writes  to  this 
effect  to  her  father,  the  Emperor  of  Austria,  on  the  same  day  : 
"The  Empress  is  very  well.  ...  It  is  impossible  that  the  wife 
for  whom  I  am  indebted  to  you  should  be  more  perfect.  More- 
over, I  beg  your  Majesty  to  rest  assured  that  she  and  I  are  equally 
attached  to  you." 

1  Aubenas, 

NOTES  311 

No.  i. 

The  New  Tear. — On  this  occasion,  instead  of  her  usual  gifts 
(etrennes)  she  organised  a  lottery  of  jewels,  of  which  Madame 
Ducrest  gives  a  full  account.  Needless  to  say,  Josephine  worked 
the  oracle  so  that  every  one  got  a  suitable  gift — including  the 
old  Bishop  (see  next  note). 

More  women  than  men. — The  Bishop  of  Evreux  (Mgr. 
Bourlier)  was  the  most  welcome  guest.  He  amused  Josephine, 
and  although  eighty  years  of  age,  could  play  trictrac  and  talk 
well  on  any  subject.  Madame  de  Remusat  wrote  her  husband 
concerning  him,  "  We  understand  each  other  very  well,  he 
and  I." 

Keep  well. — At  Navarre  Josephine  lost  her  headaches,  and  put 
on  flesh. 

No.  2. 

There  is  a  full  account  of  the  birth  of  the  King  of  Rome  in 
Napoleon's  letter  to  the  Emperor  of  Austria  on  March  20  (No. 
17,496).  The  letter  of  this  date  to  Josephine  is  missing,  but  is 
referred  to  by  D'Avrillon.  It  began,  "My  dear  Josephine,  I 
have  a  son.  I  am  au  comble  de  bonheur." 

Eugene. — Josephine  much  appreciated  this  allusion.  "  Is  it 
possible,"  she  said,  "  for  any  one  to  be  kinder  than  the  Emperor, 
and  more  anxious  to  mitigate  whatever  might  be  painful  for  me 
at  the  present  moment,  if  I  loved  him  less  sincerely  ?  This 
association  of  my  son  with  his  own  is  well  worthy  of  him  who, 
when  he  likes,  is  the  most  fascinating  of  all  men."  She  gave  a 
costly  ring  to  the  page  who  brought  the  letter. 

On  the  previous  day  Eugene  had  arrived  at  Navarre, — sent  by 
the  Emperor.  "  You  are  going  to  see  your  mother,  Eugene  ;  tell 
her  I  am  sure  that  she  will  rejoice  more  than  any  one  at  my 
happiness.  I  should  have  already  written  to  her  if  I  had  not  been 
absorbed  by  the  pleasure  of  watching  my  boy.  The  moments  I 
snatch  from  his  side  are  only  for  matters  of  urgent  necessity. 

312  NOTES 

This  event,  I  shall  acquit  myself  of  the  most  pleasant  of  them  all 
by  writing  to  Josephine." 

No.  4. 

Written  in  November  1811. 

As  fat  as  a  good  Normandy  farmeress. — Madame  d'Abrantes, 
who  saw  her  about  this  time,  writes  :  "  I  observed  that  Josephine 
had  grown  very  stout1  since  the  time  of  my  departure  for  Spain. 
This  change  was  at  once  for  the  better  and  the  worse.  It 
imparted  a  more  youthful  appearance  to  her  face  ;  but  her  slender 
and  elegant  figure,  which  had  been  one  of  her  principal  attrac- 
tions, had  entirely  disappeared.  She  had  now  decided  ernbon- 
point^  and  her  figure  had  assumed  that  matronly  air  which  we 
find  in  the  statues  of  Agrippina,  Cornelia,  &c.  Still,  however, 
she  looked  uncommonly  well,  and  she  wore  a  dress  which  became 
her  admirably.  Her  judicious  taste  in  these  matters  contributed 
to  make  her  appear  young  much  longer  than  she  otherwise  would. 
The  best  proof  of  the  admirable  taste  of  Josephine  is  the  marked 
absence  of  elegance  shown  by  Marie  Louise,  though  both 
Empresses  employed  the  same  milliners  and  dressmakers,  and 
Marie  Louise  had  a  large  sum  allotted  for  the  expenses  of  her 

St.  Amand  says  that  1 8 1 1  was  for  Josephine  a  happy  year, 
compared  to  those  which  followed. 


No.  i. 

Written  from  Konigsberg  (M.  Masson,  in  Josephine  Repudiee^ 
says  Dantzig  ;  but  on  June  nth  Napoleon  writes  to  Eugene,  "  I 
shall  be  at  Konigsberg  to-morrow,"  where  his  correspondence 
is  dated  from  henceforward).  A  day  or  two  later  he  writes  the 

1  Mile.  d'Avrillon  says   that  during  the   Swiss  voyage  Josephine  found   it 
desirable,  for  the  first  time,  to  "wear  whalebone  in  her  corsets," 

NOTES  313 

King  of  Rome's  governess  that  he  trusts  to  hear  soon  that  the 
fifteen  months  old  child  has  cut  his  first  four  teeth. 

No.  2. 

Gumbinneri)  June  2Oth. — From  this  place  and  on  this  date  goes 
forth  the  first  bulletin  of  the  Grande  Armle.  It  gives  a  rhuml  of 
the  causes  of  the  war,  dating  from  the  end  of  1810,  when  English 
influence  again  gained  ascendency. 

On  July  2Qth  he  writes  Hortense  from  Witepsk  to  congratu- 
late her  on  her  eldest  son's  recovery  from  an  illness.  A  week 
later  he  writes  his  librarian  for  some  amusing  novels — new 
ones  for  choice,  or  old  ones  that  he  has  not  read — or  good 

Josephine  meanwhile  has  permission  to  go  to  Italy.  Owing 
to  her  grandson's  illness  she  defers  starting  till  July  i6th. 
Through  frightful  weather  she  reaches  Milan  via  Geneva  on  July 
28th,  and  has  a  splendid  reception.  On  the  29th  she  writes  to 
Hortense  :  "  I  have  found  the  three  letters  from  Eugene,  the  last 
one  dated  the  I3th  ;  his  health  is  excellent.  He  still  pursues  the 
Russians,  without  being  able  to  overtake  them.  It  is  generally 
hoped  the  campaign  may  be  a  short  one.  May  that  hope  be 
realised  !  "  Two  days  later  she  announces  the  birth  of  Eugene's 
daughter  Amelia,  afterwards  Empress  of  Brazil.  Towards  the 
end  of  August  Josephine  goes  to  Aix  and  meets  the  Queen  of 
Spain  with  her  sister  Desiree  Bernadotte,  the  former  "  kind  and 
amiable  as  usual,"  the  latter  "  very  gracious  to  me  " — rather  a 
new  experience.  From  Aix  she  goes  to  Pregny-la-Tour,  on  the 
Lake  of  Geneva,  and  shocks  the  good  people  in  various  ways,  says 
M.  Masson,  especially  by  innuendoes  against  Napoleon  ;  and  he 
adds,  "  if  one  traces  back  to  their  source  the  worst  calumnies 
against  the  morals  of  the  Emperor,  it  is  Josephine  that  one 
encounters  there."  She  gets  to  Malmaison  October  24th.  Soon 
after  his  return  from  Moscow  Napoleon  pays  her  a  visit,  and 
about  this  time  she  begins  to  see  the  King  of  Rome,  whose 
mother  has  always  thought  more  of  her  daily  music  and  draw- 
ing lessons  than  of  whether  she  was  making  her  son  happy 
or  not, 


1812  closed  in  gloom,  but  1813  was  in  itself  terribly  ominou 
to  so  superstitious  a  woman  as  Josephine.  Thirteen  is  always 
unlucky,  and  moreover  the  numbers  of  1813  add  up  to  13  ;  also 
the  doom-dealing  year  began  on  a  Friday.  Every  one  felt  the 
hour  approaching.  As  Napoleon  said  at  St.  Helena  :  "  The  star 
grew  pale  ;  I  felt  the  reins  slipping  from  my  hand,  and  I  could 
do  no  more.  A  thunderbolt  could  alone  have  saved  us,  and 
every  day,  by  some  new  fatality  or  other,  our  chances  diminished. 
Sinister  designs  began  to  creep  in  among  us  ;  fatigue  and  dis- 
couragement had  won  over  the  majority  ;  my  lieutenants  became 
lax,  clumsy,  careless,  and  consequently  unfortunate  ;  they  were 
no  longer  the  men  of  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution,  nor 
even  of  the  time  of  my  good  fortune.  The  chief  generals  were 
sick  of  the  war  ;  I  had  gorged  them  too  much  with  my  high 
esteem,  with  too  many  honours  and  too  much  wealth.  They 
had  drunk  from  the  cup  of  pleasure,  and  wished  to  enjoy  peace 
at  any  price.  The  sacred  fire  was  quenched." 

Up  to  August  Fortune  had  smiled  again  upon  her  favourite. 
With  conscripts  for  infantry  and  without  cavalry  he  had  won 
Lutzen,  Bautzen,  and  Dresden  ;  and  even  so  late  as  September 
Byron  was  writing  that  "  bar  epilepsy  and  the  elements  he  would 
back  Napoleon  against  the  field."  But  treachery  and  incompe- 
tence had  undermined  the  Empire,  and  Leipsic  (that  battle  of 
giants,  where  110,000  soldiers  were  killed  and  wounded)  made 
final  success  hopeless.  In  1814  his  brothers  Lucien  and  Louis 
rallied  to  him,  and  Hortense  was  for  the  only  time  proud  of  her 
husband.  She  thinks  if  he  had  shown  less  suspicion  and  she  less 
pride  they  might  have  been  happy  after  all.  "  My  husband  is  a 
good  Frenchman  ...  he  is  an  honest  man."  Meanwhile, 
Talleyrand  is  watching  to  guide  the  coup  de  grace.  Napoleon 
makes  a  dash  for  Lorraine  to  gather  his  garrisons  and  cut  off  the 
enemy's  supplies.  The  Allies  hesitate  and  are  about  to  follow 
him,  as  per  the  rules  of  war.  Talleyrand,  the  only  man  who 
could  ever  divine  Napoleon,  sends  them  the  message,  "  You  can 
do  everything,  and  you  dare  nothing;  dare  therefore  once!" 
Hortense  is  the  only  man  left  in  Paris,  and  in  vain  she  tries  to 
keep  Marie  Louise,  whose  presence  would  have  stimulated  the 
Parisians  to  hold  the  Allies  at  bay.  It  is  in  vain.  Unlike  Prussia 

NOTES  315 

or  Austria  who   fought   for  months,  or  Spain  who   fought   for 
years,  after  their  capitals  were  taken  : — 

"  Like  Nineveh,  Carthage,  Babylon  and  Rome, 
France  yields  to  the  conqueror,  vanquished  at  home." 

After  Marmont's  betrayal  Napoleon  attempts  suicide,  and 
when  he  believes  death  imminent  sends  a  last  message  to 
Josephine  by  Caulaincourt,  "  You  will  tell  Josephine  that  my 
thoughts  were  of  her  before  life  departed." 

It  was  on  Monday,  May  23rd,  that  Josephine's  illness  com- 
menced, after  receiving  at  dinner  the  King  of  Prussia  and  his 
sons  (one  afterwards  Wilhelm  der  Greise,  first  Emperor  of  Ger- 
many). Whether  the  sore  throat  which  killed  her  was  a 
quinsy  or  diphtheria l  is  difficult  to  prove,  but  the  latter  seems 
the  more  probable.  Corvisart,  who  was  himself  ill  and  unable 
to  attend,  told  Napoleon  that  she  died  of  grief  and  worry. 
Before  leaving  for  the  Waterloo  campaign  Napoleon  visited 
Malmaison,  and  there,  as  Lord  Rosebery  reminds  us,  allowed 
his  only  oblique  reproach  to  Marie  Louise  to  escape  him : 
"  Poor  Josephine.  Her  death,  of  which  the  news  took  me  by 
surprise  at  Elba,  was  one  of  the  most  acute  griefs  of  that  fatal 
year,  1814.  She  had  her  failings,  of  course  ;  but  shey  at  any  rate, 
would  never  have  abandoned  me" 

1  The  same  question  may  be  asked  respecting  the  death  of  Montaigne. 



FABLE. —  Composee  a  I' age  de  13  ans,  par  NAPOLEON  I. 

Cesar,  chien  d'arret  renomme, 

Mais  trop  enfle  de  son  merite, 

Tennait  arrete  dans  son  gite 
Un  malheureux  lapin  de  peur  inanime. 
"  Rends-toi !  "  lui  cria-t-il,  d'une  voix  de  tonerre 
Qui  fit  au  loin  trembler  les  peuplades  des  bois. 
"  Je  suis  Cesar,  connu  par  ses  exploits, 
Et  dont  le  nom  remplit  toute  la  terre." 

A  ce  grand  nom,  Jeannot  Lapin, 
Recommandant  a  Dieu  son  ame  penitente, 

Demande  d'une  voix  tremblante  : 

"  Tres-serenissime  matin, 
Si  je  me  rends  quel  sera  mon  destin  ? " 
"  Tu  mourras."     "  Je  mourrai !  "  dit  la  bete  innocente. 
"  Et  si  je  fuis  ? "     "  Ton  trepas  est  certain." 
"  Quoi !  "  reprit  1' animal  qui  se  nourrit  de  thym, 
"  Des  deux  cotes  je  dois  perdre  la  vie  ! 

Que  votre  auguste  seigneurie 
Veuille  me  pardonner,  puisqu'il  me  faut  mourir, 

Si  j'ose  tenter  de  m'enfuir." 
II  dit,  et  fuit  en  heros  de  garenne. 
Caton  1'aurait  blame1 ;  je  dis  qu'il  n'eut  pas  tort. 

Car  le  chasseur  le  voit  a  peine 
Qu'il  1'ajuste,  le  tire — et  le  chien  tombe  mort 
Que  dirait  de  ceci  notre  bon  La  Fontaine  ? 

Aide-toi,  le  ciel  t'aidera. 

I'approuve  fort  cette  me'thode-la, 



MANY  more  or  less  fictitious  genealogies  of  the  Bonapartes  have  been 
published,  some  going  back  to  mythical  times.  The  first  reliable  record, 
however,  seems  to  be  that  of  a  certain  Bonaparte  of  Sarzana,  in  Northern 
Italy,  an  imperfal  notary,  who  was  living  towards  the  end  of  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  from  whom  both  the  Corsican  and  the  Trevisan  or  Floren- 
tine Bonapartes  claim  their  origin.  From  him  in  direct  line  was  descended 
Francois  de  Sarzana,  who  was  sent  to  Corsica  in  1509  to  fight  for  the 
Republic  of  Genoa.  His  son  Gabriel,  having  sold  his  patrimony  in 
Italy,  settled  in  Ajaccio,  where  he  bore  the  honourable  title  of  Messire, 
and  where,  being  left  a  widower,  he  assumed  the  tonsure  and  died  Canon 
of  the  cathedral. 

From  him  an  unbroken  line  of  Bonapartes,  all  of  whom  in  turn  were 
elected  to  the  dignity  of  Elder  of  Ajaccio,  brings  us  to  Charles  Bonaparte 
Napoleon,  father  of  the  Emperor. 



THE  author  asked  the  advice  of  Monsieur  Frederic  Masson  about  these 
Letters,  to  which  he  at  once  received  the  courteous  reply,  "  II  faut 
absolument  rejeter  les  Lettres  publiees  par  Regnault  Varin  l  et  reproduites 
par  Georgette  Ducrest ;  pas  une  n'est  authentique."  No  one  who  has 
read  much  of  Napoleon's  correspondence  can  in  fact  believe  for  a  moment 
in  their  authenticity.  They  are  interesting,  however,  as  showing  the  sort 
of  stuff  which  went  to  form  our  grandfathers'  fallacies  about  the  relations 
of  Napoleon  and  Josephine.  Madame  Ducrest  occasionally  played  and 

1  Memoir es  et  Correspondance  de  F  Imperatrice  Josephine,  par  /.  B.  J.  Innocert 
Philaddphe  Regnault  Varin.  Paris,  1820,  8°.  This  book  is  not  in  the  British 
Museum  Catalogue. 


sang  for  Josephine  after  the  divorce.  Her  father  was  a  nephew  of 
Madame  de  Genlis.  Madame  Ducrest  married  a  musical  composer, 
M.  Bochsa,  the  then  celebrated  author  of  Dansomanie  and  Noccs  de 
Gamache.  He  afterwards  deserted  her,  and  her  voice  having  completely 
failed,  she  was  compelled  to  write  her  Memoirs  to  earn  sustenance  thereby. 
Of  these  Memoirs  M.  Masson  has  said,1  that  "  in  the  midst  of  apocryphal 
documents,  uncontroverted  anecdotes,  impossible  situations,  are  yet  to  be 
found  some  first-hand  personal  observations." 

No.  I. — 1796. 

My  first  laurel,  my  love,  must  be  for  my  country ;  my  second  shall  be  for 
you.  While  beating  Alvinzi  I  thought  of  France;  when  I  had  defeated 
him  I  thought  of  you.  Your  son  will  present  to  you  a  standard  which 
he  received  from  Colonel  Morbach,  whom  he  made  prisoner  with  his  own 
hands.  Our  Eugene,  you  see,  is  worthy  of  his  father  ;  and  I  trust  you 
do  not  think  me  an  unworthy  successor  of  the  great  and  unfortunate 
general,  under  whom  1  should  have  been  proud  to  learn  to  conquer.  I 
embrace  you.  BONAPARTE. 

No.  2. — 1804. 

I  have  read  over  your  letter,  my  dear,  perhaps  for  the  tenth  time, 
and  I  must  confess  that  the  astonishment  it  caused  me  has  given  way  only 
to  feelings  of  regret  and  alarm.  You  wish  to  raise  up  the  throne  of 
France,  and  that,  not  for  the  purpose  of  seating  upon  it  those  whom  the 
Revolution  overthrew,  but  to  place  yourself  upon  it.  You  say,  how 
enterprising,  how  grand  and,  above  all,  useful  is  this  design ;  but  I  should 
say,  how  many  obstacles  oppose  its  execution,  what  sacrifices  will  its 
accomplishment  demand,  and  when  realised,  how  incalculable  will  be  its 
results  ?  But  let  us  suppose  that  your  object  were  already  attained,  would 
you  stop  at  the  foundation  of  the  new  empire  ?  That  new  creation,  being 
opposed  by  neighbouring  states,  would  stir  up  war  with  them  and  perhaps 
entail  their  ruin.  Their  neighbours,  in  their  turn,  will  not  behold  it 
without  alarm  or  without  endeavouring  to  gratify  their  revenge  by  check- 
ing it.  And  at  home,  how  much  envy  and  dissatisfaction  will  arise  ;  how 

1  Josephine  Imptratrict  et  Reine,  Paris,  1899. 


many  plots  must  be  put  down,  how  many  conspiracies  punished  !  Kings 
will  despise  you  as  an  upstart,  subjects  will  hate  you  as  an  usurper,  and 
your  equals  will  denounce  you  as  a  tyrant.  None  will  understand  the 
necessity  of  your  elevation  ;  all  will  attribute  it  to  ambition  or  pride. 
You  will  not  want  for  slaves  to  crouch  beneath  your  authority  until, 
seconded  by  some  more  formidable  power,  they  rise  up  to  oppose  you ; 
happy  will  it  be  if  poison  or  the  poignard  !  .  .  .  But  how  can  a  wife,  a 
friend  dwell  on  these  dreadful  anticipations ! 

This  brings  my  thoughts  back  to  myself,  about  whom  I  should  care 
but  little  were  my  personal  interests  alone  concerned.  But  will  not  the 
throne  inspire  you  with  the  wish  to  contract  new  alliances  ?  Will  you 
not  seek  to  support  your  power  by  new  family  connections  ?  Alas  !  what- 
ever those  connections  may  be,  will  they  compensate  for  those  which  were 
first  knit  by  corresponding  fitness,  and  which  affection  promised  to  per- 
petuate ?  My  thoughts  linger  on  the  picture  which  fear — may  I  say  love, 
traces  in  the  future.  Your  ambitious  project  has  excited  my  alarm ; 
console  me  by  the  assurance  of  your  moderation. 

No.  3. — December  1809. 

My  forebodings  are  realised !  You  have  just  pronounced  the  word 
which  separates  us  for  ever  ;  the  rest  is  nothing  more  than  mere  formality. 
Such,  then,  is  the  result,  I  shall  not  say  of  so  many  sacrifices  (they  were 
light  to  me,  since  they  had  you  for  their  object),  but  of  an  unbounded 
friendship  on  my  part  and  of  the  most  solemn  oaths  on  yours  !  It  would 
be  a  consolation  for  me  if  the  state  which  you  allege  as  your  motive  were 
to  repay  my  sacrifice  by  justifying  your  conduct !  But  that  public  con- 
sideration which  you  urge  as  the  ground  for  deserting  me  is  a  mere 
pretence  on  your  part.  Your  mistaken  ambition  has  ever  been,  and  will 
continue  to  be,  the  guide  of  all  your  actions,  a  guide  which  has  led  you 
to  conquests  and  to  the  assumption  of  a  crown,  and  is  now  driving  you 
on  to  disasters  and  to  the  brink  of  a  precipice. 

You  speak  of  the  necessity  of  contracting  an  alliance,  of  giving  an 
heir  to  your  empire,  of  founding  a  dynasty !  But  with  whom  are  you 
about  to  form  an  alliance  ?  with  the  natural  enemy  of  France,  that  artful 
house  of  Austria,  whose  detestation  of  our  country  has  its  rise  in  its 
innate  feelings,  in  its  system,  in  the  laws  of  necessity.  Do  you  believe 
that  this  hatred,  of  which  she  has  given  us  such  abundant  proof,  more 


particularly  for  the  last  fifty  years,  has  not  been  transferred  by  her  from 
the  kingdom  of  France  to  the  French  empire  ?  That  the  children  of 
Maria  Theresa,  that  skilful  sovereign,  who  purchased  from  Madame  de 
Pompadour  the  fatal  treaty  of  1756,  which  you  never  mention  without 
shuddering  ;  do  you  imagine,  I  repeat,  that  her  posterity,  when  inherit- 
ing her  power,  has  not  also  inherited  her  spirit  ?  I  am  merely  repeating 
what  you  have  so  often  said  to  me ;  but  at  that  time  your  ambition  was 
satisfied  with  humbling  a  power  which  you  now  find  it  convenient  to 
restore  to  its  former  rank.  Believe  me,  as  long  as  you  shall  exercise  a 
sway  over  Europe,  that  power  will  be  submissive  to  you ;  but  beware  of 
reverses  of  fortune. 

As  to  the  necessity  of  an  heir,  I  must  speak  out,  at  the  risk  of  appear- 
ing in  the  character  of  a  mother  prejudiced  in  favour  of  her  son  ;  ought 
I,  in  fact,  to  be  silent  when  I  consider  the  interests  of  one  who  is  my 
only  delight,  and  upon  whom  alone  you  had  built  all  your  hopes  ?  That 
adoption  of  the  I2th  of  January  1806  was  then  another  political  false- 
hood !  Nevertheless  the  talents,  the  virtues  of  my  Eugene  are  no  illu- 
sion. How  often  have  you  not  spoken  in  his  praise  ?  I  may  say  more ; 
you  thought  it  right  to  reward  him  by  the  gift  of  a  throne,  and  have 
repeatedly  said  that  he  was  deserving  of  greater  favours.  Well,  then ! 
France  has  frequently  re-echoed  these  praises ;  but  you  are  now  indif- 
ferent to  the  wishes  of  France. 

I  say  nothing  to  you  at  present  of  the  person  who  is  destined  to  suc- 
ceed me,  and  you  do  not  expect  that  I  should  make  any  allusion  to  this 
subject.  You  might  suspect  the  feelings  which  dictated  my  language ; 
nevertheless,  you  can  never  doubt  of  the  sincerity  of  my  wishes  for  your 
happiness ;  may  it  at  least  afford  me  some  consolation  for  my  sufferings. 
Great  indeed  will  be  that  happiness  if  it  should  ever  bear  any  proportion 
to  them ! 

No.  4. 

"...  On  revisiting  this  spot,  where  I  passed  my  youthful  days,  and 
contrasting  the  peaceful  condition  I  then  enjoyed  with  the  state  of  terror 
and  agitation  to  which  my  mind  is  now  a  prey,  often  have  I  addressed 
myself  in  these  words  :  '  I  have  sought  death  in  numberless  engagements  ; 
I  can  no  longer  dread  its  approach  ;  I  should  now  hail  it  as  a  boon  .  .  . 
nevertheless,  I  could  still  wish  to  see  Josephine  once  more !  ' ' 


No.  5. 


Fontainelleau,  l6th  April  1814. 

My  dear  Josephine^ — I  wrote  to  you  on  the  8th  instant  (it  was  on  a 
Friday).  You  have  perhaps  not  received  my  letter;  fighting  was  still 
going  on  ;  it  is  possible  that  it  may  have  been  stopped  on  its  way.  The 
communications  must  now  be  re-established.  My  determination  is  taken ; 
I  have  no  doubt  of  this  note  coming  to  your  hands. 

I  do  not  repeat  what  I  have  already  told  you.  I  then  complained  of 
my  situation  ;  I  now  rejoice  at  it.  My  mind  and  attention  are  relieved 
from  an  enormous  weight ;  my  downfall  is  great,  but  it  is  at  least  said  to 
be  productive  of  good. 

In  my  retreat  I  intend  to  substitute  the  pen  for  the  sword.  The 
history  of  my  reign  will  gratify  the  cravings  of  curiosity.  Hitherto,  I 
have  only  been  seen  in  profile ;  I  will  now  show  myself  in  full  to  the 
world.  What  facts  have  I  not  to  disclose!  how  many  men  are  incor- 
rectly estimated !  I  have  heaped  favours  upon  a  countless  number  of 
wretches  ;  what  have  they  latterly  done  for  me  ? 

They  have  all  betrayed  me,  one  and  all,  save  and  except  the  excellent 
Euge'ne,  so  worthy  of  you  and  of  me.  May  he  ever  enjoy  happiness 
under  a  sovereign  fully  competent  to  appreciate  the  feelings  of  nature  and 
of  honour! 

Adieu,  my  dear  Josephine ;  follow  my  example  and  be  resigned. 
Never  dismiss  from  your  recollection  one  who  has  never  forgotten,  and 
never  will  forget  you  !  Farewell,  Josephine.  NAPOLEON. 

P.  S. — I  expect  to  hear  from  you  when  I  shall  have  reached  the 
island  of  Elba.  I  am  far  from  being  in  good  health. 


Excluding  NAPOLEON  and  JOSEPHINE,  'which  occur  on  nearly  every  page. 

ABERCROMBY,  Sir  Ralph,  49 

Abrantes,  Mdme.  Junot,  Duchesse  d', 
190,  199.  229,  230,  231,  242,  247, 
254,  261,  265,  266,  278,  312 

Achilla.     (See  Murat) 

Agrippina,  312 

Ainger,  Canon,  298 

Albufera,  Duke  of.     (See  Suchet) 

Aldobrandini,  Prince,  149 

Alexander  the  Great,  185 

Alison,  Sir  A.  (historian),  74,  119,  255, 
264,  272,  286 

Alvinzi,  Marshal,  30,  34,  35,  218,  221, 

Amand,  Saint,  see  S.  Imbert  de  (author), 
4,  172,  199,  212,  221,  223,  243,  245, 
251,  256,  257,  267,  269,  302,  304, 
307,  308,  312 

Amelia  (daughter  of  Eugene),  313 

Angouleme,  Due  d',  190,  196,  197 

Anhalt,  Prince  of,  270 

Arberg,  Mdme.  d',  176 

Arch-Chancellor.     [Set  Cambaceres) 

Argenteau,  D',  9 

Arnault  (author),  212 

Artois,  Comte  d',  196,  197 

Aubenas,  172,  200,  201,  216,  225,  226, 
228,  241,  257,  259,  260,  297,  299 

Audenarde,  D',  162,  302 

Madame  Lalaing,  Viscountess  d', 

3°2,  307 
Augereau,  Marshal,  24,  38,  57,  70,  90, 

154,  196,  214,  254,  255,  267 
Auguie,  Mile.  Aglae  Louise,  231 
Auguste,    Princess    of    Bavaria    (then 

wife  of  Eugene).     (See  Beauharnais, 


Augustus,  Emperor,  52,  228 

Austria,  Emperor  of,  186,  197,  218,  223, 


Empress  of,  186 

Avrillon,  Mile,  d',  82,   174,  225,  233, 


BACCIOLI,  Eliza  (Bonaparte),  63,  122 
Baden,  Princess  Wilhelmina  of,  77,  236, 


Grand  Duchess  of.     (See  Beauhar- 
nais, Stephanie) 

Prince  of,  242,  243,  245,  270 

Bagration,  General,  187, 

Baird,  General  Sir  David,  42,  49,  143 

Bajazet,  272 

Barante,  De  (Prefect  of  Geneva),  309, 

Barbier  (Napoleon's  librarian),  307 

Barras,  Count  de,  6,  7,  8,  9,  15,  38, 
199,  205,  207,  221,  247,  248 

Bathurst,  Benj.,  154 

Bausset  (Prefect  of  Imperial  Palace), 
267,  269,  273 

Bavaria,  Elector,  then  King  of,  77, 
122,  144,  159,  161,  242,  243,  265, 
266,  270,  299 

Electress,  then  Queen  of,  70,  161, 

243,  265 

Prince  Royal  of,  281 

Bayard,  Chevalier,  235,  243 

Beauharnais,  Eugene  (Viceroy  of  Italy), 
6,  21,  31,  44,  51,  58,  59,  60,  63,  66, 
68,  78,  106,  121,  140,  143,  144,  145, 
146,  147,  148,  149,  150,  152,  159, 
162,  164,  170,  171,  172,  179,  187, 
188,  189,  190,  191,  192,  193,  194, 




'95)  196,  197,  216,  224,  228,  229, 
234,  242,  243,  244,  254,  256,  264, 
265,  266,  276,  277,  282,  286,  287, 

290,  297,  299,  305,  308,  310,  311, 
312,  313,  318,320,  321 

Beauhatnais,  Auguste(wife  of  Eugene), 
121,  186,  242,  264,  265,  266,  299 
—  Hortense,  6,   10,   II,  12,  31,  44, 
So,  51,  52,  53,  59,  66,  68,  78,  79,  80, 

81,  82,  84,  85,  86,  88,  89,  90,  93, 
in,  112,   113,   127,   137,   140,   144, 
H7,   149,   150,   151,   159,  1 60,   165, 

172,  173,   175,   176,   180,  216,  226, 
227,   228,  229,  231,  235,  237,  244, 
247,  254,  259,  261,  262,   263,  268, 
269,  288,   289,  296,  300,  308,  313, 

Stephanie,  78,  80,  82,  84,  85,  86, 

89,  242,  243,  244,  254,  271,  295 

Fanny  (daughter  of  Count),  243 

Beaujon  (financier),  302 

Beaulieu,  General,  6,  7,  10,  n,  38,  204, 
205,  208,  209 

Becker,  General,  81 

Bellegarde,  General,  49,  195,  197 

Bennigsen  or  Beningsen,  General,  90, 
188,  193,  254 

Bentinck,  General,  193 

Bentley,  227 

Berg,  Napoleon  Louis,  Grand  Duke  of, 

82,  137,    144,    147,     148,    150,    172, 

173,  263,  308 

Bernadotte,  Marshal,  38,  41,  57,  80, 
81,83,  95,  I06,  "3,  174,  185,  188, 
192  193,  246,  254,  255,  257,  279, 

291,  292 

—  Desiree  (nee  Clary),  38,  246,  313 
Berthier,  Marshal,   33,    57,    141,   214, 

224,   229,  246,  251,   259,  265,  270, 

280,  292,  302,  303 

Bertrand,  General,  259,  287,  288,  290 
Bessieres,  Marshal,  57,  106,   128,  136, 

139,  149,  165,  190,  260,  290,  303 
Bignon,  Baron  (historian),  55,  75,  255, 

258,  262 

Billington,  Mistress,  224 
Bingham,  Captain  D.  A.,  204,  208,  256 
Blake    (Field  -  Marshal    and    Spanish 

General),  135,  136,  148,  181 
Blucher,  Field-Marshal,  83,   192,  193, 

J94,  !95,  246.  250,  278,  291 

Bonaparte,  Joseph  (King  of  Spain),  21, 
38,  77,  128,  143,  150,  187,  191,  196 

199,    200,    201,    228,    237,    258,    265, 

266,  273,  296,  305 
—  Louis,  50,  53,  59,  77,  172,  173, 

214,    220,    228,    26l,    263,    268,    269, 
279,  300,  302,  308,  309,  314 

Jerome  (King  of  Westphalia),  117 

118,  160,  161,  242,  261,  270,  301 
—  Lucien,  228,  229,  230,  247,  253, 
265,  266,  297,  314 

Caroline.     (See  Murat,  Madame) 

Eliza.     (See  Lucca,  Princess  of) 

Bonaparte   Family,    The,    317.     (Ap- 
pendix 2) 

Bonpland,  Aime,  226 

Borghese,  Prince,  99,  115 

Pauline,  99,  303 

Boubers,  Countess  de,  308 

Bouillet  (lexicographer),  74,  248 

Bouillon,  Duke  of,  304 

Bourbon,  Duchesse  de,  302 

Bourlier,  Bishop  of  Evreux,  311 

Bourrienne,   L.   de,   30,    31,  6l,    155, 
226,  228,  229,  230,  237,  239 

Boyer    (French    general,    "Pierre    le 
Cruel"),  196 

Brizzi,  89 

Brock,  General,  187 

Brotonne,  L.  de,  190,  238,  260,  310 

Browning,  Oscar,  47 

Bruix,  Admiral,  232 

Brune,   Marshal,   34,  41,   43,  49,  57, 
118,  221 

Brunswick,  Duke  of,  245 

Brutus,  294 

Bulow,  General  von,  192,  194,  196 

Burdett-Coutts,  Mr.,  218 

Burke,  Edmund,  38 

Buxhowden,  General,  72,  90 

Byron,  Lord,  183,  314 

"  B "   (probably  Bourrienne),   60, 


CABARRUS,  M.  DE,  248 

Cadoudal,  Georges  (Vendean  chief  and 

conspirator),  57 

Caesar,  Julius,  232,  281,  286,  293 
Calder,  Sir  Robert,  63 
Cambaceres,  Arch-Chancellor,  108,  114, 

150,  188,   192,  236,  269,  271,  281, 



284,  291,  292,  293,  296,  300,  302, 
303,  310 

Campan,  Madame,  191,  242 

Caracci,  209 

Carnot  (member  of  the  Directory  and 
"organiser  of  victory").  200,  204, 
205,  206,  208,  209,  210,  217,  223 

Castanos,  General,  Duke  of  Baylen, 

Cathcart,  Lord,  188 

Caulaincourt,  Duke  of  Vicenza,  I,  270, 


Cesarotti,  199 

Chabot,  219 

Chabran,  219 

Chambry,  M.,  58 

Champagny,  De  (Due  de  Cadore),  153, 

262,  270,  271,  292,  298,  302 
Chainpionnet,  General,  42 
Charlemagne,  234,  296 
Charles,  Archduke,  19,  25,  34,  38,  42, 

46,  66,  68,   143,  144.  145,  149,  242, 

279,  280,  282,  284,  304 
Charles,  Prince.     (See   Charles,   Arch- 
Charles  XII.,  185.     (See  Sweden,  King 


Chauvet,  7,  199,  200 
Chimay,  Prince  de,  248 
Clarke,  General,    196,  210,  221,  291, 

Clary,  Desiree.     (See  Bernadotte,  De- 


Coburg,  Prince  of,  270 
Cockburn,  Admiral,  191 
Colburn,  229 
Colombier,  Mile,  du,  224 
Conches,  Baron  Feuillet  de,  13 
Constant,  229,  230,  232,  233,  236,  254, 

265,  267,  268,  284,  292,  293,  294, 

Corbineau,    Constant    (one    of    three 

brothers,  known  as  les  trois  Horaces), 

98,  99,  256 
Corneille,  241 
Cornelia,  312 
Comwallis,  Lord,  41 
Correggio,  205,  209 
Corvisart,   Baron,   52,    153,   233,  293, 

305,  315 
Courland,  Duchess  of,  270 

Crassus,  185 
Cretet,  Count,  292 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  298 
Czartoriski,  Prince,  241 

DAHLMANN,  General,  98,  256 
Dantzic,    Duke    of.       (See    Lefebvre, 

Darius,  185 

Darmagnac,  General,  98 
Darmstadt,  Prince  of,  270 
Daru,  Count,  256,  257 
David,  King,  262 
Davidowich,  Baron  (Austrian  General), 

27,  30 
Davoust,  Marshal,  44,  57,  69,  80,  81, 

84,  89,  143,  187,  246,  247,  255,  282, 

292,  293 

Decazes,  Duke,  269 
Decres,     Vice-Admiral,     Minister     of 

Marine,  225,  254,  256 
Delille,  Abbe,  190 
Desaix,  General,    14,  41,   42,   44,    46, 


Despinois,  General,  215 
Dessalines  ("James  I."),  of  Hayti, 60 
Didot,  172 

Dietrich,  Mdme.  de,  240 
Don  Carlos,  Infant,  126 
Ducrest,  Madame,  311,  317,  318 
Duesberg  (botanist),  225 
Dumas,  Matthieu,  Count  (General  and 

historian),  255,  257,  258 
Duphot,  General,  38 
Dupont,  General,  65,  69,  101,  128,  267 
Dupuis,  104,  260 
Dupuy,  219 
Durand,  Madame,  301 
Duroc,   Marshal,  191,   228,   230,  252, 

270,  275,  291 

EDWARD,  the  Black  Prince,  222 
Elchingen,  Duke  of.     (See  Ney,  Mar- 

"Eleanore,"  252 
Enghien,  Due  d',  57,  236,  276 
England,  King  George  II.  of,  43 

King  George  III.  of,  43,  46,  64, 

70,  218,  223,  238 

Esteve     (General     Treasurer    of    the 
Crown),  161 



Eugene,  Prince  of  Savoy,  286 
Eugenie,  Empress,  256 

Hortense,  Princess,  277 

Evreux,  Count  d',  302 

FAIPOULT,  Citizen,  204 
Ferdinand,  Archduke,  143,  147,  279 
Prince    of    Asturias    (afterwards 

Ferdinand  VII.),  118,  123,  125,  126, 

127,   128,  194,   195,   196,   266,  268, 


Fesch,  Cardinal,  302 
Fitzgerald,  Lord  Edward,  41 
Fontanes,  Marquis  de,  302 
Fouche  (de  Nantes,  Duke  of  Otranto), 

236,   259,  261,  262,  274,   275,   276, 

277,  279,  292,   294,  295,  297,  302, 


Fox,  C.  J.,  77 
Foy,  General,  191,  196 
Francis  II.,  Emperor  of  Austria  (and 

Germany),    71,   77,    128,    291,    310, 


Franck,  Doctor,  289 
Frederick  the  Great,  67,  249,  283,  286 
Frederick  I.  (Duke,  Elector,  and  King 

of  Wurtemberg),  238 
Frederick  William  II.,  38.   (See  Prussia, 

King  of) 
Frederick    William    III.,    38.        (See 

Prussia,  King  of) 
Friand,  General,  185 
Fulton,  Robert,  235 

GAUDIN,  Duke  of  Gaeta,  292 

Genlis,  Mdme.  de,  318 

George  II.     (See  England,  King  of) 

George  III.     (See  England,  King  of) 

Georges.     (See  Cadoudal) 

Germany,  Emperor  of.  (See  Austria, 
Emperor  of) 

Gillray,  James,  248 

Giraudin,  Stanislaus,  261 

Godoy,  Don  Manuel,  Prince  of  the 
Peace.  77,  123,  125 

Goethe,  J.  W.  Von,  177,  270 

Gohier,  Louis  (member  of  the  Direc- 
tory), 43 

Graham,  Colonel,  35,  192,  214,  215 

Gros,  Baron  (artist),  220,  221 

Guesclin,  Bertrand  du,  235 

HAMILTON,  Lady,  249 

Harpe,    General   La.      (See   Laharpe, 


Harville,  M.  d',  70 
Hatzfeld,  Princess  d',  83,  249 
Haugwitz,  Count  von,  71 
Hautpoult,  General,  255 
Haydn,  Joseph,  74,  90 
Heath,  Baron,  60 
Hedouville,  General,  42,  92 
Henri  IV.,  296 
Killer,  General,  282,  284 
Hoche,  General  Lazare,  34,   38,   209, 


Hofer,  Andreas,  146 
Hohenlohe,  Prince,  81 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen,    Prince    of, 

Holland,    King   of.      (See    Bonaparte 

Queen    of.       (See   Beauharnais, 

Homer,  199 
Hood,  Robin,  39 
Humbert,  General,  41 
Humboldt,  Baron  von,  226 
Hume,  Martin,  267 
Hutchinson,  General,  49 

JACQUIN,  Von  (Austrian  botanist),  225 
Jahn,  F.  L.  (German  patriot),  278 
Jeanne  of  France  (Queen  of  Navarre), 


Jellachich,  General,  70,  145 
Joan  of  Arc,  294 
John,  Archduke,   144,   147,  287,  290, 


King  of  France,  222 

Johnson,  Dr.,  vi.,  208 

Jomini,  Baron  (Swiss  strategist),   192, 

194,  204,  206,  211,  213,  214,  218 
Joseph.     (See  Bonaparte,  Joseph) 
Josephine  Maximilienne  Auguste,  106 
Joubert,  General,  34,  35,  42,  43,  219, 

Jouberthon,  Madame  (wife  of  Lucien), 

Jourdan,   Marshal,  II,  20,  25,42,  57, 

191,  217 

Julian,  Emperor,  185 
Julien,  Mile.,  153 



Jung,  Thomas  (or  lung),  228,  230,  251 

Junot  (Due  d'Abrantes),  9,  10,  42,  118, 

128,  200,  212,  230,  231,  241,  261 

KALKREUTH,    Count    (Russian  P'ield- 

Marshal),  79 
Kaunitz,  Prince,  71 
Keith,  Lord,  46 
Kellerman,  Marshal  (Duke  ofValmy), 

19,  57,  205,  206,  207,  209,  210,  214, 


Kellermann,  General,  46 
Kilmaine,  General,  19,  27,  215,  220 
King.     (See  Bonaparte,  Joseph),  136 
Kipling,  R.,  129 
Kleber,  General,  19,   20,  42,   43,  46, 


Klein,  General,  20 
Kleist,  192 

Kourakin,  Alexander,  138,  274 
Kray,   Baron  von  (Austrian  General), 

42,  43,  44,  46 
Kutusoff,  General  ( Prince  of  Smolensk), 

i 88,  189 

LABEDOYERE,  Madame,  231 

La  Bruyere,  20 

Lacepede,  Count  de,  189,  296 

La  Fontaine,  316 

Lagrange  (mathematician),  190 

La  Grassini,  223,  224,  228 

Laharpe,  General,  10,  200,  210 

Lannes,  Marshal  (Duke  of  Montebello), 

9,  45,  46,  57,  68,  69,  78,  80,  90,  136, 

143,  145,   147,  219,  275,  289,  290, 


Lanusse,  General  Fra^ois,  219 
Larevelliere-Lepeaux  (Member  of  the 

Directory),  38,43,  217 
Larochefoucauld,  Mdme.  de,  234,  250 
La  Romana( Spanish  General),  136,  138 
Las.ille,  General,  149,  291 
Las  Cases,  Count  de,  117,  207,   224, 

229,  232,  259 

Latouche-Treville,  Admiral,  235 
Latour,  Von,  Count  (Austrian  General), 


Laudon  (Austrian  General),  65 
Lauriston,  General,  147,  192,  193,  229, 

256,  270 

Lavalette,  Count  de,  220,  221,  276 

Madame,  226,  227,  231 

Lebrun  (statesman,  Duke  of  Placentia), 

71.  3°2 

(the  poet),  243 

Leclerc,  General,  50 
Lecombe,  General,  43 
Lefebvre-Desnouettes,    General,     139, 

Lefebvre,   Marshal,  57,  in,  112,  135, 

Lejeune,    Baron,    240,   252,  254,   257, 

274,  275,  281,  282,  283,  303,  304 
Lemarois,  General,  67,  239,  256 
"  Leon,"  252 
Lestocq,  General,  255 
Letourneur  (Member  of  the  Directory), 

198,  201 
Leyen,  Amelie  de  la,  305 

Princess  de  la,  171,  308 

Liverpool,  Lord,  186 

Livia  (wife  of  Augustus),  228 

Louis,  Archduke,  143 

Louis  XI.,  52 

Louis  XII.,  296 

Louis  XV.,  267 

Louis  XVI.,  230 

Louis  XVIII.  (See  Angouleme,  Due  d') 

Lucca,  Eliza   Bonaparte,    Princess   of, 


Lynedoch,  Lord.     (See  Graham,  Col.) 
L ,  Mdme.     (See  Larochefoucauld, 

Mdme.  de) 

MACDONALD,  Marshal,  41,  42,  145, 
147,  150,  192,  196,  287,  292 

Mack,  General,  41,  64,  66,  239,  246 

Macpherson,  James,  199 

Madison,  President,  143,  190 

Maelzel,  Leonard  (German  mechanic), 

Mahmoud  IV.,  128,  136 

Mahomet,  52 

Makau,    Madame  de,    175,    176,    307, 


Malet,  General,  188,  189 
"  Maman  "  (Madame  Mere,  mother  of 

Napoleon),  45,  50,  224,  227 
Marbot,  Baron,  187,  267,  274,  275,  283, 

284,  288,  290,  291 



Marchesi  (artiste),  224 

Marescalchi,  303 

Marest,  M.  de,  213 

Maret  (Due  de  Bassano),  57,  67,  187, 
189,  270,  271,  292,  302,  304 

Marie  Antoinette,  230,  249 

Marie  Louise,  157,  164,  165,  167,  172, 
174, 175,  176, 177, 197,  271,296,  298, 
301,  302,  304,  306,  310,  312,  314,  315 

Marie  Therese,  284,  285,  320 

Marie  Victoire,  Infanta,  267 

Marmont,  Marshal,   69,  150,  187,    196, 

197,    198,    207,    210,    211,    222,    248, 
292,  315 

Masaniello,  52 

Massena,  Marshal  (Duke  of  Rivoli), 
24,  28,  34,  35,  38,  42,  43,  44,  46,  57, 
66,  68,  69,  71,  77,  144, 174,  180,  200, 
205,  213,  215,  220,  221,  223,  238, 
282,  290,  292 

Masson,  M.  Frederic,  61,  224,  239,  242, 
247,  250,  252,  296,  297,  303,  305, 
307,  309,  3i2,  313.  317,  3i8 

Maximilian,  Archduke,  285 

Meerfeldt  or  Meerveldt,  Count  von,  69, 


Melas,  General,  43,  46,  224 
Melito,  Count  Miot  de,  246 
Melville,  Lord,  277 
Menage,  Gilles  (scholar),  213 
Menard,  219 
Meneval,  Baron  de,  229,  232,  237,  239, 

244,  246,  254,  255,  26.4,  283,   289, 

295,  296,  297 

Menou,  General  Baron  de,  49 
Merlin  (member  of  the  Directory),  43 
Metternich,  Prince,  153,  275 

Madame  de,  300 

Michael  Angelo,  205 

Michaud,  L.  G.,  162,  231,  264,  277 

Michelet,  Jules  (historian),  212 

Michot  (actor),  229 

Miollis,  Adjutant-General,  24 

Modena,  Duke  of,  1 1 

Moltke,  Von,  271 

Moncey,  Marshal,  57 

Monclas,  26 

Monnier,  General  J.  C.,  43 

Montaigne,  Michel  de,  315 

Montebello,    Duke   of.     (See  Lannes, 


Montebello,  Duchess  of  (La  Marechale 

Lannes),  145,  147,  289 
Montesquiou,  Madame  de,  175 
Montgaillard,    1'Abbe    de    (historian), 

38,  42,  43,  52,  66,  90,  128,  137,  144, 

162,  185,  191,  193,  286 
Montholon,  Count  de,  255 
Moore,  Sir  John,  143,  273,  275,  277 
Morbach,  Colonel,  318 
Moreau,  General,   14,   19,  20,   25,  29, 

30,  38,  43.  44,  46,  57,  '88,  192,  205, 

217,  223,  279 
Mortier,  Marshal,  57,  69,  84,  153,  179, 

1 88,  196,  224 
Moscati,  36,  37 

Moulin,  General  (member  of  the  Direc- 
tory), 43 

Mourad  Bey,  41,  42 

Moustache,  44,  114,  115,  140 

Miiller  (Swiss  historian),  270 

Murat,  King  of  Naples,  9,  16,  22,  23, 
45.  46,  57,  64,  66,  69,  79,  81,  83, 
86,  97,  99,  125,  127,  128,  148,  188, 

189,  190,    194,     195,    211,    212,    219, 
224,    235,    240,    254,     265,    269,     270, 

276,  287,   298,  302,   303 

Madame  Caroline,  Queen  of 

Naples,  99,  158,  190,  235,  252,  254, 
261,  290,  298 

Mustapha  IV.,  112 

"  M ,"  45.     (See  "  Maman  ") 

NAPIER,  Sir  William,   123,   141,  275 

277,  278 

Naples,  King  of.  (See  Bonaparte, 

Napoleon  Charles  Bonaparte  (eldest 
son  of  Hortense),  53,  79,  80,  81,  82, 
84,  89,  93,  no,  137,  228,  247 

Napoleon  Louis  (second  son  of  Hor- 
tense). (See  Berg,  Grand  Duke  of) 

Napoleons  ("the  two"),  sons  of  Hor- 
tense and  Louis,  68,  79,  80,  84,  86, 
90,  '5i,  174 

Napoleon  III.  (Charles  Louis  Napo- 
leon, third  son  of  Hortense),  127, 
238,  269,  303,  307 

Nassau,  Prince  of,  270 

Necker,  M.,  224 

Nelson,  Lord,  41,  49 

Nero,  Emperor,  236 


Ney,  Marshal  (Prince  of  the  Moskowa), 
20,  52,  53,  57,  64,  65,  69,  83,  88, 
90,  173,  187,  188,  189,  192,  231, 
239,  255 

,  Madame,  231,  304 

Nicolas,  Sir  Harris  (historian),  74 

O'DONNELL  (Spanish  General),  181 

O'Meara,  Dr.,  272 

Oscar,  Prince  (son  of  Bernadotte),  106 

Ossian,  4,  199 

Oudet,  General,  279 

Oudinot,    Marshal,    Duke  of    Reggio, 

143,   150,   187,   189,   192,   196,  270, 

Ouvrard  (financier),  248 

PAER,  Ferdinando  (msuical  composer), 

89,  91,  242 
Paget,  Lord,  293 
Palafox  y  Melzi,   Duke  of  Saragossa, 


Palatine,     The     Archduke     (Joseph- 

Antoine  of  Hungary),  148 
Palmerston,  Lord,  272 
Paoli,  General  de,  209 
Parma,  Grand  Duke  of,  II,  204 
Pasquier,  E.  D.,  Duke,  162,  253,  268, 

270,  276,  281 
Paterson,    Miss    (repudiated    wife    of 

Jerome  Bonaparte),  301 
Paul,  Princess,  70 
Paul  I.     (See  Russia,  Czar  of) 
Pauline.     (See  Borghese,  Princess) 
Pavon,  226 
Pelet,  General  and  Baron,279,  280,  282, 

283,  284,  290 
Perceval,    Spencer   (British    Premier), 


Perignon,  Marshal,  57 
Perigord,  Edmond  de,  270 
Permon,  Madame  (mother  of  Madame 

D'Abrantes),  230 

Philip  Augustus,  King  of  France,  296 
Philippon,  General,  185 
Pichegm,  General,  57 
Pignatelli,    Prince    of    Strongoli,    and 

Minister    of    Ferdinand,     King    of 

Naples,  21 
Pijon,  General,  219 
Pitt,  William,  77 

Pius  VI.,  Pope,  14,  37,  41,  43,  195, 

206,  210,  211,  2l8,  222 

Pius  VII.,  Pope,  49,  52,  60,  148,  186, 

189,  190,  225,  237,  300,  301 
Pompadour,  Madame  de,  302,  320 
Poniatowski,   Prince,   and  Marshal   of 

France,  193 
Portugal,  Prince  Regent  of,  125 

Queen  of,  125 

Pradt,  Abbe  de,  277 

Primate,  The  Prince,  270 

Prince  Regent,  226.     (See  George  IV.) 

Princess,  121.     (See  Beauharnais,   Au- 


Provera  (Austrian  General),  34,  35 
Prussia,   Frederick  William   II.,  King 

of,  38 
Frederick  William  III.,  King  of, 

38,  64,  67,  78,  79,   114,   116,   143, 

191.   197,  236,  240,  245,  249,  270, 

271,  315 
Louise,  Queen  of,  79,   116,   117, 

143,  245,  248,  249 

Prince  Louis  of,  78 

Prince  William  of,  270 

P ,  Madame  de,  106 

QUESDONOWICH  (Austrian  General),  24 

RACINE,  241 

Rampon,  Colonel,  9,  219 

Raphael,  209 

Rapp,  Count,  194,   226,  227,  285,  294, 


Raynouard  (author),  241 
Redcliffe,  Stratford  de,  186 
Regnauld,   Count   (State   Secretary  of 

the  Imperial  Court),  296 
Remusat,   Madame  de,  222,  237,  239, 

298,  301,  307,  308,  310,  311 
Renard,  Madame  Chateau,  6,  8,  10 
Renaudin,  Madame  de,  216 
Rewbell  (member  of  the  Directory),  38 
Reynier,  General,  77,  193,  292 
Rheims,  Mayoress  of,  233 
Richard  Cosur  de  Lion,  284 
Richmond,  Madame,  99 
Rivoli,  Due  de,  35.     (See  Massena) 
Rochefoucauld.     (Ste  Larochefoucauld, 

Mdme.  de) 



Roger-Ducos  (member  of  the  Direc- 
tory), 43 

Rollo  the  Sea  King,  304 

Rome,  King  of  (Napoleon  II.), 
"1'Aiglon,"  179,  268,  311,  313 

Rosebery,  Lord,  234,  276,  315 

Rose,  J.  H.,  214,  215 

Rostopchin,  Count  and  General,  188 

Ruiz,  226 

Russia,  Alexander  I.,  Emperor  of,  67, 
71,  115,  116,  131,  132,  143,  179, 
185,  188,  190,  191,  197,  241,  243, 
249,  264,  269,  270,  271,  272,  303 

Catherine  II.,  Czarina  of,  30 

Paul  I.,  Czar  of,  49 

SACKEN,  General,  195,  196 

Saint  Amand,  Imbert  de,  4,  172,  199, 

212,  221,  223,  243,  245,  251,  256, 

257,   267,  269,   302,  304,  307,  308, 

Saint    Cyr,     Gouvion,     Marquis    and 

Marshal,  20,  43,  187,  188,  193 
Saint-Hilaire,  General,  219 
Saliceti,  C.,  213 
Sardinia,  King  of,  205 
Sarrazin,  General,  133 
Sauret,  General,  24,  213,  215 
Savary  (Due  de  Rovigo),  99,  108,  125, 

158,    165,   239,   241,  246,  251,  258, 

271,  272,   274,  276,  277,  292,  294, 


Saxe-Hildburghausen,  Princess  of,  238 
Saxony,  Elector,  then  King  of,  89,  117, 

Saxe- Weimar,  Prince  of,  270,  271 

Princess  of,  270 

Scherer,  General  (French),  42,  198 
Schwartzenberg,    Marshal,    192,     193, 

194,  300,  303,  308 
Scott,  Sir  Walter,  208,  222,  277 
Sebastiani,  General,  272 
Segur,  General  Count,  241 
Selim  III.,  112 
Serbelloni,  M.,  216 
Serent,  Madame  de,  70 
Serrurier,  Marshal,  25,  57,  215 
Sevigne,  Madame  de,  260 
Shakespeare,  249 
Sieyes,  Abbe  and  Count  (member   of 

the  Directory),  42 

Smith,  Sir  Sydney,  60 

Soult,  Marshal,  Duke  of  Dalmatia, 
57,  65,  79,  83,  113,  114,  136,  139, 
143,  145,  150,  151,  164,  179,  191, 
192,  193,  194,  196,  197,  229,  270, 
275,  278,  292 

Spain,  Charles  II. of,  and  his  Queen,  267 

Charles  IV.,  King  of,  112,  118, 

123,  125,  126,  127,  228 

Queen  of  (mother  of  Ferdinand 

VII.),  118,  126,  127,  268 

Queen  of  (wife  of  Joseph),  313 

Stabs,  294 

Stadion,  Count  von  (Austrian  diplo- 
matist), 278 

Stael,  Madame  de,  Holstein,  310 

Stein,  Baron  Von,  278 

Stephanie.     (See  Beauharnais) 

Stevenson,  R.  L.,  298 

Stuart,  Marie,  249 

Suchet,  Marshal  (Duke  of  Albufera), 
148,  170,  180,  181,  185,  186,  191, 
192,  193 

Sullivan,  Sir  A.,  249 

Sussi,  6 

Suwarrow,  Marshal,  42,  43 

Sweden,  Charles  XII.,  King  of,  185 
—  Charles  XIII.,  King  of,  147 

Gustavus  Adolphus  IV.,  King  of, 

143-  243 

52,  67,  68,  79,  81,  121,  197,  225,  233, 
236,  237,  238,  240,  242,  245,  246, 
260,  268,  270,  271,  272,  275,  276, 
277,  279,300,302,303  314 

Tallien,  "  Thermidorian,"  7,  237,  247, 

Madame  (Princesse  de  Chimay), 

6,  7,  8,  15,  82,  198,  247,  248 
Talma,  270 
Tamerlane,  272 
Tascher,  Louis,  98,  114,  137,  171,  256, 


Henri,  305 

Tasso,  245 

Tennant,  Charles,  13,45 

Thiard,  M.  de,  106,  243,  260 

Thibaut,  M.,  225 

Thiers,  M.  (statesman),  265,  273,  275, 

296,  302 




Tolly,  Barclay  de,  187,  188 

Tolstoi,  Cqunt,  274 

Tone,  Wolfe,  41 

Tour  and  Taxis,  Princess  of,  270,  278 

Toussaint-Louverture,  49,  50,  53 

Treilhard,  Count  (member  of  the  Di- 
rectory), 43 

Tremoille,  Princess  de  la,  309,  310 

Treves,  Elector  of,  65 

Tschitchagow,  Admiral,  1 88 

Turenne,  M.  de,  116 

Marshal,  286 

Tuscany,  Grand  Duke  of,  216 

T ,  Madame,  24.  (Probably Madame 


T ,  Madame  de  la,  175.  (See  Tre- 

T ,  60.     (Probably  Talleyrand) 

T ,  96.     (Probably  Tallien) 

T ,  de,  106.     (See  Thiard,  M.  de) 

T ,  237.     (See  Tallien) 

VALERIAN,  Emperor,  185 

Vandamme,  General,  86,  92,  192 

Van  Dyck,  209 

Varin,  Regnault,  317 

Vaubois,  General,  16,  27,  30,  31,  46, 


Verhuell,  Admiral,  269 
Veronese,  Paul,  209 
Victoire,  Marie,  267.     (See  Marie) 
Victor,    Marshal,    35,    136,    143,    150, 


Villars,  Marshal,  43 
Villeneuve,  Admiral,  63 
Vincent,  General,  270 
Virgil,  21,  212 

WALEWSKI,  Marie,  250,  252,  253,  293 
Washington,  George,  43,  223 
Wattier,  General,  176 
Wellington,  Arthur  Wellesley,  Duke  of, 

128,   145,   150,   174,   176,    180,    185, 

186,    187,  188.   192,   193,  196,   197, 

278,  290,  291,  292 
Westphalia,  King  of.     (See  Bonaparte, 


Wieland,  C.  M.,  270 
Wilhelmina,  Princess,  236.  (See  Baden, 

Princess  of) 
William  I.,  Emperor  of  Germany,  245, 

Windham,  \Villiam  (British  Secretary  at 

War),  213 
Wittgenstein,  General  and  Count,  187, 

188,  192 

Woodward  (and  Gates),  74 
Wrede,    Marshal   (Bavarian    Marshal), 


Wurmser,  Marshal,  24,  25,  26,  27,  28, 
32,  35,  38,  213,  214,  215,  216,  217, 

2l8,  219,   221,  222,  224 

Wurtemberg,  Duke  of,  64,  68,  77 

Electress  of,  64,  70,  238 

King  of,  242,  270,  295 

Prince  Royal  of,  196 

Wiirzburg,  Grand  Duke  of,  78,  244 

Xerxes,  281 

YORK,  Duke  of,  43 

General  von,  189,  195 

ZINGARELLI,  N.  (musician),  242 


Edinburgh  &>  London 



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